Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 32
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











País/Região como assunto
Intervalo de ano
1.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124661, 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472350

RESUMO

Toxicities of the marine algae Alexandrium minutum and its excreted gonyautoxins (GTXs) to the marine crustacean Artemia salina were investigated. Mortality was observed for neither larvae nor adult A. salina exposed to A. minutum at a density of 5000 cells/mL or 0.5 µM GTX2/3. After exposure, the full transcriptome of adult A. salina was assembled and functionally annotated. A total of 599,286 transcripts were obtained, which were clustered into 515,196 unigenes. Results of the transcriptional effect level index revealed that direct exposure to the toxic algae A. minutum caused greater alterations in the transcriptome than did exposure to the extracellular product GTX2/3. Mechanisms of effects were different between exposure of A. salina to A. minutum cells or GTX2/3. Exposure to A. minutum modulated formation of the ribonucleoprotein complex and metabolism of amino acids and lipids in A. salina. Exposure to GTX2/3 exposure inhibited expression of genes related to metabolism of chitin, which might result in disruption of molting process or disturbed sheath morphogenesis. Overall, effects on transcription observed in this study represent the first report based on application of next generation sequencing techniques to investigate the transcriptomic response of A. salina exposed to an environmentally realistic level of A. minutum or GTX2/3.

2.
Water Res ; 166: 115047, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514099

RESUMO

Phenolic wastewater containing phenol and 4-chlorophenol pose a risk to the environment and to human health. Treating them using chemical-biological coupling method is challenging. In this study, manganese oxidizing bacteria (MnOB) were enriched in moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) using synthetic phenol wastewater (800 mg L-1) to facilitate in situ production of biogenic manganese oxides (BioMnOx) after 90 days of operation. Then, 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) was added to the MBBR to simulate mixed phenolic wastewater. Comparing the MBBR (R1) without feeding Mn(II) and the MBBR with BioMnOx (R2) production, R2 exhibited robust phenol and 4-CP removal performance. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was employed to determine the microbial community. Subsequently, a batch experiment demonstrated that partly purified BioMnOx does not exhibits a capacity for phenol removal, but can efficiently remove 4-CP. Interestingly, 5-chloro-2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde was found in the products of 4-CP degradation, which was the unique product of 4-CP degradation by catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O). In both reactors, only catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O) activity from microbes can be detected, indicating that the existence of BioMnOx provide an alternative pathway in addition to microbe driven 4-CP degradation. Overall, MBBR based MnOB enrichment under high phenol concentration was achieved, and 4-CP/phenol removal can be accelerated by in situ-formed BioMnOx. Considering the C23O-like activity of BioMnOx, our results suggest a new coupling strategy that involves nanomaterials and a microbial consortium.

3.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124619, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450114

RESUMO

Perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) is known as a key intermediate of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) precursors, which can be frequently detected in the environment and biota. FOSA could be bioaccumulated in earthworms from soil, but the contributions of enzymes and gut microbes involved in the biotransformation of FOSA in earthworms have not been identified. Therefore, the effects of enzyme inhibitors and intestinal microflora on biotransformation of FOSA in earthworms were investigated in the present study. FOSA was biotransformed to form PFOS by earthworms obtained from in vivo and in vitro tests. The addition of FOSA had significantly positive effects on cytolchrome P450 (CYP450) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activities, suggesting CYP450 and GST are likely involved in the enzymatic transformation. In addition, both 1-Aminobenzotriazole (ABT) and ezatiostat hydrochloride (TLK199), which were selected to inhibit the CYP and GST enzymes, respectively, demonstrated inhibition effects on biotransformation of FOSA in earthworms with a dose-dependent relationship. However, the concentrations of FOSA weren't changed by the bacteria isolated from worm gut, suggesting that gut bacteria did not contribute to FOSA biotransformation in earthworms. The results of this study confirm that the transformation of FOSA in earthworms is mediated mainly by enzymes rather than by gut microbes.

