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1.
Food Chem ; 371: 131137, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562777

RESUMO

The role of amino acids and α-dicarbonyls in the flavor formation of Amadori rearrangement product (ARP) during thermal processing was investigated. Comparisons of the volatile compounds and their concentrations when N-(1-deoxy-α-d-ribulos-1-yl)-glycine reacted with different amino acids or glyoxal (GO) at 100 °C were executed. Additional amino acids, such as glycine (Gly), in ARP models contributed to the diversity of furanoids by the chain elongation of the derived formaldehyde. Whereas the monoanion of additional glutamic acid acted as nucleophile, favored 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine and 2,5-dimethylpyrazine formation; the nonionized amino group of additional lysine were involved in α-dicarbonyls formation, causing pyrazine and methylpyrazine accumulation in the ARP model. Moreover, the high dosage and pH stabilization of additional GO probably promoted the ARP degradation and deoxyosones retro-aldol cleavage, resulting in methylpyrazine rather than furanoids formation. The present work provided the guidance for the controlled flavor formation of ARP in industrial application.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Glicina , Aromatizantes , Glioxal , Reação de Maillard
2.
J Comp Eff Res ; 10(13): 1011-1019, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34189927

RESUMO

Methods: This retrospective cohort study identified patients who underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy for lung cancer from January 2016 to December 2018 in a Chinese tertiary general hospital. The electronic hospital medical records associated with the VATS lobectomy for lung cancer were the data sources. Results: Based on the analysis of 433 patients with the utilization of staplers in their VATS lobectomy for lung cancer, using powered stapler was associated with significantly shorter operation time and postsurgery hospital stay length than using the manual stapler in the multivariable generalized linear regression analyses with the adjustment of patient characteristics. However, no other significant differences were observed for other clinical outcomes between the two staplers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Duração da Cirurgia , Pneumonectomia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(39): 10902-10911, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893622

RESUMO

The interaction mechanism of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) with Amadori compound (Amadori rearrangement product, ARP) in xylose-alanine model reaction systems was investigated. The adducts between ARP and EGCG were identified as two ARP-EGCG isomers, two ARP-EGCG-H2O isomers, and multiple ARP-deoxypentosone (DP)-EGCG isomers. The structure of an isolated and purified ARP-EGCG adduct was analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, liquid chromatography-time-of-flight (TOF)-mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Using the two-dimensional NMR analyses, the structure of ARP-EGCG adducts was clarified to consist of a covalent linkage between the C12 position of the ARP and the C8 position of the A-ring of EGCG, presumably generated by the nucleophilic nature of the EGCG or aromatic substitution reactions. The results showed that slightly alkaline pH and higher temperature could facilitate this reaction. Additionally, the thermal stability of ARP-EGCG and its degradation products revealed that the decomposition pathways of this adduct altered the classic decomposition pathway of ARP, resulting in a lower browning rate and blocking the subsequent Maillard reaction.


Assuntos
Catequina/análogos & derivados , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/química , Catequina/química , Temperatura Alta , Reação de Maillard , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular , Água/química
4.
J Ginseng Res ; 44(2): 247-257, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148406

