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1.
AAPS J ; 22(3): 62, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189158

RESUMO

Despite decades of efforts to develop a pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse treatment, there is still no FDA-approved treatment of diseases associated with this commonly abused drug. Our previously designed highly efficient cocaine hydrolases (CocHs) and the corresponding Fc-fusion proteins (e.g., CocH3-Fc) are recognized as potentially promising therapeutic enzyme candidates for cocaine abuse treatment, but all with limited biological half-lives. In order to prolong the biological half-life and, thus, decrease the required frequency of the enzyme administration for cocaine abuse treatment, we have modeled the Fc-fusion CocH binding with neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) in the present study. This approach led to the design and testing of CocH3-Fc(M6), a CocH3-Fc mutant with nearly 100-fold increased binding affinity: from Kd = ~ 4 µM to Kd = 43 nM. As a result, CocH3-Fc(M6) indeed revealed a markedly prolonged biological half-life (t1/2 = 206 ± 7 h or ~ 9 days) in rats, longer than other known Fc-fusion protein drugs such as abatacept and alefacept (for other therapeutic purposes) in the same species (rats). It has been demonstrated that a single dose of 3 mg/kg CocH3-Fc(M6) effectively blocked 20 mg/kg cocaine-induced hyperactivity on day 18 after CocH3-Fc(M6) administration. This is the first attempt to rationally design long-acting Fc-fusion enzyme mutant based on combined computational modeling and experimental measurement of the Fc-fusion CocH binding with FcRn. The similar structure-based design strategy may be used to prolong the biological half-lives of other Fc-fusion protein drugs.

2.
Org Biomol Chem ; 18(10): 1968-1977, 2020 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101217

RESUMO

A majority of cocaine users also consume alcohol. The concurrent use of cocaine and alcohol produces the pharmacologically active metabolites cocaethylene and norcocaethylene, in addition to norcocaine. Both cocaethylene and norcocaethylene are more toxic than cocaine itself. Hence, a truly valuable cocaine-metabolizing enzyme for cocaine abuse/overdose treatment should be effective for the hydrolysis of not only cocaine, but also its metabolites norcocaine, cocaethylene, and norcocaethylene. However, there has been no report on enzymes capable of hydrolyzing norcocaethylene (the most toxic metabolite of cocaine). The catalytic efficiency parameters (kcat and KM) of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and two mutants (known as cocaine hydrolases E14-3 and E12-7) against norcocaethylene have been characterized in the present study for the first time, and they are compared with those against cocaine. According to the obtained kinetic data, wild-type human BChE showed a similar catalytic efficiency against norcocaethylene (kcat = 9.5 min-1, KM = 11.7 µM, and kcat/KM = 8.12 × 105 M-1 min-1) to that against (-)-cocaine (kcat = 4.1 min-1, KM = 4.5 µM, and kcat/KM = 9.1 × 105 M-1 min-1). E14-3 and E12-7 showed an improved catalytic activity against norcocaethylene compared to wild-type BChE. E12-7 showed a 39-fold improved catalytic efficiency against norcocaethylene (kcat = 210 min-1, KM = 6.6 µM, and kcat/KM = 3.18 × 107 M-1 min-1). It has been demonstrated that E12-7 as an exogenous enzyme can efficiently metabolize norcocaethylene in rats.

3.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 29(24): 126754, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708262

RESUMO

Cholinesterase inhibitors have long been used in the treatment of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) via the protection of acetylcholine levels. However, recent research has shown that the specific inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) could better ameliorate symptoms within patients. In addition, it has recently been shown that selective inhibition of BChE can also significantly attenuate the toxicity and physiological effects of heroin. Currently, there are no specific and potent inhibitors of BChE approved for use in AD or heroin abuse. Through a combined use of in silico and in vitro screening, we have found three compounds with sub-50 nM IC50 values that specifically target BChE. These newly discovered BChE inhibitors can act as the lead scaffolds for future development of the desirably potent and selective BChE inhibitors.

