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1.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125299, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896194

RESUMO

The physicochemical characteristics are different for suspended particles (SPS) with different sizes in rivers. Here, we studied the effect of SPS (1 g L-1) with three different sizes (63-106 µm, 20-63 µm, and <20 µm) on the bioaccumulation of deuterated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene-d10, anthracene-d10, fluoranthene-d10 and pyrene-d10) in zebrafish using passive dosing devices to maintain the freely dissolved concentrations of PAHs-d10 constant in water. The results showed that all the three grain size SPS could be ingested by zebrafish, and there was no significant difference in the amount of ingested SPS among the three grain sizes. The concentrations (lipid-normalized or not) of PAHs-d10 in zebrafish were promoted in the presence of the three different size SPS, and the PAH-d10 concentrations in zebrafish increased with decreasing particle size. Compared with the systems without SPS, the lipid-normalized concentrations of PAHs-d10 increased by 12%-72%, 34%-130%, and 60%-196%, respectively in zebrafish in systems with 63-106 µm, 20-63 µm, and <20 µm of SPS after exposure for 20 h. The stronger effect of SPS with smaller grain sizes was probably due to their lower organic carbon content, lower ratio of black carbon to organic carbon content, smaller particle size, and higher dissolved organic matter contents, which could promote the desorption of PAHs-d10 from ingested SPS and bioaccessibility of PAHs-d10 to zebrafish. This study suggests that in addition to SPS concentration, the suspended particle size should be considered in ecological risk assessment for hydrophobic organic compounds in aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Bioacumulação , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Modelos Teóricos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(3)2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973136

RESUMO

To ensure navigation integrity for safety-critical applications, this paper proposes an efficient Fault Detection and Exclusion (FDE) scheme for tightly coupled navigation system of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS). Special emphasis is placed on the potential faults in the Kalman Filter state prediction step (defined as "filter fault"), which could be caused by the undetected faults occurring previously or the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) failures. The integration model is derived first to capture the features and impacts of GNSS faults and filter fault. To accommodate various fault conditions, two independent detectors, which are respectively designated for GNSS fault and filter fault, are rigorously established based on hypothesis-test methods. Following a detection event, the newly-designed exclusion function enables (a) identifying and removing the faulty measurements and (b) eliminating the effect of filter fault through filter recovery. Moreover, we also attempt to avoid wrong exclusion events by analyzing the underlying causes and optimizing the decision strategy for GNSS fault exclusion accordingly. The FDE scheme is validated through multiple simulations, where high efficiency and effectiveness have been achieved in various fault scenarios.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 379: 120831, 2019 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271938

RESUMO

The partition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among water-soil-air is temperature-dependent. Thus, we hypothesized that climate warming will affect the accumulation and uptake pathway of PAHs in plants. To test this hypothesis, enclosed soil/water-air-plant microcosm experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of warming on the uptake and accumulation of four PAHs in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). The results showed that root uptake was the predominant pathway and its contribution increased with temperature due to the promoted acropetal translocation. Owing to the increase in freely dissolved concentrations of PAHs in soil pore water, the four PAH concentrations in roots increased by 60.8-111.5% when temperature elevated from 15/10 to 21/16 °C. A model was established to describe the relationship between bioconcentration factor of PAHs in root and temperature. Compared with 15/10 °C, the PAH concentrations in leaves at both 18/13 and 21/16 °C elevated due to the increase in PAH concentrations in air, while slightly decreased when temperature elevated from 18/13 to 21/16 °C because the PAH concentrations in air decreased, resulting from accelerated biodegradation of PAHs in topsoil. This study suggests that warming will generally enhance the PAH accumulation in plant, but the effect will differ among different plant tissues.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(8): 4274-4284, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884228