4.
Plant Sci ; 286: 28-36, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300139

RESUMO

MYB family genes act as important regulators modulating the response to abiotic stress in plants. However, much less is known about MYB proteins in cotton. Here, we found that a cotton MYB gene, GhMYB73, was induced by NaCl and abscisic acid (ABA). Silencing GhMYB73 expression in cotton increased sensitivity to salt stress. The cotyledon greening rate of Arabidopsis thaliana over-expressing GhMYB73 under NaCl or mannitol treatment was significantly enhanced during the seedling germination stage. What's more, several osmotic stress-induced genes, such as AtNHX1, AtSOS3 and AtP5CS1, were more highly induced in the over-expression lines than in wild type under salt treatment, supporting the hypothesis that GhMYB73 contributes to salinity tolerance by improving osmotic stress resistance. Arabidopsis lines over-expressing GhMYB73 had superior germination and cotyledon greening under ABA treatment, and some abiotic stress-induced genes involved in ABA pathways (AtPYL8, AtABF3, AtRD29B and AtABI5), had increased transcription levels under salt-stress conditions in these lines. Furthermore, we found that GhMYB73 physically interacts with GhPYL8 and AtPYL8, suggesting that GhMYB73 regulates ABA signaling during salinity stress response. Taken together, over-expression of GhMYB73 significantly increases tolerance to salt and ABA stress, indicating that it can potentially be used in transgenic technology approaches to improve cotton salt tolerance.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Gossypium/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Inativação Gênica , Genes myb , Gossypium/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 181: 138-145, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176248

RESUMO

While N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (EtFOSE) is a precursor of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), its bioaccumulation, transformation and toxicological effects in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to quartz sands are poorly understood. The present study showed that except for parent EtFOSE, N-ethylperfluorooctane sulfonamide acetate (EtFOSAA), N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (EtFOSA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide acetate (FOSAA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and PFOS were detected in earthworms, with EtFOSAA as the primary biotransformation product. The biota-to-sand accumulation factor (BSAF) and uptake rate coefficient (ku) of EtFOSE were 5.7 and 0.542/d, respectively. The elimination rate constants (ke) decreased in the order EtFOSA (0.167/d) ∼ FOSAA (0.147/d) > FOSA (0.119/d) ∼ EtFOSAA (0.117/d) > EtFOSE (0.095/d) > PFOS (0.069/d). No significant effects were observed in malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities between EtFOSE treatments and controls. EtFOSE could cause significant accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in earthworms. Peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly activated by 41.4-74.3%, 37.2-44.4% and 32.4-52.3% from day 4-10, respectively, while 8-Hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were elevated by 47.7-70.3% from day 8-10, demonstrating that EtFOSE induced oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage in earthworms. Significant increase of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) with 41.6-62.8% activation (8-10 d) gave indirect evidence on the conjugation of EtFOSE or its corresponding metabolites during phase II of detoxication. This study provides important information on the fate and potential risks of EtFOSE to terrestrial invertebrates.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/toxicidade , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Quartzo , Sulfonamidas/toxicidade , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biotransformação , Dano ao DNA , Fluorcarbonetos/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/farmacocinética , Estresse Oxidativo , Dióxido de Silício , Sulfonamidas/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/farmacocinética
6.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt A): 804-812, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200206

RESUMO

6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA) is currently used as an alternative to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and is widely detected in the environment. The uptake, translocation and biotransformation of 6:2 FTSA in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) were investigated by hydroponic exposure for the first time. The root concentration factor (RCF) of 6:2 FTSA was 2.6-24.2 times as high as those of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) of the same or much shorter carbon chain length, demonstrating much higher bioaccumulative ability of 6:2 FTSA in pumpkin roots. The translocation capability of 6:2 FTSA from root to shoot depended on its hydrophobicity. Six terminal perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCA) metabolites, including perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluoropropionic acid (PFPrA) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) were found in pumpkin roots and shoots. PFHpA was the primary metabolite in roots, while PFBA was the major product in shoots. 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), a cytochromes P450 (CYPs) suicide inhibitor, could decrease the concentrations of PFCA products with dose-dependent relationships in pumpkin tissues, implying the role of CYP enzymes involved in plant biotransformation of 6:2 FTSA. This study indicated that the application of 6:2 FTSA can lead to the occurrence of PFCAs (C2-C7) in plants.