4.
Protein Eng Des Sel ; 32(3): 159-166, 2019 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711233

RESUMO

Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a tumor suppressor which protects against neoplastic transformation. Remarkably, Par-4 is capable of inducing apoptosis selectively in cancer cells without affecting the normal cells. In this study, we found that recombinant Par-4 protein had limited serum persistence in mice that may diminish its anti-tumor activity in vivo. To improve the in vivo performance of the short-lived Par-4 protein, we aimed to develop a novel, long-lasting form of Par-4 with extended sequence, denoted as Par-4Ex, without affecting the desirable molecular function of the natural Par-4. We demonstrate that the Par-4Ex protein entity, produced by using the Escherichia coli expression system suitable for large-scale production, fully retains the desirable pro-apoptotic activity of Par-4 protein, but with ~7-fold improved biological half-life. Further in vivo tests confirmed that, due to the prolonged biological half-life, the Par-4Ex protein is indeed more potent in suppressing metastatic tumor growth in mice.

5.
J Mol Model ; 25(12): 354, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768645

RESUMO

The α-H acidity is an important chemical property of ketones that has attracted much research interest. Theoretical prediction of pKa for ketone α-H is significant. In this work, we theoretically studied the nuclear shielding of various α-Hs in a set of ketones and that of the corresponding enolic hydroxyl Hs in tautomeric enol forms. It has been demonstrated through linear regression analyses that the pKa values of these ketones correlate with both sets of the calculated nuclear shielding values. The correlation coefficient R2 of the linear correlation relationship is 0.90. The present work has provided a new approach to computationally evaluating the acidity of α-Hs in ketones, enabling us to semi-empirically predict the ketone α-H acidity from the calculated nuclear shielding values. Graphical AbstractExperimental pKa values in DMSO vs predicted pKa values calculated from 1H nuclear shielding for the hydroxyl hydrogens in the enol forms and for the α-Hs in the keto forms. The surrounding solvent effects were modelled by keto/enol-DMSO clusters and SMD solvent models.

6.
J Med Chem ; 62(24): 11348-11358, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774672

RESUMO

The importance of upregulated Wnt signaling in colorectal cancers led to efforts to develop inhibitors that target ß-catenin in this pathway. We now report that several "Wnt inhibitors" that allegedly target ß-catenin actually function as mitochondrial proton uncouplers that independently activate AMPK and concomitantly inhibit Wnt signaling. As expected for a process in which mitochondrial uncoupling diminishes ATP production, a mitochondrial proton uncoupler, FCCP, and a glucose metabolic inhibitor, 2-DG, activated AMPK and inhibited Wnt signaling. Also consistent with these findings, a well-known "Wnt inhibitor", FH535, functioned as a proton uncoupler, and in support of this finding, the N-methylated analog, 2,5-dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-methyl-4-nitrophenyl)benzenesulfonamide (FH535-M), was inactive as an uncoupler and Wnt inhibitor. Apart from suggesting an opportunity to develop dual Wnt inhibitors and AMPK activators, these findings provide a cautionary tale that claims for Wnt inhibition alone require scrutiny as possible mitochondrial proton uncouplers or inhibitors of the electron transport chain.

7.
AAPS J ; 22(1): 5, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754920

RESUMO

Therapeutic treatment of cocaine toxicity or addiction is a grand medical challenge. As a promising therapeutic strategy for treatment of cocaine toxicity and addiction to develop a highly efficient cocaine hydrolase (CocH) capable of accelerating cocaine metabolism to produce physiologically/biologically inactive metabolites, our previously designed A199S/S287G/A328W/Y332G mutant of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), known as cocaine hydrolase-1 (CocH1), possesses the desirably high catalytic activity against cocaine. The C-terminus of CocH1, truncated after amino acid #529, was fused to human serum albumin (HSA) to extend the biological half-life. The C-terminal HSA-fused CocH1 (CocH1-HSA), known as Albu-CocH1, Albu-CocH, AlbuBChE, Albu-BChE, or TV-1380 in literature, has shown favorable preclinical and clinical profiles. However, the actual therapeutic value of TV-1380 for cocaine addiction treatment is still limited by the short half-life. In this study, we designed and tested a new type of HSA-fused CocH1 proteins, i.e., N-terminal HSA-fused CocH1, with or without a linker between the HSA and CocH1 domains. It has been demonstrated that the catalytic activity of these new fusion proteins against cocaine is similar to that of TV-1380. However, HSA-CocH1 (without a linker) has a significantly longer biological half-life (t1/2 = 14 ± 2 h) compared to the corresponding C-terminal HSA-fused CocH1, i.e., CocH1-HSA (TV-1380 with t1/2 = 5-8 h), in rats. Further, the N-terminal HSA-fused CocH1 proteins with a linker have further prolonged biological half-lives: t1/2 = 17 ± 2 h for both HSA-EAAAK-CocH1 and HSA-PAPAP-CocH1, and t1/2 = 18 ± 3 h for HSA-(PAPAP)2-CocH1. These N-terminal HSA-fused CocH1 proteins may serve as more promising protein drug candidates for cocaine addiction treatment.