RESUMO

Background: Multidrug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapy drugs remains a major challenge in clinical cancer treatment. Here we investigated whether and how ginsenoside Rg5 overcomes the MDR mediated by ABCB1 transporter in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Cytotoxicity and colon formation as well as the intracellular accumulation of ABCB1 substrates were carried out in MDR cancer cells A2780/T and A549/T for evaluating the reversal effects of Rg5. The expressions of ABCB1 and Nrf2/AKT pathway were determined by Western blotting. An A549/T cell xenograft model was established to investigate the MDR reversal activity of Rg5 in vivo. Results: Rg5 significantly reversed ABCB1-mediated MDR by increasing the intracellular accumulation of ABCB1 substrates without altering protein expression of ABCB1. Moreover, Rg5 activated ABCB1 ATPase and reduced verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity, suggesting a high affinity of Rg5 to ABCB1 binding site which was further demonstrated by molecular docking analysis. In addition, co-treatment of Rg5 and docetaxel (TXT) suppressed the expression of Nrf2 and phosphorylation of AKT, indicating that sensitizing effect of Rg5 associated with AKT/Nrf2 pathway. In nude mice bearing A549/T tumor, Rg5 and TXT treatment significantly suppressed the growth of drug-resistant tumors without increase in toxicity when compared to TXT given alone at same dose. Conclusion: Therefore, combination therapy of Rg5 and chemotherapy drugs is a strategy for the adjuvant chemotherapy, which encourages further pharmacokinetic and clinical studies.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 169, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The problem of AIDS response has not only involved public health, but also had a great impact on the family burden.The objective of this study was to estimate the preventive and curative care expenditure(PCE)for AIDS of Hunan Province in 2017 based on System of Health Accounts 2011(SHA2011)by quantity,financing scheme,health provider,health function,and to analyses the factors affecting patients' medical burden. METHODS: Through stratified multi-stage sampling method, 1336 institutions were surveyed to obtain AIDS prevention and control data, and the official data collected from Health Statistical Yearbook, Health Financial Annual Reports and Government Input Monitoring System were used to estimate the AIDS PCE based on SHA2011. Univariate analyses and ordered logistic regression were used to evaluate the factors affecting the medical burden of AIDS patients. RESULTS: The AIDS PCE of Hunan Province in 2017 was 266.67 million, mainly flowed to hospitals and disease prevention and control institutions. The proportions of curative care expenditure(CCE) and prevention expenditure were 51.39 and 48.61% respectively. Prevention expenditure were mainly used for traditional prevention methods. All prevention expenditure and 88.52% of CCE were borne by public financing scheme. Family health expenditure accounted for 11.12% of CCE, but there were still some people with heavy burden of treatment. Non insurance, co-infection and length of stay are risk factors to the total hospitalization expenses(Totalexp)and the out-of-pocket payments(OOPs)(all p < 0.05,OR > 1). Taking the age group under 30 as the reference, the partial regression coefficient of the age group over 60 was statistically significant (OR (Totalexp) = 1.809, OR (OOPs) = 0.30). CONCLUSION: The financing structure of the PCE for AIDS in Hunan Province was relatively stable and the flow of institutions was reasonable. The functional flow of expenditure embodied the principle of "prevention first". China should incorporate oral PrEP into the national guidelines as soon as possible to improve the allocation efficiency of AIDS prevention resources. Meantime, several measures should be taken to reduce the medical burden of AIDS patients, including expanding the scope of government assistance, adjusting insurance compensation measures, increasing the rate of patients participating in insurance,encouraging commercial insurance to join the AIDS insurance system,and controlling length of stay in hospital.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/economia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Financiamento Governamental/economia , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Food Chem ; 311: 125877, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780222

RESUMO

Amadori rearrangement product (ARP) is an ideal flavor precursor. The formation kinetics of ARP from glycine-ribose system, 3-deoxyribosone (3-DR) and 1-deoxyribosone (1-DR) were evaluated, and then controlled thermal reaction (CTR) coupled with vacuum dehydration was proposed to improve the ARP yield. As key factors controlling the formation of byproducts, CTR temperature and time were optimized as 100 °C, 60 min based on the formation kinetics of the ARP and deoxyribosones. Vacuum dehydration was further used to increase the ARP yield from 0.77% to 64.50%, which was improved by 82.8 times, while 3-DR and 1-DR yield increased only by 1.5 and 3.7 times, respectively. The formation of ARP was the dominant reaction during vacuum dehydration. Under optimal conditions, CTR coupled with vacuum dehydration was an effective method to control byproducts formation and improve the ARP yield simultaneously. This method may offer a potential application in flavor enhancement of light-color food.