7.
Food Chem ; 289: 701-707, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955669

RESUMO

A simple modification method was developed for the functionalization of amino terminated carbon nanotubes (CNT-NH2) by using isocyanates as modifiers via the nucleophilic addition reaction. Two types of functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNT) were prepared through deposition of magnetic nanoparticles on CNT-NH2 and modification with different isocyanates. p-Tolyl-functionalized MCNT (Tol-MCNT) with better adsorption performance were selected as adsorbent for magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE), which could extract sulfonamides (SAs) from various milk samples with a enrichment factor of about 30 after optimization. By combining the MSPE with liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), a new method was developed. Both skimmed and whole milk samples of three brands were analyzed with this method, and 4 SAs including sulfadiazine, sulfisomidine, sulfamethazine and sulfameter were detected with the concentration from unquantifiable to 72 ng/L, which were all well below the maximum residue limits in milk according to the regulations of China and EU.


Assuntos
Isocianatos/química , Leite/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Extração em Fase Sólida , Sulfonamidas/análise , Animais , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Europa (Continente) , Análise de Alimentos , Espectrometria de Massas , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Curr Microbiol ; 2018 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343326

RESUMO

Metallic selenides nanomaterials are widely used in many fields, especially for photothermal therapy and thermoelectric devices. However, the traditional chemogenic methods are energy-intensive and environmentally unfriendly. In this study, the first complete genome data of a metallic selenides producing bacterium Bacillus cereus CC-1 was reported. This strain can not only reduce selenite and selenate into elemental selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs), but also synthesize several metallic selenides nanoparticles when adding metal ions (Pb2+, Ag+ and Bi3+) and selenite simultaneously. The size of the genome is 5,308,319 bp with 36.07% G+C content. Several putative genes responsible for heavy metal resistance, salt resistance, and selenate reduction were found. This genome data provide fundamental information, which support the use of this strain for the production of biocompatible photothermal and thermoelectric nanomaterials under mild conditions.

9.
Environ Pollut ; 243(Pt A): 687-692, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30232019

RESUMO

Marine organisms are naturally exposed to different environmental pollutants including organic pollutants and nanoparticles. The interactive effects between nanoparticles and other chemicals on aquatic organisms have raised concerns regarding the potential of nanomaterials as the vector for other chemicals. In the present study, the effect of nano zinc oxide (nZnO) on the bioavailability of triphenyltin chloride (TPTCl) was studied, and their combined acute and reproductive toxicity to the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus were evaluated. At experimental concentration ranges of nZnO in this study, the percentage of dissolution of Zn2+ was relative stable (from 62% to 66%), and nZnO did not affect the bioavailability of TPTCl to the copepods. The acute toxicity of binary mixtures of nZnO/TPT was equivalent to that of the mixture of Zn2+/TPT. In agreement with the decrease in TPTCl's LC50 values at the presence of nZnO, their interacting effect was synergistic based on response addition response surface model, and the interacting parameter was modelled to be -1.43. In addition to acute toxicity test, reproductive toxicity tests revealed that exposure to nZnO and TPTCl didn't affect the successful mating rate and the number of nauplii in the 1st brood, but they extended the time for the eggs to hatch from 2.53 days to 3.94 and 3.64 days, respectively. The exposure to nZnO/TPTCl mixture delayed the time to hatch to 5.78 days.

10.
Anal Chem ; 90(20): 12172-12179, 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30221932

RESUMO

A multiplex-on-bead-isotope-dimethyl-labeling method was developed for the quantitative analysis of sulfonamides (SAs) in environmental water samples by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). In this method, five samples could be labeled in parallel with different isotope reagents and quantified in a single LC-HRMS analysis. Magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) was employed in the sample preparation to concentrate the trace-level analytes by using lab-synthesized magnetic carbon nanospheres (MCNSs). After the analytes were captured on the MCNSs, the isotope labeling was performed directly by dispersing the MCNSs in the reaction buffer (on-bead labeling). The experimental conditions for MSPE and labeling were systematically investigated. For the tested 12 SAs, a labeling efficiency of over 99% could be achieved within 20 min. The LC-HRMS separation, including equilibration, could be achieved in 6 min. By combining MSPE (enriched 200-fold), multiplex on-bead dimethyl labeling, and LC-HRMS, all the tested SAs could be reliably quantified with limits of detection (LODs) of 0.1-5 ng/L. This method was verified using fortified pond water spiked with 12 SAs (0.01-5 µg/L), and accuracies of 81-106% were achieved with good reproducibility (RSD < 10%, n = 3), which confirmed its applicability in real-sample analysis. With this method, ice samples collected at the estuary of the Daliao River in northeast China were analyzed; nine SAs (sulfanilamide, sulfapyridine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethizole, sulfachloropyridazine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfameter, sulfathiazole, and sulfisoxazole) were detected at concentrations of 0-85 ng/L, and the total concentrations were in the range of 185-402 ng/L with a median value of 274 ng/L.