8.
Bioconjug Chem ; 30(12): 3021-3027, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661952

RESUMO

It is very popular to fuse a protein drug or drug candidate to the Fc domain of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in order to prolong the in vivo half-life. In this study, we have designed, prepared, and tested an Fc-fused thermostable cocaine esterase (CocE) mutant (known as E196-301, with the T172R/G173Q/L196C/I301C substitutions on CocE) expressed in E. coli. As expected, Fc-fusion does not affect the in vitro enzyme activity and thermal stability of the enzyme and that Fc-E196-301 can favorably bind FcRn with Kd = 386 ± 35 nM. However, Fc-fusion does not prolong the in vivo half-life of E196-301 at all; Fc-E196-301 and E196-301 have essentially the same PK profile (t1/2 = 0.4 ± 0.1 h) in rats. This is the first time demonstrating that Fc-fusion does not prolong in vivo half-life of a protein. This finding is consistent with the mechanistic understanding that E196-301 and Fc-E196-301 are all degraded primarily through rapid proteolysis in the body. The Fc fusion cannot protect E196-301 from the proteolysis in the body. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that PEGylation can effectively protect E196-301, as the PEGylated E196-301, i.e., PEG-E196-301, has a significantly prolonged in vivo half-life. It has also been demonstrated that both E196-301 and PEG-E196-301 have dose-dependent in vivo half-lives (e.g., 19.9 ± 6.4 h for the elimination t1/2 of 30 mg/kg PEG-E196-301), as the endogenous proteolytic enzymes responsible for proteolysis of E196-301 (PEGylated or not) are nearly saturated by the high plasma concentration produced by a high dose of E196-301 or PEG-E196-301.

9.
Chembiochem ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621997

RESUMO

Herein we describe the ability of the permissive glycosyltransferase (GT) OleD Loki to convert a diverse set of >15 histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACis) into their corresponding hydroxamate glycosyl esters. Representative glycosyl esters were subsequently evaluated in assays for cancer cell line cytotoxicity, chemical and enzymatic stability, and axolotl embryo tail regeneration. Computational substrate docking models were predictive of enzyme-catalyzed turnover and suggest certain HDACis may form unproductive, potentially inhibitory, complexes with GTs.

10.
Research (Wash D C) ; 2019: 2602414, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549053

RESUMO

4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is a promising target for drug and pesticide discovery. The unknown binding mode of substrate is still a big challenge for the understanding of enzymatic reaction mechanism and novel HPPD inhibitor design. Herein, we determined the first crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana HPPD (AtHPPD) in complex with its natural substrate (HPPA) at a resolution of 2.80 Å. Then, combination of hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations confirmed that HPPA takes keto rather than enol form inside the HPPD active pocket. Subsequent site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic analysis further showed that residues (Phe424, Asn423, Glu394, Gln307, Asn282, and Ser267) played important roles in substrate binding and catalytic cycle. Structural comparison between HPPA-AtHPPD and holo-AtHPPD revealed that Gln293 underwent a remarkable rotation upon the HPPA binding and formed H-bond network of Ser267-Asn282-Gln307-Gln293, resulting in the transformation of HPPD from an inactive state to active state. Finally, taking the conformation change of Gln293 as a target, we proposed a new strategy of blocking the transformation of HPPD from inactive state to active state to design a novel inhibitor with K i value of 24.10 nM towards AtHPPD. The inhibitor has entered into industry development as the first selective herbicide used for the weed control in sorghum field. The crystal structure of AtHPPD in complex with the inhibitor (2.40 Å) confirmed the rationality of the design strategy. We believe that the present work provides a new starting point for the understanding of enzymatic reaction mechanism and the design of next generation HPPD inhibitors.

11.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 204: 107462, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Majority of cocaine users also consume alcohol, and concurrent use of cocaine and alcohol produces cocaethylene, norcocaine, norcocaethylene, and other non-toxic metabolites. It is essential to know their relative toxicity for development of a truly effective therapeutics for cocaine toxicity treatment. METHODS: Drug (norcocaethylene or norcocaine)-induced acute toxicity was characterized by the occurrence (and the timing) of prostration, seizure, and death after intraperitoneal administration of the drug (n = 15) using the same strain (Swiss Webster) of male mice reported in previous study by Hearn et al. to determine LD50 of cocaine and cocaethylene. In addition, drug (cocaine, cocaethylene, norcocaine, or norcocaethylene)-induced hyperactivity was determined by locomotor activity testing (n = 8). RESULTS: According to the animal data, norcocaethylene (LD50=∼39.4 mg/kg) and norcocaine (LD50=∼49.7 mg/kg) are the most toxic metabolites, but they do not induce significant hyperactivity. In addition, the relative toxicity of drugs correlates with the time to the occurrence of prostration/seizure/death after the drug administration. CONCLUSIONS: The relative toxicity of these toxic drugs can be ranked in this order: norcocaethylene > norcocaine > cocaethylene > cocaine. The data suggest that norcocaethylene, norcocaine, and cocaethylene are all significant contributors to acute toxicity of cocaine in concurrent use of cocaine and alcohol. Hence, future therapeutic development for cocaine toxicity treatment must account for detoxification of these more toxic metabolites. In addition, the relative toxicity of different drugs correlates with the average time to the occurrence of death, seizure, or prostration after the drug administration with a same dose close to their LD50 values.

12.
J Chem Inf Model ; 59(9): 3839-3845, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429562

RESUMO

Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1) is known as an ideal target for next-generation anti-inflammatory drugs to effectively and safely treat a variety of inflammation-related diseases. High-resolution X-ray crystal structures are available for human mPGES-1, but all in a closed conformation for a glutathione (GSH)-binding site. Here, we report an in silico observation of the desirable open conformation of mPGES-1 using a simple computational strategy with fully relaxed molecular dynamics simulations starting a high-resolution X-ray crystal structure in the closed conformation. The open conformation mainly exists in the apo-form. Once GSH enters the binding site, the binding site is closed and, thus, mPGES-1 becomes the closed conformation. According to the determined free energy profile, both the open and closed conformations can co-exist in solution with a thermodynamic equilibrium, and the conformational distribution is dependent on the GSH concentration. In addition, the cap domain responsible for the conformational transition is located right on the crystal packing interface, showing that only closed conformation is suitable for the crystal packing. All of the computational insights are consistent with reported experimental observations. The computationally simulated open conformation of mPGES-1 may serve as a new target state for the rational design of novel inhibitors of mPGES-1. We anticipate that a computational strategy similar to the one used in this study may also be used to explore open conformation starting from a crystal structure of the corresponding closed conformation with a ligand bound for other proteins.

13.
Chem Biol Interact ; 310: 108756, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325422

RESUMO

Human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is a widely distributed plasma enzyme. For decades, numerous research efforts have been directed at engineering BChE as a bioscavenger of organophosphorus insecticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. However, it has been a grand challenge to cost-efficiently produce BChE in large-scale. Recently reported studies have successfully designed a truncated BChE mutant (with amino-acid substitutions on 47 residues that are far away from the catalytic site), denoted as BChE-M47 for convenience, which can be expressed in E. coli without loss of its catalytic activity. In this study, we aimed to dimerize the truncated BChE mutant protein expressed in a prokaryotic system (E. coli) in order to further improve its thermal stability by introducing a pair of cross-subunit disulfide bonds to the BChE-M47 structure. Specifically, the E377C/A516C mutations were designed and introduced to BChE-M47, and the obtained new protein entity, denoted as BChE-M48, with a pair of cross-subunit disulfide bonds indeed exists as a dimer with significantly improved thermostability and unaltered catalytic activity and reactivity compared to BChE-M47. These results provide a new strategy for optimizing protein stability for production in a cost-efficient prokaryotic system. Our enzyme, BChE-M48, has a half-life of almost one week at a 37°C, suggesting that it could be utilized as a highly stable bioscavenger of OP insecticides and chemical warfare nerve agents.


Assuntos
Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , Butirilcolinesterase/genética , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/metabolismo , Dimerização , Estabilidade Enzimática , Escherichia coli/genética , Humanos , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo
14.
Chem Biol Interact ; 308: 372-376, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152736

RESUMO

According to recent research advance, it is interesting to identify new, potent and selective inhibitors of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) for therapeutic treatment of both the Alzheimer's disease (AD) and heroin abuse. In this study, we carried out a structure-based virtual screening followed by in vitro activity assays, with the goal to identify new inhibitors that are selective for BChE over acetylcholinesterase (AChE). As a result, a set of new, selective inhibitors of human BChE were identified from natural products with solanaceous alkaloid scaffolds. The most active one of the natural products (compound 1) identified has an IC50 of 16.8 nM against BChE. It has been demonstrated that the desirable selectivity of these inhibitors for BChE over AChE is mainly controlled by three key residues in the active site cavity, i.e. residues Q119, A277, and A328 in BChE versus the respective residues Y124, W286, and Y337 in AChE. Based on this structural insight, future rational design of new, potent and selective BChE inhibitors may focus on these key structural differences in the active site cavity.


Assuntos
Butirilcolinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Alcaloides de Solanáceas/química , Sítios de Ligação , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Inibidores da Colinesterase/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Alcaloides de Solanáceas/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6439, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015569

RESUMO

Structure-activity relationships (SAR) in the aurone pharmacophore identified heterocyclic variants of the (Z)-2-benzylidene-6-hydroxybenzofuran-3(2H)-one scaffold that possessed low nanomolar in vitro potency in cell proliferation assays using various cancer cell lines, in vivo potency in prostate cancer PC-3 xenograft and zebrafish models, selectivity for the colchicine-binding site on tubulin, and absence of appreciable toxicity. Among the leading, biologically active analogs were (Z)-2-((2-((1-ethyl-5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)methylene)-3-oxo-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-6-yl)oxy)acetonitrile (5a) and (Z)-6-((2,6-dichlorobenzyl)oxy)-2-(pyridin-4-ylmethylene)benzofuran-3(2H)-one (5b) that inhibited in vitro PC-3 prostate cancer cell proliferation with IC50 values below 100 nM. A xenograft study in nude mice using 10 mg/kg of 5a had no effect on mice weight, and aurone 5a did not inhibit, as desired, the human ether-à-go-go-related (hERG) potassium channel. Cell cycle arrest data, comparisons of the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation by aurones and known antineoplastic agents, and in vitro inhibition of tubulin polymerization indicated that aurone 5a disrupted tubulin dynamics. Based on molecular docking and confirmed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry studies, aurone 5a targets the colchicine-binding site on tubulin. In addition to solid tumors, aurones 5a and 5b strongly inhibited in vitro a panel of human leukemia cancer cell lines and the in vivo myc-induced T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) in a zebrafish model.

16.
Chem Biol Interact ; 306: 89-95, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986387

RESUMO

Human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is known as a safe and effective protein for detoxification of organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. Its rationally designed mutants with considerably improved catalytic activity against cocaine, known as cocaine hydrolases (CocHs), are recognized as the most promising drug candidates for the treatment of cocaine abuse. However, it is a grand challenge to efficiently produce active recombinant BChE and CocHs with a sufficiently long biological half-life. In the present study, starting from a promising CocH, known as CocH3 (i.e. A199S/F227A/S287G/A328W/Y332G mutant of human BChE), which has a ~2000-fold improved catalytic activity against cocaine compared to wild-type BChE, we designed an N-terminal fusion protein, Fc(M3)-(PAPAP)2-CocH3, which was constructed by fusing Fc of human IgG1 to the N-terminal of CocH3 and further optimized by inserting a linker between the two protein domains. Without lowering the enzyme activity, Fc(M3)-(PAPAP)2-CocH3 expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells has not only a long biological half-life of 105 ±â€¯7 h in rats, but also a high yield of protein expression. Particularly, Fc(M3)-(PAPAP)2-CocH3 has a ~21-fold increased protein expression yield in CHO cells compared to CocH3 under the same experimental conditions. Given the observations that Fc(M3)-(PAPAP)2-CocH3 has not only a high catalytic activity against cocaine and a long biological half-life, but also a high yield of protein expression, this new protein entity reported in this study would be a more promising candidate for therapeutic treatment of cocaine overdose and addiction.