Assuntos
Glicina/química , Reação de Maillard , Ribose/química , Cinética , Temperatura , Vácuo , Água/química
7.
J Food Sci ; 84(12): 3584-3593, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721210

RESUMO

Maillard reaction intermediate (MGX) generated from glutathione and xylose in aqueous medium was prepared via the Maillard reaction performed under a two-stage temperature increase process. The purified MGX was identified by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance as N-(1-deoxy-d-xylulos-1-yl)-glutathione (Amadori compound, C15 H25 O10 N3 S) with five main isomers. The method of Maillard reaction performed under a two-stage temperature increase process was further verified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The optimal reaction time and temperature for the preparation of MGX was determined as 60 min at 90 °C. The yield of MGX was increased from 8.60% to 55.52% through thermal reaction coupled with vacuum dehydration. In addition, rapid and more Maillard-type volatile compounds were formed in MGX during thermal treatment than that in Maillard reaction products or glutathione-xylose mixture. Beside, MGX possessed more pleasing meat-like volatile profile compared with the Amadori compound of glutamic acid-xylose (AAX), cysteine-xylose (ACX), and glycine-xylose (AGX). Therefore, it suggested that the MGX had the potential to achieve a better flavor formation during thermal treatment. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Maillard reaction intermediates, such as Amadori or Heyns rearrangement products (ARP or HRP), are important flavor precursors, which possess stable physicochemical properties, but tend to degrade into flavor compounds at high temperatures. Maillard reaction intermediate from glutathione and xylose acts as primary flavor enhancers to complete Maillard reaction to produce flavors in the subsequent thermal processing, which can significantly improve and stabilize the flavor quality of the meaty food, and deserves a very broad application prospects. The new developed method will be a significant theoretical basis on research preparation and properties of Maillard reaction intermediates in complex food systems.


Assuntos
Glutationa/química , Xilose/química , Cisteína/química , Aromatizantes/química , Ácido Glutâmico/química , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/química , Glicina/química , Temperatura Alta , Reação de Maillard , Vácuo
8.
J Cancer ; 10(26): 6491-6501, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777579

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the total current curative expenditure (CCE) of lung cancer in Hunan Province, China under the framework of the System of Health Accounts 2011 (SHA 2011) and explore the effect of insurance status, surgery and length of stay on the hospitalization expenses of patients with lung cancer. METHODS: Through multistage stratified cluster random sampling, a total of 46,214 patients with lung cancer were enrolled from 1,072 medical institutions in Hunan Province in 2016. Under the SHA 2011 framework, the lung cancer CCE was analyzed. The relationships between hospitalization expenditure and the following factors (surgery, type of hospital, insurance status, length of stay, institution level, age and sex) were analyzed using Spearman's correlation analyses, and how these factors influenced hospital expenditure was explored through multiple stepwise regression analysis and structural equation modelling. RESULTS: The CCE for lung cancer patients was 8063.75 million CNY. In total, 96.03% of the CCE for lung cancer occurred in hospitals and 58.88% of the expenditure flowed to general hospitals. The highest expenditures were incurred in the group aged 55-74 y, which accounted for 61.58% of the CCE. Drugs accounted for the greatest share expenditure to lung cancer patients at 34.31% of the CCE. Surgery, insurance status, institution level, sex and hospital type explained 57.5% of the variance in hospital expenses. The hospitalization expenses were related to surgery, insurance status, institution level and sex (rs = 0.033-0.688, p < 0.001). Surgery, insurance status and length of stay had direct effects on hospitalization expenses. Length of stay mediated the relationship between surgery and hospitalization expenses for lung cancer patients. Surgery mediated the relationship between insurance status and hospitalization expenses. All of these variables can explain 45% of the variance in hospitalization expenses. CONCLUSIONS: The CCE of lung cancer is extremely high. The problems related to treatment efficiency and equity are serious for lung cancer patients in China. It is essential to expand health insurance coverage and reduce the curative expenditure of lung cancer.