RESUMO

Biomagnification of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) increases the eco-environmental risks they pose. Here, we gained mechanistic insights into biomagnification of deuterated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs- d10) in zebrafish with carefully controlled water (ng L-1) by a passive dosing method and dietary exposures using pre-exposed Daphnia magna and fish food. A new bioaccumulation kinetic model for fish was established to take into account discrete dietary uptake, while the frequently used model regards dietary uptake as a continuous process. We found that when freely dissolved concentrations of the PAHs- d10 were constant in water, the intake amount of the PAHs- d10 played an important role in affecting their steady-state concentrations in zebrafish, and there was a peak concentration in zebrafish after each dietary uptake. Moreover, considering the randomness of predation, the Monte Carlo simulation results showed that the probabilities of biomagnification of the PAHs- d10 in zebrafish increased with their dietary uptake amount and frequency. This study indicates that in addition to the well-known lipid-water partitioning, the bioaccumulation of HOCs in fish is also a discontinuous kinetic process caused by the fluctuation of HOC concentration in the gastrointestinal tract as a result of the discrete food ingestion. The discontinuity and randomness of dietary uptake can partly explain the differences among aquatic ecosystems with respect to biomagnification for species at similar trophic levels and provides new insight for future analysis of experimental and field bioaccumulation data for fish.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Daphnia , Ecossistema , Compostos Orgânicos
5.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 277-285, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897467

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a class of emerging pollutants. However, the bioconcentration and tissue distribution of shorter chain PFAAs in aquatic animals are not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of perfluorinated carbon chain length of PFAAs and protein content of tissues on the bioconcentration and tissue distribution of both shorter chain PFAAs (linear C-F = 3-6) and longer chain PFAAs (linear C-F = 7-11) in zebrafish. The results showed that the uptake rate constants (ku) and the bioconcentration factors (BCFss) of the shorter chain PFAAs (0.042-32 L·kgww-1·d-1 and 0.12-24 L·kgww-1, respectively) in tissues were significantly lower than those of the longer chain PFAAs (2.8-1.4 × 103 L·kgww-1·d-1 and 9.7-1.9 × 104 L·kgww-1, respectively). Moreover, the concentrations of both longer and shorter chain PFAAs were lowest in the muscle where the protein content was lowest, and they were highest in blood and liver where the protein content was highest among tissues except brain. The protein content of the brain was higher than that of the liver but the concentrations of PFAAs in the brain were significantly lower than those in the liver because of the blood-brain barrier. In addition, the ovary/blood and brain/blood ratios of concentrations for the shorter chain PFAAs were lower than those for the longer chain PFAAs. Generally, both log ku and log BCFss showed a significantly positive correlation with either perfluorinated carbon number of PFAAs or protein content of tissues (P < 0.05). Further nonlinear surface fitting revealed that the effect of perfluorinated carbon number was more significant than protein content on the PFAA bioconcentration in zebrafish tissues. These results suggest that there are differences in the bioconcentration and tissue distribution between longer and shorter chain PFAAs and the shorter chain PFAAs seem to be safe compared with the longer chain PFAAs.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Carbono/metabolismo , Feminino , Distribuição Tecidual , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(17): 9851-9860, 2018 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30102861

RESUMO

The protein-like dissolved organic matter (DOM) is ubiquitous in aquatic environments. However, the bioavailability of protein-like DOM-associated hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) is not well-understood, and in particular, the direct evidence of their uptake by organisms is scarce. In the present work, tryptone (2000 Da), bovine serum albumin (BSA; 66 000 Da), and phycocyanin (120 000 Da) were chosen as model protein-like DOM, which were labeled by commercial fluorescein (cy5) to investigate the uptake mechanisms of protein compound-associated pyrene (a typical HOC) by Daphnia magna. The pyrene concentration in the tissues except the gut and immobilization of D. magna were detected to calculate the bioavailable fraction of protein compound-associated pyrene when the freely dissolved pyrene concentration was controlled through passive dosing devices. The results demonstrated that the tryptone could permeate cellular membrane and directly enter the tissues of  D. magna from the exposure solutions, whereas BSA and phycocyanin might indirectly enter the tissues from the gut. A part of pyrene associated with protein compounds was bioavailable to D. magna; the order of their bioavailable fractions was trypone (54.6-58.1%) > phycocyanin (21.6-32.8%) > BSA (17.7-26.8%). The difference was principally related to the uptake mechanisms of pyrene associated with different types of protein. This work suggests that the protein compound-associated HOCs should be considered to evaluate the bioavailability and eco-environmental hazard of HOCs in natural waters.