Assuntos
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/biossíntese , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/química , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Animais , Células CHO , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Cricetulus , Humanos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/genética , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3843, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846720

RESUMO

Dysregulation of dopaminergic system induced by HIV-1 Tat protein-mediated direct inhibition of the dopamine transporter (DAT) has been implicated as a mediating factor of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders. We have reported that single point mutations on human DAT (hDAT) at tyrosine88 (Y88F), lysine92 (K92M), and histidine547 (H547A) differentially regulate basal dopamine uptake but diminish Tat-induced inhibition of dopamine uptake by changing dopamine transport process. This study evaluated the effects of double (Y88F/H547A) and triple (Y88F/K92M/H547A) mutations on basal dopamine uptake, Tat-induced inhibition of DAT function, and dynamic transport process. Compared to wild-type hDAT, the Vmax values of [3H]Dopamine uptake were increased by 96% in Y88F/H547A but decreased by 97% in Y88F/K92M/H547A. [3H]WIN35,428 binding sites were not altered in Y88F/H547A but decreased in Y88F/K92M/H547A. Y88F/H547A mutant attenuated Tat-induced inhibition of dopamine uptake observed in wild-type hDAT. Y88F/H547A displayed an attenuation of zinc-augmented [3H]WIN35,428 binding, increased basal dopamine efflux, and reduced amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux, indicating this mutant alters transporter conformational transitions. These findings further demonstrate that both tyrosine88 and histidine547 on hDAT play a key role in stabilizing basal dopamine transport and Tat-DAT integration. This study provides mechanistic insights into developing small molecules to block multiple sites in DAT for Tat binding.

18.
FEBS J ; 286(5): 975-990, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632699

RESUMO

Slow-binding inhibitors with long residence time on the target often display superior efficacy in vivo. Rationally designing inhibitors with low off-target rates is restricted by a limited understanding of the structural basis of slow-binding inhibition kinetics in enzyme-drug interactions. 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is an important target for drug and herbicide development. Although the time-dependent behavior of HPPD inhibitors has been studied for decades, its structural basis and mechanism remain unclear. Herein, we report a detailed experimental and computational study that explores structures for illustrating the slow-binding inhibition kinetics of HPPD. We observed the conformational change of Phe428 at the C-terminal α-helix in the inhibitor-bound structures and further identified that the inhibition kinetics of drugs are related to steric hindrance of Phe428. These detailed structural and mechanistic insights illustrate that steric hindrance is highly associated with the time-dependent behavior of HPPD inhibitors. These findings may enable rational design of new potent HPPD-targeted drugs or herbicides with longer target residence time and improved properties. DATABASE: Structure data are available in the PDB under the accession numbers 5CTO (released), 5DHW (released), and 5YWG (released).


Assuntos
4-Hidroxifenilpiruvato Dioxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Simulação por Computador , 4-Hidroxifenilpiruvato Dioxigenase/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cicloexanonas/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Herbicidas/química , Cinética , Mesilatos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Nitrobenzoatos/química , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
19.
J Med Chem ; 62(4): 2099-2111, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30689375

RESUMO

Accurate prediction of absolute protein-ligand binding free energy could considerably enhance the success rate of structure-based drug design but is extremely challenging and time-consuming. Free energy perturbation (FEP) has been proven reliable but is limited to prediction of relative binding free energies of similar ligands (with only minor structural differences) in binding with a same drug target in practical drug design applications. Herein, a Gaussian algorithm-enhanced FEP (GA-FEP) protocol has been developed to enhance the FEP simulation performance, enabling to efficiently carry out the FEP simulations on vanishing the whole ligand and, thus, predict the absolute binding free energies (ABFEs). Using the GA-FEP protocol, the FEP simulations for the ABFE calculation (denoted as GA-FEP/ABFE) can achieve a satisfactory accuracy for both structurally similar and diverse ligands in a dataset of more than 100 receptor-ligand systems. Further, our GA-FEP/ABFE-guided lead optimization against phosphodiesterase-10 led to the discovery of a subnanomolar inhibitor (IC50 = 0.87 nM, ∼2000-fold improvement in potency) with cocrystal confirmation.

20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17223, 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30443038

RESUMO

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.

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