9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(23): 6585-6593, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124366

RESUMO

The inhibitory effects of glutathione (GSH) and oxiglutathione (GSSG) on Maillard browning were compared, and it was clarified that free sulfhydryl was the key substance for the inhibition. The Amadori rearrangement product (ARP) derived from glycylglycine (Gly-Gly) and arabinose (Ara) was prepared by aqueous Maillard reaction, and LC-MS/MS was used to investigate the reaction products of GSH and purified ARP. Reaction between GSH and deoxypentosone (DP) was found to alter the pathway of aqueous Maillard reaction, which reduced the production of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and furfural and thereby inhibited the formation of melanoidins. To determine the optimal conditions for browning inhibition, a stepwise increase of temperature was used to prepare Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The results showed that the optimum browning inhibitory effect was obtained by adding GSH after Gly-Gly and Ara heating at 80 °C for 60 min.


Assuntos
Arabinose/química , Glutationa/química , Glicilglicina/química , Pentoses/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/química , Reação de Maillard , Polímeros/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Temperatura
10.
J Med Econ ; 22(9): 917-923, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124723

RESUMO

Background: Efficient hemostasis during lumbar surgery (LS) is associated with better perioperative outcomes. Flowable gelatin hemostatic matrix (FGHM) is a new type of absorbable hemostatic agent, which is effective to control bleeding during spinal surgery. This study aimed to assess the impact of FGHM on perioperative outcomes and hospital costs associated with LS. Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed medical and billing records of patients who underwent LS for spinal degenerative disease in a Chinese tertiary care hospital from 2014 to 2016. The identified patients were further stratified into a FGHM group (n = 108) (using the combination of FGHM and gelatin sponge) and a historical control group (using oxidized cellulose and/or collagen, n = 82) for the adjusted comparisons of the perioperative outcomes using a propensity score matching method. Multiple generalized linear regression was conducted to assess the impact of using FGHM on total hospitalization costs. Results: Comparisons of 64 propensity score matched pairs showed a significantly lower blood transfusion rate (34.4% vs 64.1%, p = 0.005), lower blood transfusion volume (182.7 ± 312.4 vs 301.3 ± 281.0 mL, p = 0.045), reduced post-surgery drainage tube placement rate (82.8% vs 93.8%, p = 0.046), and shorter post-operative days on antibiotics (6.0 ± 2.6 vs 7.1 ± 2.4 days, p = 0.010) in the FGHM group. Although with a relatively high acquisition price, the use of FGHM for hemostasis in LS did not increase the total hospitalization costs (coefficient = -0.001, p = 0.972). Conclusions: The use of FGHM in LS improved perioperative outcomes related to hemostatic effects without increasing overall hospital costs in a real-world hospital setting.


Assuntos
Esponja de Gelatina Absorvível/economia , Esponja de Gelatina Absorvível/uso terapêutico , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Celulose Oxidada/economia , Celulose Oxidada/uso terapêutico , China , Colágeno/economia , Colágeno/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Pontuação de Propensão , Características de Residência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/economia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
J Comp Eff Res ; 8(7): 487-495, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922074

RESUMO

Aim: To assess the cost-effectiveness of standard utilization of zoledronic acid (ZA) relative to real-world utilization of ZA for bone metastasis (BM) in Chinese patients with advanced lung cancer. Materials & methods: A decision analytic model was constructed to simulate health benefits and medical costs associated with standard and real-world utilization of ZA for BM in Chinese patients with advanced lung cancer. Results: Compared with real-world utilization of ZA, standard utilization of ZA reduced cumulative risk of skeletal-related events (45.7 vs 63.6%), increased quality-adjusted life years (0.673 vs 0.626 QALY) and saved cumulated medical costs (¥343,163 vs ¥376,943). Conclusion: Standard utilization of ZA dominated real-world utilization of ZA for BM in Chinese patients with advanced lung cancer from cost-effectiveness perspective.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Ácido Zoledrônico/uso terapêutico , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/economia , China , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Modelos Econômicos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Ácido Zoledrônico/economia
12.
Biosci Rep ; 39(3)2019 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867256

RESUMO

Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) followed by surgery is the standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. Here, we analyzed the impact of local and systemic environments on the tumor response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer. We recruited 141 patients with rectal cancer treated with nCRT. We evaluated the local tumor environment, including tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), intratumor budding (ITB), and the systemic inflammatory environment, including the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level. Our finding revealed that tumor regression was significantly associated with the density of CD8+ TILs in the intraepithelial, the presence of ITB, the combination of NLR and CRP (NLR-CRP) value, and the combination of CD8+ intraepithelial TIL (iTIL) density and ITB presence. Moreover, multivariate analysis showed that only the combination of CD8+ iTILs and ITB was an independent predictive factor for the pathological response to nCRT in rectal cancer. Our finding demonstrate that the local tumor environment was a better predictor of the tumor response than the systemic environment and thus provided new insight into screening for patients who are more likely to benefit from cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Quimiorradioterapia , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Retais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Comp Eff Res ; 8(5): 317-326, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681001

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the clinical and economic impact of flowable gelatin hemostatic matrix (FGHM) in anterior cervical spine surgery (ACSS). PATIENTS & METHODS: A total of 451 patients with performed ACSS were included to compare FGHM with conventional hemostatic methods for clinical and cost outcomes using propensity score matching method. RESULTS: The comparisons of the matched 125 pairs observed that FGHM was associated with significantly lower blood transfusion volume (11.2 vs 36.3 ml; p = 0.039), shorter postsurgery hospital stay length (3.7 vs 4.7 days; p = 0.002), shorter operation time (103.5 vs 117.7 min; p = 0.004), lower drainage placement rate (51.2 vs 89.6%; p < 0.001) and also lower total hospital costs (median ¥64,717 vs ¥65,064; p = 0.035). CONCLUSION: Use of FGHM in ACSS improved perioperative outcomes without increasing hospital costs.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Discotomia/métodos , Gelatina/uso terapêutico , Hemostáticos/uso terapêutico , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Gelatina/economia , Custos Hospitalares , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Duração da Cirurgia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Appl Opt ; 55(35): 10133-10137, 2016 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27958427

RESUMO

By using the chelate precursor doping technique, we report on an ytterbium-doped aluminophosphosilicate (APS) large-mode-area fiber with ultralow numerical aperture of 0.036 and effective fundamental mode area of ∼550 µm2. With a bend diameter of 600 mm, the bending loss of fundamental mode LP01 was measured to be <10-3 dB/m, in agreement with the corresponding simulation results, while that of higher order mode LP11 is >100 dB/m at 1080 nm. Measured in an all-fiber oscillator laser cavity, 592 W single-mode laser output was obtained at 1079.64 nm with high-beam quality M2 of 1.12. The results indicate that the chelate precursor doping technique is a competitive method for ultralow numerical aperture fiber fabrication, which is very suitable for developing single-mode seed lasers for high power laser systems.

15.
Opt Express ; 24(24): 27087-27095, 2016 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27906283

RESUMO

With home-made fiber perform and special fiber drawing & coating technique, a new-type of (3 + 1) GTWave fiber theoretically designed for bi-directional pump method, was successfully fabricated and justified of integrating multi-kW pump energy from commercial 976nm laser diodes. This (3 + 1) GTWave fiber amplifier demonstrated uniform absorption of pump light and easy thermal management characteristics along the whole fiber length. This amplifier is capable of simultaneously aggregating 5.19kW pump power at 976nm and finally generating 5.07kW laser output at 1066.5nm with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 74.5%, the first publically-reported multi-kW GTWave fiber directly pumped with commercial 976nm laser diodes to the best of our knowledge. No power roll-over was found at 5kW level and further power scaling can be expected with more pump power. The results indicate that GTWave fiber is a competitive integrated fiber device to collect enough pump energy from low-cost commercial laser diodes for multi-kW fiber laser development.

16.
Clinicoecon Outcomes Res ; 8: 137-51, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27217786

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To review published cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) assessing bortezomib (BTZ) for multiple myeloma (MM) and explore possible bias affecting the cost-effectiveness of BTZ. METHODS: Literature was searched for published CEAs assessing BTZ or BTZ-containing regimens for MM from 2003 to 2015. The reported incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were adjusted by 2014 country-specific gross domestic product per capita (GDPPC) to compare the cost-effectiveness threshold of the World Health Organization (3 GDPPC per gained quality-adjusted life year [QALY]). RESULTS: A total of 17 published CEAs were included in this review. When compared to non-BTZ treatments, BTZ-containing regimens were cost-effective for induction treatment prior to stem cell transplantation (SCT) in Canada, Poland, and Germany (ICER per QALY: 0.9299-2.254 GDPPC). BTZ/melphalan/prednisolone (VMP) was cost-effective for previously untreated and SCT-ineligible MM patients when compared to melphalan plus prednisolone (MP), melphalan/prednisone/lenalidomide with lenalidomide maintenance, and cyclophosphamide/thalidomide/dexamethasone (CTD) (ICER per QALY: dominant to 2.374 GDPPC) in Canada, UK, and USA. BTZ was cost-effective for relapsed/refractory MM when compared to best supportive care (ICER per life year: 0.9317-1.8210 GDPPC) in the UK and the USA, thalidomide in USA (0.5178 GDPPC/LY), and dexamethasone (DEX) in four Nordic countries (€54,451-€81,560/QALY). However, the cost-effectiveness for VMP versus MP plus thalidomide (MPT) and continuous lenalidomide (LEN) plus low-dose DEX (RD) for previously untreated and SCT-ineligible MM patients and BTZ versus LEN/DEX for relapsed/refractory MM patients could be unreliable because of the bias associated with model design and the indirect comparisons of treatment effects. CONCLUSION: Published CEAs suggested that BTZ or BTZ-containing regimens were cost-effective when compared to most non-BTZ treatments for MM. However, the conflicting cost-effectiveness for VMP versus MPT for previously untreated and SCT-ineligible MM and BTZ versus LEN/DEX for relapsed/refractory MM needs more robust evidence for further clarification.

17.
Ecol Appl ; 25(3): 848-55, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26214928

RESUMO

Seed size has been advanced as a key factor that influences the dynamics of plant communities, but there are few empirical or theoretical predictions of how community dynamics progress based on seed size patterns. Information on the abundance of adults, seedlings, soil seed banks, seed rains, and the seed mass of 96 species was collected in alpine meadows of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (China), which had different levels of grazing disturbance. The relationships between seed-mass-abundance patterns for adults, seedlings, the soil seed bank, and seed rain in the plant community were evaluated using regression models. Results showed that grazing levels affected the relationship between seed size and abundance properties of adult species, seedlings, and the soil seed bank, suggesting that there is a shift in seed-size--species-abundance relationships as a response to the grazing gradient. Grazing had no effect on the pattern of seed-size-seed-rain-abundance at four grazing levels. Grazing also had little effect on the pattern of seed-size--species-abundance and pattern of seed-size--soil-seed-bank-abundance in meadows with no grazing, light grazing, and moderate grazing), but there was a significant negative effect in meadows with heavy grazing. Grazing had little effect on the pattern of seed-size--seedling-abundance with no grazing, but had significant negative effects with light, moderate, and heavy grazing, and the |r| values increased with grazing levels. This indicated that increasing grazing pressure enhanced the advantage of smaller-seeded species in terms of the abundances of adult species, seedlings, and soil seed banks, whereas only the light grazing level promoted the seed rain abundance of larger-seeded species in the plant communities. This study suggests that grazing disturbances are favorable for increasing the species abundance for smaller-seeded species but not for the larger-seeded species in an alpine meadow community. Hence, there is a clear advantage of the smaller-seeded species over the larger-seeded species with increases in the grazing level.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Herbivoria , Plantas/classificação , Sementes/classificação , Sementes/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Ovinos/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Appl Opt ; 53(15): 3191-5, 2014 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24922203