11.
Int J Occup Saf Ergon ; : 1-11, 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205765

RESUMO

The main objective of this study is to explore correlations between the severity of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and aberrant driving behaviors among professional taxi drivers. Questionnaires were administered to 162 taxi drivers in a Chinese city. Drivers with more severe MSDs reported more general and dangerous error behaviors and negative moods. Interestingly, MSDs affect drivers' error behaviors through negative moods. The study also examined the effects of age, driving experience, traffic accidents, mood states, safety awareness and driving skills on aberrant driving behaviors. The results showed that age and driving experience were significant predictors of aberrant driving behaviors. Anger was a significant predictor of aggressive violations and dangerous errors. Additionally, drivers who reported higher levels of safety awareness also reported fewer aggressive violations, and drivers with higher levels of driving skills reported fewer dangerous error behaviors.

12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(29): 29335-29344, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121767

RESUMO

The effects of combined exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and heavy metals (HMs) including cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were investigated. The results have demonstrated that the concentrations of labile acid exchangeable Cd, Zn, Ni, Pb, and Cu in soil were enhanced in addition of PFAAs. With PFAAs, the uptake of Cd, Zn, Ni, Pb, and Cu in earthworms was increased compared to those without PFAAs with the order of Cd > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cu. In the presence of HMs, the average biota-to-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) of PFAAs in earthworms were decreased by 0.498-0.729 times for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and 0.606-0.978 times for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), indicating decrease rates of PFOS were higher than those of PFOA. And different levels of HMs led to insignificant different responses on the inhibiting effects of PFAAs uptake in earthworms. The increase of Cd in fraction C (associated with cytosol) and decrease of PFAAs in fraction C and fraction P (associated with tissue fragments, cell membranes, and intact cells) especially for fraction C were revealed when they were combined, suggesting cytosolic PFAAs and Cd were susceptibly mutual effected. This study indicated that PFAAs and metals mutually affected their bioaccumulation and subcellular distribution in earthworms, which will help to understand the fate and risks of PFAAs and metals in co-contaminated soil.

13.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 16(1): 165, 2018 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To develop a Cancer Self-Perceived Discrimination Scale (CSPDS) for Chinese cancer patients and to assess its reliability and validity. METHOD: A total of 178 patients were recruited and the classical test theory was used to develop the CSPDS. Item analysis was adapted to improve the preliminary version of the CSPDS, then the reliability, the validity and the acceptability of the final version of CSPDS were assessed. RESULTS: This CSPDS contained 14 items classified into 3 subscales: social withdrawal with 7 items, stigma with 4 and self-deprecation with 3. Good validity (χ2/df = 1.216, GFI = 0.935, AGFI = 0.903, I-CVIs> 0.80) and good reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.829, Spearman-Brown coefficient = 0.827, test-retest reliability coefficient = 0.944) were found. The completion time was 6.06 ± 1.80 min. Participants who were female and reported poor self-rated health tended to have higher CSPDS scores (P <  0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that this CSPDS could be used to assess the level of self-perceived discrimination and to preliminarily screen perceived discrimination among Chinese cancer patients, especially in Southwest China. It may provide a basis for scientific assessment of targeted patient education, psychological counseling, social interventions, and psychotherapy in the future.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Autoimagem , Estigma Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 161: 669-675, 2018 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29935431

RESUMO

Perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) is an important perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) precursor used for commercial applications. In order to investigate the transformation and responses of selected antioxidant and degradation enzymes of FOSA in the plants, in vivo exposure of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) were conducted in the solution-plant microcosms. FOSA was readily taken up by soybean and pumpkin roots and translocated to shoots, and metabolized to PFOS, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS). Although morphological and biomass effects were not visible, significant changes in oxidative stress response were observed except for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were significantly increased by 19.2-30.8% and 19.2-20.7% in soybean (8-12 d) respectively, and increased by 39.2-92.8% and 21.1-37.6% in pumpkin (3-12 d) respectively, suggesting an activation of the antioxidant defense system in the plants exposed to FOSA. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were decreased in soybean (2-12 d) with 9.0-36.1% inhibition and increased in pumpkin (3-12 d) with 22.5-47.3% activation respectively; cytochrome P450 (CYP450) activities were increased markedly in soybean and pumpkin with 13.2-53.6% and 26.7-50.2% activation respectively, giving indirect evidences on the involvement of CYP450 and GST in degradation of FOSA in plants.

