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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279484

RESUMO

The rational design and applications of plasmon-mediated chemical reactions (PMCRs) are fundamentally determined by an understanding of photon-electron-molecule interactions. However, the current understanding of the PMCR of plasmon-decayed hot electron-mediated reactions remains implicit, since there has not been a single measurement of both hot-electron transfer and molecular transformation following photon excitation. Therefore, we invented a method called microphotoelectrochemical surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (µPEC-SERS) that uses an ultramicroelectrode (UME) whose dimensions match those of the focused laser spot. This system can simultaneously record the photocurrent (∼picoamps) of hot-electron transfer with a high signal-to-noise ratio and the SERS spectra of a molecular reaction in the same electrode area. The responses of the photocurrent and SERS spectra to laser illumination can correlate the surface reaction activated by hot electrons with the SERS spectral changes. A typical PMCR of p-aminothiophenol (PATP) on a Ag UME was used to illustrate that the correlation of the photocurrent with the spectral changes is capable of revealing the reaction mechanism in terms of the formation of activated oxygenated species. The laser power-, laser wavelength-, and surface roughness-dependent photocurrents link the formation of activated oxygenated species to the hot-electron transfer. Further comparisons of the photocurrent with the conventional electrochemical current of the oxygen reduction reaction indicate that the activated oxygenated species are oxidative in transforming PATP to p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene, which is supported by a density functional theory (DFT) calculation. Therefore, µPEC-SERS could be a powerful tool for investigating PMCRs and other systems involving photon-electron-molecule interactions.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207939

RESUMO

Here we propose a strategy of radical oxidation reaction for the high-efficiency production of graphene oxide (GO). GO plays important roles in the sustainable development of energy and the environment, taking advantages of oxygen-containing functional groups for good dispersibility and assembly. Compared with Hummers' method, electrochemical exfoliation of graphite is considered facile and green, although the oxidation is fairly low. To synthesize GO with better crystallinity and higher oxidation degree, we present a photosynergetic electrochemical method. By using oxalate anions as the intercalation ions and co-reactant, the interfacial concentration of hydroxyl radicals generated during electrochemical exfoliation was promoted, and the oxidation degree was comparable with that of GO prepared by Hummers' method. In addition, the crystallinity was improved with fewer layers and larger size. Moreover, the aniline coassembled GO membrane was selectively permeable to water molecules by the hydrogen-bond interaction, but it was impermeable to Na+, K+, and Mg2+, due to the electrostatic interactions. Thus, it has a prospective application to water desalination and purification. This work opens a novel approach to the direct functionalization of graphene during the electroexfoliation processes and to the subsequent assembly of the functionalized graphene.

3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(2): 253-256, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803874

RESUMO

The interfacial electron transfer capability of Si/SiO2 wafer supported single layer graphene is optimized by thermal annealing in an inert gas environment, which facilitates its applications in both electrochemical and electronic devices.

4.
Chem Sci ; 10(23): 5893-5897, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360393

RESUMO

Here we report photoelectric-effect-enhanced interfacial charge transfer reactions. The electrochemical corrosion rate of n-type gallium arsenide (n-GaAs) induced by the contact potential at platinum (Pt) and GaAs boundaries can be accelerated by the photoelectric effect of n-GaAs. When a GaAs wafer is illuminated with a xenon light source, the electrons in the valence band of GaAs will be excited to the conduction band and then move to the Pt boundaries due to the different work functions of the two materials. This results in an enhanced contact electric field as well as an enlarged Pt/GaAs contact potential. Consequently, in the presence of electrolyte solution, the polarizations of both the Pt/solution interface and the GaAs/solution interface at the Pt/GaAs/solution 3-phase boundary are enhanced. If the accumulated electrons on the Pt side are removed by electron acceptors in the solution, anodic corrosion of GaAs will be accelerated strictly along the Pt/GaAs/solution 3-phase boundary. This photo-enhanced electrochemical phenomenon can increase the corrosion rate of GaAs and accelerate the process of electrochemical nanoimprint lithography (ECNL) on GaAs. The method opens an innovative, highly efficient, low-cost nanoimprint technique performed directly on semiconductors, and it has prospective applications in the semiconductor industry.

5.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(23): 3379-3382, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820497

RESUMO

We propose programed potential modulation strategies to balance the ion intercalation/deintercalation, surface tailoring and bubbling dispersion processes in the electrochemical exfoliation of graphite, resulting in high-quality graphene with high crystallinity, low oxidation degree, uniform size distribution and few layers.