Assuntos
Daphnia , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Compostos Orgânicos , Pirenos
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 639: 648-656, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800856

RESUMO

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is ubiquitous in natural aquatic ecosystems. The association of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with DOM may have a large impact on HOC fractions in water and their bioconcentration in fish. However, the effects of DOM on HOC bioconcentration in fish are not well understood, especially whether DOM will affect the bioconcentration steady-state concentrations of HOCs in fish is still confusing. Thus, this study investigated the effects of three DOM including gallic acid (GA), tannic acid (TA), and humic acid (HA) with molecular weights ranging from 170 Da to about 10 kDa at different concentrations (1, 5, and 15 mgOC L-1) on the bioconcentration of PAHs including phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene in zebrafish (Danio rerio), with the PAH freely dissolved concentrations maintained constant by passive dosing systems. The results revealed that the presence of DOM generally increased the bioconcentration steady-state concentrations of the PAHs in zebrafish (Cb-ss), with the increase ranging from 28.1% to 204.0%, and the increase of Cb-ss promoted by TA with middle molecular weight (1700 Da) was the highest among the studied DOM. Moreover, the Cb-ss increased with the concentrations of GA with low molecular weight and TA with middle molecular weight in water, whereas decreased with increasing concentrations of HA with high molecular weight. The uptake rate constants of the PAHs in zebrafish with DOM were higher than that without DOM. Ingestion of DOM and direct accumulation of PAHs associated with DOM might be primary influencing mechanisms of DOM on the Cb-ss, and whether the facilitated diffusive mass transfer by DOM will affect the Cb-ss needs to be further studied. This study suggested that DOM-associated HOCs should be considered in future HOC risk assessment in addition to the freely dissolved HOCs.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Substâncias Húmicas , Cinética
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 157: 89-94, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29609108

RESUMO

Hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) tend to be associated with suspended particles in surface aquatic systems, however, the bioavailability of HOCs on suspended particles to fish is not well understood. In this study, a passive dosing device was used to control the freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including fluoranthene and pyrene, and the influence of particle-associated PAHs on their bioaccumulation by zebrafish was investigated. The results showed that, when the Cfree of PAHs were kept constant, the presence of suspended particles did not significantly affect the steady state of PAH bioaccumulation in zebrafish tissues excluding head and digestive tracts, suggesting that the bioaccumulation steady state was controlled by the freely dissolved concentrations of PAHs. However, suspended particles promoted the uptake and elimination rate constants of PAHs in zebrafish body excluding head and digestive tracts. The uptake rate constants with 0.5 g/L suspended particles were approximately twice of those without suspended particles, and the body burden in zebrafish increased by 16.4% - 109.3% for pyrene and 21.8% - 490.4% for fluoranthene during the first 8-d exposure. This was due to the reasons that suspended particles could be ingested, and part of PAHs associated with them could be desorbed in digestive tract and absorbed by the zebfrafish, leading to the enhancement of uptake rates of PAHs in zebfrafish. The findings obtained from this study indicate that PAHs on suspended particles are partly bioavailable to zebrafish and particle ingestion is an important route in PAH bioaccumulation. Therefore, it is important to consider the bioavailability of HOCs on suspended particles to improve ecological risk assessment.


Assuntos
Fluorenos/metabolismo , Pirenos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(2): 644-653, 2018 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29240993

RESUMO

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a key environmental factor for the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in natural waters. However, the bioavailability of DOM-associated HOCs is not clear. In this research, pyrene was selected as a model HOC, and its freely dissolved concentration (Cfree) was maintained by passive dosing systems. The immobilization and pyrene content in the tissues excluding gut of Daphnia magna were examined to quantify the bioavailability of DOM-associated pyrene. The results indicated that DOM promoted the bioavailability of pyrene when the Cfree of pyrene was kept constant, and the bioavailability of pyrene associated with DOM of various molecular weights was ordered as middle molecular weight (5 000-10 000 Da) DOM > lower molecular weight (<1 000, 1 000-3 000, and 3 000-5 000 Da) DOM > higher molecular weight (>10 000 Da) DOM. The influencing mechanisms of DOM molecular weight were related with the partition of pyrene between DOM and water, the uptake routes of DOM by D. magna, and the desorption or release of pyrene from DOM in the gut of D. magna. The findings obtained in this research suggest that the bioavailability of DOM-associated HOCs should be taken into account for the eco-environmental risk assessment of HOCs in water systems.


Assuntos
Daphnia , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Peso Molecular , Pirenos
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(21): 12358-12368, 2017 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28988481

RESUMO

Short- and long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), ubiquitously coexisting in the environment, can be accumulated in organisms by binding with proteins and their binding affinities generally increase with their chain length. Therefore, we hypothesized that long-chain PFAAs will affect the bioconcentration of short-chain PFAAs in organisms. To testify this hypothesis, the bioconcentration and tissue distribution of five short-chain PFAAs (linear C-F = 3-6) were investigated in zebrafish in the absence and presence of six long-chain PFAAs (linear C-F = 7-11). The results showed that the concentrations of the short-chain PFAAs in zebrafish tissues increased with exposure time until steady states reached in the absence of long-chain PFAAs. However, in the presence of long-chain PFAAs, these short-chain PFAAs in tissues increased until peak values reached and then decreased until steady states, and the uptake and elimination rate constants of short-chain PFAAs declined in all tissues and their BCFss decreased by 24-89%. The inhibitive effect of long-chain PFAAs may be attributed to their competition for transporters and binding sites of proteins in zebrafish with short-chain PFAAs. These results suggest that the effect of long-chain PFAAs on the bioconcentration of short-chain PFAAs should be taken into account in assessing the ecological and environmental effects of short-chain PFAAs.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos/farmacocinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Distribuição Tecidual
11.
Environ Pollut ; 214: 440-448, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27112726

RESUMO

Hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) tend to associate with suspended sediment (SPS) in aquatic environments; the composition and grain size of SPS will affect the bioavailability of SPS-associated HOCs. However, the bioavailability of HOCs sorbed on SPS with different compositions and grain sizes is not well understood. In this work, passive dosing devices were made to control the freely dissolved concentration of pyrene, a typical HOC, in the exposure systems. The effect of pyrene associated with amorphous organic carbon (AOC), black carbon (BC), and minerals of SPS with grain sizes of 0-50 µm and 50-100 µm on the immobilization and enzymatic activities of Daphnia magna was investigated to quantify the bioavailability of pyrene sorbed on SPS with different grain sizes and compositions. The results showed that the contribution of AOC-, BC-, and mineral-associated pyrene to the total bioavailability of SPS-associated pyrene was approximately 50%-60%, 10%-29%, and 20%-30%, respectively. The bioavailable fraction of pyrene sorbed on the three components of SPS was ordered as AOC (22.4%-67.3%) > minerals (20.1%-46.0%) > BC (9.11%-16.8%), and the bioavailable fraction sorbed on SPS of 50-100 µm grain size was higher than those of 0-50 µm grain size. This is because the SPS grain size will affect the ingestion of SPS and the SPS composition will affect the desorption of SPS-associated pyrene in Daphnia magna. According to the results obtained in this study, a model has been developed to calculate the bioavailability of HOCs to aquatic organisms in natural waters considering both SPS grain size and composition.


Assuntos
Disponibilidade Biológica , Daphnia/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Pirenos/farmacocinética , Animais , Carbono/química , Daphnia/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
J Hazard Mater ; 302: 404-414, 2016 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26489915

RESUMO

The role of ingestion route in the bioaccumulation of six types of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) by Chironomus plumosus larvae in sediments amended with four types of carbonaceous materials (CMs) was studied. The results showed that the body burden of PFASs decreased in the presence of CMs at mass ratios of 0.2-2%, regardless of ingestion. PFASs accumulated by the larvae with ingestion exposure were higher than those without ingestion, and the role of ingestion route was altered in the presence of CMs. The contribution of ingestion route to PFAS bioaccumulation was 2.7-31.6% without CMs, and it increased to more than 61.4% in the presence of fullerene at mass ratios of 0.2-2%. The enhancement of the ingestion route contribution caused by CMs is due to the fact that the CMs can be ingested and CM-associated PFASs can be partly desorbed in larvae. The maximum desorption efficiency of perfluorooctanoic acid was 20.8% from fullerene by the larval digestive juice. This study suggests that CM-associated PFASs could be accumulated partly by organisms, and the ecological risk of PFASs might increase in some cases with the presence of CMs. This should be considered when applying CMs in PFAS and other hydrophobic organic compound pollution remediation.


Assuntos
Chironomidae/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/metabolismo , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Larva/metabolismo , Nanotubos de Carbono
13.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 33(1): 182-9, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24123323

RESUMO

The ubiquity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in an aqueous environment may have influence on the carbonaceous material's impact on the bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to benthonic organisms in contaminated sediment. In the present study, 1 multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT); 2 types of DOM (fulvic acid and tannic acid), and 2 PAHs (pyrene and chrysene) were selected to study the influence of MWNT with preloaded and coexisting DOM on the bioaccumulation of PAHs to Chironomus plumosus larvae in sediment. Moreover, the freely dissolved concentrations of PAHs were measured to explore the influence mechanisms. The results showed that despite the presence or absence of preloaded or coexisting DOM, the presence of 1% MWNT in sediments suppressed the biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) and elevated the water-based bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of PAHs. However, the BSAF and BAF values generally decreased with the increase of 2 forms of both DOM; this was caused by the combined impact of DOM and MWNT on the freely dissolved concentrations of PAHs and the ingestion behavior of benthic organisms.


Assuntos
Chironomidae/metabolismo , Crisenos/metabolismo , Nanotubos de Carbono , Pirenos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Benzopiranos/farmacologia , Sedimentos Geológicos , Larva/metabolismo , Taninos/farmacologia
14.
Chemosphere ; 90(6): 1785-93, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22963877

RESUMO

The bioavailability and ecological risk of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in aquatic environments largely depends on their freely dissolved concentrations. In this work, the freely dissolved concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene were determined for the Yellow River, Haihe River and Yongding River of China using polyethylene devices (PEDs). The results indicated that the order of ratios of freely to total dissolved concentrations of the three PAHs was phenanthrene (66.8±20.1%)>pyrene (48.8±26.4%)>chrysene (5.5±3.3%) for the three rivers. The ratios were significantly negatively correlated with the logK(ow) values of the PAHs. In addition, the ratios were negatively correlated with the suspended sediment (SPS) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the river water, and the characteristics of the SPS and DOC were also important factors. Simulation experiments showed that the ratio of freely to total dissolved concentrations of pyrene in the aqueous phase decreased with increasing SPS concentration; when the sediment concentration increased from 2 g L(-1) to 10 g L(-1), the ratio decreased from 67.6% to 38.4% for Yellow River sediment and decreased from 50.4% to 33.6% for Haihe River sediment. This was because with increasing SPS concentration, more and more DOC, small particles and colloids (<0.45 µm) would enter the aqueous phase. Because high SPS and DOC concentrations exist in many rivers, their effect on the freely dissolved concentrations of HOCs should be considered when conducting an ecological risk assessment.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Carbono/análise , China , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Chemosphere ; 82(2): 223-8, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21036384

RESUMO

The concentrations of black carbon (BC), total organic carbon (TOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been determined in soils from urban and rural areas of Beijing. The rural area can be divided into plain and mountainous areas which are close to and relatively far from the urban area, respectively. Concentration of BC (5.83 ± 3.05 mg g⁻¹) and BC/TOC concentration ratio (0.37 ± 0.15) in Beijing's urban soil are high compared with that in world background soils and rural soils of Beijing, suggesting the urban environment to be an essential source and sink of BC. Concentration of BC in the urban area decreases from the inner city to exterior areas, which correlates with the urbanization history of Beijing and infers accumulation of BC in old urban soils. Black carbon in Beijing soils mainly comes from fossil fuel combustion, especially traffic emission. Median PAH concentration in the urban area (502 ng g⁻¹) is one order of magnitude higher than that in the rural plain (148 ng g⁻¹) and mountainous area (146 ng g⁻¹) where PAHs are supposed to mainly come from atmospheric deposition from the urban area. Concentrations of BC correlate significantly with those of PAHs (p < 0.01, except naphthalene) in the urban area and with those of heavier 4-, 5- and 6- ring PAHs (p < 0.01) in the adjacent rural plain area, while there is no significant correlation with any PAH in the farther rural mountainous area.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Fuligem/análise , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental
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