15.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0189793, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29253004

RESUMO

The present study examined the types of situations that caused Chinese professional and non-professional drivers to become angry and investigated the differences in driving-elicited anger, considering the influences of type A behavior pattern and trait anger between the two groups. The 20-item revised Driving Anger Scale (DAS) was used to assess a sample of 232 drivers (57% professional, 43% non-professional). The non-professional drivers reported significantly higher levels of anger than the professional drivers on the overall Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and the traffic obstructions and discourtesy subscales. In both groups, the preferred driving speeds were positively related to driving anger. Furthermore, drivers with a type A personality exhibited higher overall driving anger scores and higher anger scores in response to traffic obstructions and slow driving than drivers with a type B personality. Trait anger was significantly related to driving anger in both groups. In the non-professional group, type A behavior patterns (TABPs) and time hurry (TH) were positively correlated with anger evoked by slow driving. In the professional group, TABPs, TH and competitive hostility (CH) were positively related to driving anger, and the TABPs exerted an indirect effect on driving anger by mediating the influence of trait anger. Overall, these findings provide a theoretical basis for implementing targeted interventions for driving anger in both professional and non-professional drivers.


Assuntos
Ira , Condução de Veículo , Personalidade Tipo A , Acidentes de Trânsito , Adulto , Agressão , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China , Feminino , Hostilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Análise de Regressão , Assunção de Riscos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 4684962, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29259982

RESUMO

Icariin is one of the predominant flavonoids contained in Herba Epimedii (Yin-yang-huo in Chinese), a well-known Chinese medicine for the treatment of cancers and immune system diseases. Although Herba Epimedii has been widely used in China and there are so many and various research reports on the herbal drug and its main flavones, very limited data is available on the tissue distribution and biotransformation of icariin. In the present study, a liquid chromatographic method combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed to quantify the concentration of icariin in rat plasma and various tissues collected at different time points after oral administration of the total flavonoid extract of Herba Epimedii at a dose of 0.69 g/kg (corresponding to 42 mg/g icariin). Biological samples were processed by simple protein precipitation. Genistein was chosen as internal standard. The method was successfully applied to plasma pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies of icariin in rat. As a result, it was worth noting that the tissue distribution characteristics of icariin exhibited a significant gender difference. Moreover, in vivo metabolism of icariin was also investigated. A total of 11 potential metabolites were found in rat feces collected in different time periods after oral and intramuscular administration of icariin. In vivo metabolic pathways were involved in hydrolysis, demethylation, oxidation, and conjugation. The preclinical data would be useful for fully understanding in vivo disposition of this compound and interpreting the mechanism of its biological response.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacocinética , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(34): 26594-26604, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28956234

RESUMO

A coupling technique to purify wastewater for lipid production based on microalgae is attractive and promising for its potential to clean water and as biofuel feedstocks. Metal ions from wastewater might be involved in microalgal cultivation. In this study, the effects of metal ions on algal growth, lipid-producing potential, and water purifying capability of Chlorella sp. HQ were investigated. The effects of metal ions (Cr6+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Fe3+, Na+, and K+) on alga lipid production combined with water purification showed that Chlorella sp. HQ had strong resistance to metal ions and could efficiently remove them (Fe3+ 85.40~98.73%, Mn2+ 45.63~97.24%, Zn2+ 81.93~100.00%, Cu2+ 81.71~95.19%, Cr6+ 20.07~45.60%). Meanwhile, nutrient removal (total nitrogen (TN) 78.15~94.77%, total phosphorus (TP) 80.52~100%) was not inhibited by metal ions. Besides that, the highest algal biomass, lipid yield, and triacylglycerol (TAG) yield peaked at 350.00 ± 31.50, 87.50 ± 3.54, and 33.39 ± 19.42 mg L-1, respectively, with the addition of Fe3+ (6.6 mg L-1), Na+ (101.81 mg L-1), and K+ (31.9 mg L-1). The lipid/TAG content significantly increased up to 54.17 ± 11.91%/44.92 ± 0.42%, 100%/100%, 32.56 ± 12.40%/37.53 ± 4.58%, and 77.50 ± 1.77%/46.19 ± 1.06%, separately, with the addition of Cr6+(0.50 mg L-1), Cu2+(5.02 mg L-1), Zn2+(5.05 mg L-1), and Mn2+(50.52 mg L-1).