RESUMO

We reported on a highly effective chelate precursor doping technique for Yb-doped large-mode-area (LMA) fiber manufacture. By accurately controlling the evaporation temperature and flow rate of carrier gas, the chelate precursor doping technique is capable of making Yb-doped LMA silica fiber with good uniformity free of center dip, low numerical aperture of ~0.056, large preform core size of 4.46 mm, and appropriate cladding absorption of 1.17 dB/m at 976.4 nm. Based on a single-end-pump all-fiber oscillator laser setup, the laser output at 1080 nm reached 700 W with slope efficiency of 54.2%.

19.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 16(3): 219-25, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24941163

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Pleurotus eryngii on glycemic metabolism. Alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice were used to study the effects of P. eryngii on blood glucose, glycohemoglobin, insulin secretion, damaged pancreatic ß-cells, total antioxidant status (TAOS), and hepatic glycogen in hyperglycemic mice. Sixty diabetic mice were divided equally into 5 groups: the alloxan (AX)-induced hyperglycemic group, the AX and glibenclamide (GLI)-treated group, the AX and P. eryngii extracts (PEEs) 50-treated group (PEE 50 mg/kg), the AX and PEE100-treated group (PEE 100 mg/kg), and the AX and PEE200-treated group (PEE 200 mg/kg). The other 12 normal mice were injected intravenously with the normal saline and used as the control group. After PEE (100 and 200 mg/kg) was orally administered to the mice over 5 weeks, blood glucose and HbAlc were significantly decreased in AX-induced hyperglycemic mice (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively), whereas the level of insulin secretion was markedly elevated in (P < 0.05). The pancreatic ß-cells damaged by AX partially and gradually recovered after PPE extract was administered to the hyperglycemic mice for 35 days. In addition, PEE treatment gradually increased the body weight and significantly increased the concentration of hepatic glycogen in hyperglycemic mice (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the action of PPE on glycemic metabolism occurs via increasing glycogen and insulin concentrations as well as recovering injured ß-cells and reducing free radical damage. PPE may become a new potential hypoglycemic food for hyperglycemic people.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Pleurotus/química , Verduras/química , Aloxano/efeitos adversos , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos
20.
PLoS One ; 9(4): e95401, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24740428

RESUMO

Food selection behavior of lepidopteran larvae is predominantly governed by the activation of taste neurons present in two sensilla styloconica located on the galea of the maxilla. In this study, we present the ultrastructure of the sensilla styloconica and the central projection pattern of their associated receptor neurons in larvae of the heliothine moth, Helicoverpa armigera. By means of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, the previous findings of two morphologically fairly similar sensilla comprising a socketed conic tip inserted into a large peg were confirmed. However, the peg size of the medial sensillum was found to be significantly bigger than that of the lateral sensillum. The sensory neurons derived from each sensillum styloconicum were mapped separately using anterograde staining experiments combined with confocal laser-scanning microscopy. For determining the afferents' target regions relative to each other, we reconstructed the labeled axons and placed them into a common reference framework. The sensory axons from both sensilla projected via the ipsilateral maxillary nerve to the suboesophageal ganglion and further through the ipsilateral circumoesophageal connective to the brain. In the suboesophageal ganglion, the sensory projections targeted two areas of the ipsilateral maxillary neuropil, one located in the ventrolateral neuromere and the other adjacent to the neuromere midline. In the brain, the axon terminals targeted the dorso-anterior area of the ipsilateral tritocerebrum. As confirmed by the three-dimensional reconstructions, the target regions of the neural projections originating from each of the two sensilla styloconica were identical.


Assuntos
Axônios/ultraestrutura , Encéfalo/ultraestrutura , Mariposas/ultraestrutura , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/ultraestrutura , Sensilas/ultraestrutura , Animais , Axônios/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Larva/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Mariposas/fisiologia , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/fisiologia , Sensilas/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia
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