7.
Faraday Discuss ; 210(0): 281-287, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29999067

RESUMO

Recently, the photoelectric effect in metals in electrolyte environments has aroused the interest of researchers. However, direct evidence for surface plasmons-enhanced electrochemical reactions involving classic outer-sphere reactions of reversible redox couples is seldom reported. We used a surface plasmons-active gold-mushroom-array as a working electrode and observed enhanced faradaic current from ferrocenemethanol following illumination with a xenon lamp. The photoelectric current behaved differently in the presence and absence of oxygen in the solution. The preliminary results are discussed with consideration of the possible mechanisms of electron transfer, although they are very complex, due to the lack of direct evidence. Some consideration was also taken of the research on photoelectrochemical reactions on metallic electrodes.

8.
Chem Sci ; 8(5): 3338-3348, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28507703

RESUMO

Nanoelectrodes, with dimensions below 100 nm, have the advantages of high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. These electrodes have attracted increasing attention in various fields such as single cell analysis, single-molecule detection, single particle characterization and high-resolution imaging. The rapid growth of novel nanoelectrodes and nanoelectrochemical methods brings enormous new opportunities in the field. In this perspective, we discuss the challenges, advances, and opportunities for nanoelectrode fabrication, real-time characterizations and high-performance electrochemical instrumentation.

9.
Nanoscale ; 9(22): 7476-7482, 2017 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28530294

RESUMO

The functional three dimensional micro-nanostructures (3D-MNS) play crucial roles in integrated and miniaturized systems because of the excellent physical, mechanical, electric and optical properties. Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) has been versatile in the fabrication of 3D-MNS by pressing thermoplastic and photocuring resists into the imprint mold. However, direct nanoimprint on the semiconductor wafer still remains a great challenge. On the other hand, considered as a competitive fabrication method for erect high-aspect 3D-MNS, metal assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) can remove the semiconductor by spontaneous corrosion reaction at the metal/semiconductor/electrolyte 3-phase interface. Moreover, it was difficult for MacEtch to fabricate multilevel or continuously curved 3D-MNS. The question of the consequences of NIL meeting the MacEtch is yet to be answered. By employing a platinum (Pt) metalized imprint mode, we demonstrated that using electrochemical nanoimprint lithography (ECNL) it was possible to fabricate not only erect 3D-MNS, but also complex 3D-MNS with multilevel stages with continuously curved surface profiles on a gallium arsenide (GaAs) wafer. A concave microlens array with an average diameter of 58.4 µm and height of 1.5 µm was obtained on a ∼1 cm2-area GaAs wafer. An 8-phase microlens array was fabricated with a minimum stage of 57 nm and machining accuracy of 2 nm, presenting an excellent optical diffraction property. Inheriting all the advantages of both NIL and MacEtch, ECNL has prospective applications in the micro/nano-fabrications of semiconductors.

10.
Chem Sci ; 8(3): 2407-2412, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28451347

RESUMO

Although metal assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) has emerged as a versatile micro-nanofabrication method for semiconductors, the chemical mechanism remains ambiguous in terms of both thermodynamics and kinetics. Here we demonstrate an innovative phenomenon, i.e., the contact electrification between platinum (Pt) and an n-type gallium arsenide (100) wafer (n-GaAs) can induce interfacial redox reactions. Because of their different work functions, when the Pt electrode comes into contact with n-GaAs, electrons will move from n-GaAs to Pt and form a contact electric field at the Pt/n-GaAs junction until their electron Fermi levels (EF) become equal. In the presence of an electrolyte, the potential of the Pt/electrolyte interface will shift due to the contact electricity and induce the spontaneous reduction of MnO4- anions on the Pt surface. Because the equilibrium of contact electrification is disturbed, electrons will transfer from n-GaAs to Pt through the tunneling effect. Thus, the accumulated positive holes at the n-GaAs/electrolyte interface make n-GaAs dissolve anodically along the Pt/n-GaAs/electrolyte 3-phase interface. Based on this principle, we developed a direct electrochemical nanoimprint lithography method applicable to crystalline semiconductors.

11.
Chem Soc Rev ; 46(5): 1526-1544, 2017 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28168253

RESUMO

Micro/nano-machining (MNM) is becoming the cutting-edge of high-tech manufacturing because of the increasing industrial demand for supersmooth surfaces and functional three-dimensional micro/nano-structures (3D-MNS) in ultra-large scale integrated circuits, microelectromechanical systems, miniaturized total analysis systems, precision optics, and so on. Taking advantage of no tool wear, no surface stress, environmental friendliness, simple operation, and low cost, electrochemical micro/nano-machining (EC-MNM) has an irreplaceable role in MNM. This comprehensive review presents the state-of-art of EC-MNM techniques for direct writing, surface planarization and polishing, and 3D-MNS fabrications. The key point of EC-MNM is to confine electrochemical reactions at the micro/nano-meter scale. This review will bring together various solutions to "confined reaction" ranging from electrochemical principles through technical characteristics to relevant applications.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(9): 3320-3323, 2017 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28211690

RESUMO

The spontaneous α-to-δ phase transition of the formamidinium-based (FA) lead halide perovskite hinders its large scale application in solar cells. Though this phase transition can be inhibited by alloying with methylammonium-based (MA) perovskite, the underlying mechanism is largely unexplored. In this Communication, we grow high-quality mixed cations and halides perovskite single crystals (FAPbI3)1-x(MAPbBr3)x to understand the principles for maintaining pure perovskite phase, which is essential to device optimization. We demonstrate that the best composition for a perfect α-phase perovskite without segregation is x = 0.1-0.15, and such a mixed perovskite exhibits carrier lifetime as long as 11.0 µs, which is over 20 times of that of FAPbI3 single crystal. Powder XRD, single crystal XRD and FT-IR results reveal that the incorporation of MA+ is critical for tuning the effective Goldschmidt tolerance factor toward the ideal value of 1 and lowering the Gibbs free energy via unit cell contraction and cation disorder. Moreover, we find that Br incorporation can effectively control the perovskite crystallization kinetics and reduce defect density to acquire high-quality single crystals with significant inhibition of δ-phase. These findings benefit the understanding of α-phase stabilization behavior, and have led to fabrication of perovskite solar cells with highest efficiency of 19.9% via solvent management.

14.
Faraday Discuss ; 193: 133-139, 2016 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27711893

RESUMO

Due to a high turnover coefficient, redox enzymes can serve as current amplifiers which make it possible to explore their catalytic mechanism by electrochemistry at the level of single molecules. On modified nanoelectrodes, the voltammetric behavior of a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalyzed hydroperoxide reduction no longer presents a continuous current response, but a staircase current response. Furthermore, single catalytic incidents were captured through a collision mode at a constant potential, from which the turnover number of HRP can be figured out statistically. In addition, the catalytic behavior is dynamic which may be caused by the orientation status of HRP on the surface of the electrode. This modified nanoelectrode methodology provides an electrochemical approach to investigate the single-molecule catalysis of redox enzymes.


Assuntos
Eletrodos , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre/metabolismo , Nanotecnologia , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Catálise , Eletroquímica , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução
15.
Acc Chem Res ; 49(11): 2596-2604, 2016 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27668827

RESUMO

In the past several decades, electrochemical machining (ECM) has enjoyed the reputation of a powerful technique in the manufacturing industry. Conventional ECM methods can be classified as electrolytic machining and electroforming: the former is based on anodic dissolution and the latter is based on cathodic deposition of metallic materials. Strikingly, ECM possesses several advantages over mechanical machining, such as high removal rate, the capability of making complex three-dimensional structures, and the practicability for difficult-to-cut materials. Additionally, ECM avoids tool wear and thermal or mechanical stress on machining surfaces. Thus, ECM is widely used for various industrial applications in the fields of aerospace, automobiles, electronics, etc. Nowadays, miniaturization and integration of functional components are becoming significant in ultralarge scale integration (ULSI) circuits, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and miniaturized total analysis systems (µ-TAS). As predicted by Moore's law, the feature size of interconnectors in ULSI circuits are down to several nanometers. In this Account, we present our perseverant research in the last two decades on how to "confine" the ECM processes to occur at micrometer or even nanometer scale, that is, to ensure ECM with nanoscale accuracy. We have been developing the confined etchant layer technique (CELT) to fabricate three-dimensional micro- and nanostructures (3D-MNS) on different metals and semiconductor materials since 1992. In general, there are three procedures in CELT: (1) generating the etchant on the surface of the tool electrode by electrochemical or photoelectrochemical reactions; (2) confining the etchant in a depleted layer with a thickness of micro- or nanometer scale; (3) feeding the tool electrode to etch the workpiece. Scavengers, which can react with the etchant, are usually adopted to form a confined etchant layer. Through the subsequent homogeneous reaction between the scavenger and the photo- or electrogenerated etchant in the electrolyte solution, the diffusion distance of the etchant is confined to micro- or nanometer scale, which ensures the nanoscale accuracy of electrochemical machining. To focus on the "confinement" of chemical etching reactions, external physical-field modulations have recently been introduced into CELT by introducing various factors such as light field, force field, hydrodynamics, and so on. Meanwhile, kinetic investigations of the confined chemical etching (CCE) systems are established based on the finite element analysis and simulations. Based on the obtained kinetic parameters, the machining accuracy is tunable and well controlled. CELT is now applicable for 1D milling, 2D polishing, and 3D microfabrication with an accuracy at nanometer scale. CELT not only inherits all the advantages of electrochemical machining but also provides advantages over photolithography and nanoimprint for its applicability to different functional materials without involving any photocuring and thermoplastic resists. Although there are some technical problems, for example, mass transfer and balance, which need to be solved, CELT has shown its prospective competitiveness in electrochemical micromachining, especially in the semiconductor industry.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(29): 9057-60, 2016 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27400155

RESUMO

The adsorption and mobility of oxygen adspecies on platinum (Pt) surface are crucial for the oxidation of surface-absorbed carbon monoxide (CO), which causes the deactivation of Pt catalyst in fuel cells. By employing nanoelectrode and ultramicroelectrode techniques, we have observed the surface mobility of oxygen adspecies produced by the dissociative adsorption of H2O and the surface reaction between the oxygen adspecies and the preadsorbed CO on the Pt surface. The desorption charge of oxygen adspecies on a Pt nanoelectrode has been found to be in proportion to the reciprocal of the square root of scan rate. Using this information, the apparent surface diffusion coefficient of oxygen adspecies has been determined to be (5.61 ± 0.84) × 10(-10) cm(2)/s at 25 °C. During the surface oxidation of CO, two current peaks are observed, which are attributed to CO oxidation at the Pt/electrolyte interface and the surface mobility of the oxygen adspecies on the adjacent Pt surface, respectively. These results demonstrate that the surface mobility of oxygen adspecies plays an important role in the antipoisoning and reactivation of Pt catalyst.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(28): 18150-6, 2016 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27355523

RESUMO

Quantum dots (QDs) are considered as the alternative of dye sensitizers for solar cells. However, interfacial construction and evaluation of photocatalytic nanomaterials still remains challenge through the conventional methodology involving demo devices. We propose here a high-throughput screening and optimizing method based on combinatorial chemistry and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). A homogeneous TiO2 catalyst layer is coated on a FTO substrate, which is then covered by a dark mask to expose the photocatalyst array. On each photocatalyst spot, different successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) processes are performed by a programmed solution dispenser to load the binary PbxCd1-xS QDs sensitizers. An optical fiber is employed as the scanning tip of SECM, and the photocatalytic current is recorded during the imaging experiment, through which the optimized technical parameters are figured out. To verify the validity of the combinatorial SECM imaging results, the controlled trials are performed with the corresponding photovoltaic demo devices. The harmonious accordance proved that the methodology based on combinatorial chemistry and SECM is valuable for the interfacial construction, high-throughput screening, and optimization of QDSSCs. Furthermore, the PbxCd1-xS/CdS QDs cosensitized solar cell optimized by SECM achieves a short circuit current density of 24.47 mA/cm(2), an open circuit potential of 421 mV, a fill factor of 0.52, and a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5.33%.

18.
Chem Sci ; 7(1): 697-701, 2016 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28791112

RESUMO

Can isotropic wet chemical etching be controlled with a spatial resolution at the nanometer scale, especially, for the repetitive microfabrication of hierarchical 3D µ-nanostructures on the continuously curved surface of functional materials? We present an innovative wet chemical etching method called "electrochemical buckling microfabrication": first, a constant contact force is applied to generate a hierarchical 3D µ-nanostructure on a mold electrode surface through a buckling effect; then, the etchant is electrogenerated on-site and confined close to the mold electrode surface; finally, the buckled hierarchical 3D µ-nanostructures are transferred onto the surface of a Ga x In1-x P coated GaAs wafer through WCE. The concave microlens, with a Fresnel structure, has an enhanced photoluminescence at 630 nm. Comparing with energy beam direct writing techniques and nanoimprint lithography, this method provides an electrochemical microfabrication pathway for the semiconductor industry, with low cost and high throughput.

19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 51(100): 17700-3, 2015 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26489368

RESUMO

We report synergetic effect enhanced photoelectrocatalysis, in which Fe(3+) and Br(-) are used as the acceptors of photogenerated charges on TiO2 nanoparticles. The kinetic rate of interfacial charge transfer is promoted from (4.0 ± 0.5) × 10(-4) cm s(-1) (TiO2/(O2, Br(-))) to (1.5 ± 0.5) × 10(-3) cm s(-1) (TiO2/(Fe(3+), Br(-))). The synergetic effect provides a valuable approach to the design of photoelectrocatalytic systems.


Assuntos
Bromo/química , Processos Fotoquímicos , Titânio/efeitos da radiação , Brometos/química , Catálise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Eletrodos , Compostos Férricos/química , Química Verde , Cinética , Luz , Nanopartículas , Oxirredução , Oxigênio/química , Titânio/química
20.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 2(5): 1500013, 2015 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27980935

RESUMO

An impedimetric sensor for persistent toxic substances, including organic pollutants and toxic inorganic ions is presented. The persistent toxic substances are detected using an ultrasensitive technique that is based on electron-transfer blockage. This depends on the formation of guest-host complexes, hydrogen bonding, or a cyclodextrin (CD)-metal complex (Mm(OH)n-ß-CD) structure between the target pollutants and ß-CD.

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