Assuntos
Chlorella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metais/análise , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Biomassa , Chlorella/efeitos dos fármacos , Íons , Metais/toxicidade , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(36): 4946-4949, 2017 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28422204

RESUMO

Boosting the low catalytic activity of bacteriogenic Ag/AgCl nanoparticles (NPs) by adding Co2+ in a model reaction, i.e. p-nitrophenol (PNP) reduction, was observed. Under optimal conditions, Co-Ag/AgCl NPs show an apparent rate constant (kapp) of 0.0837 s-1 upon PNP reduction. Considering the trace amount of Co-Ag/AgCl NPs used in catalysis (about 1.2 µg), the activity parameter κ (which is the ratio of kapp and catalyst mass) can reach more than 6.97 × 104 s-1 g-1, which is 214-fold higher than that of pristine Ag/AgCl NPs. Meanwhile, this κ value is also the highest value reported to date. In addition, the biogenic Co-Ag/AgCl NPs exhibit superior catalytic activities over other substrates, such as m-nitrophenol, o-nitrophenol, methyl orange and rhodamine B. The activity enhancement mechanism is supposed to be that Co2+ acts as a Lewis acid, and coordinates with the surface peptides to affect the electric field distribution at the Ag/AgCl NP interface.

19.
Yao Xue Xue Bao ; 52(3): 449-55, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29979859

RESUMO

To study the metabolic products of main compounds of Chuankezhi injection in rat, 12 Sprague Dawley rats were classed into 2 groups, a blank control group and an intermuscular administration group, respectively. Rat feces and urine samples were collected from 0−24 h and 24−48 h after administration. All the samples were ultrasonically treated with methanol and then analyzed using LC-LTQ Orbitrap MSn. By comparison with the total ion chromatogram of samples from the blank control group, the metabolites in the samples of drug-treated group were screened. These metabolites were further analyzed by multistage product ion scanning and comparison of retention time with reference substances. As a result, a total of 12 flavonoid metabolites were tentatively identified from the rat feces and no metabolite was discovered in the rat urine. Epimedin C and icariin were detected in the rat blood samples after 30 min of administration, but their metabolites and other original flavones were not detected. Furthermore, no original flavones and their metabolites were detected in rat blood samples after 2 and 4 h of administration. The potential metabolism paths were further characterized and the principal in vivo transformation of flavones from Chuankezhi injection were deglycosylation, dehydration, methylation, oxidation and isomerization in rats.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Flavonas/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fezes/química , Flavonoides , Injeções , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Urina/química
20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(26): 16699-707, 2016 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27299376

RESUMO

This Research Article described a facile one-step method to prepare reticulated N-doped carbonaceous submicron spheres. Through a simple aerosol-assisted technology, glucosamine sulfate used as a carbon source was aerosolized and carbonized to functionalized carbonaceous submicron spheres. The electrostatic attraction between protonated amino groups and sulfate in the aerosol droplets induced a self-assembly and led to the formation of reticular structure, avoiding the use of templates. Compared to bare carbonaceous materials produced from glucose, reticulated N-doped carbonaceous spheres exhibit higher efficiency in the removal of Cr(VI), where the doping of element nitrogen led to electrostatic attraction between protonated nitrogen and chromium ions, and reticulated structure created relatively higher surface area and pore volume, facilitating materials to contact with Cr(VI) ions. XPS characterization proved these novel N-doped carbonaceous materials could effectively transform Cr(VI) to less toxic Cr(III) because of the surface reducing groups. For the practical application, several factors including the initial pH, materials dosage and recycle numbers on the removal performance were studied.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA