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1.
Food Chem ; 370: 131010, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530347

RESUMO

Laminaria japonica is a familiar marine plant and is often used as food due to its abundant carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. As one of the main types of active substances in L. japonica, polysaccharides are widely used in the food and chemical industries and in medicine and healthcare due to their health benefits, such as immunoregulatory, antioxidant, and antidiabetic effects. However, there has been no systematic summary of the isolation, structural characterization and bioactivities of L. japonica polysaccharides (LJPs). Therefore, the present review includes a survey of extraction and purification methods for these bioactive molecules, along with a dissertation on the structural characterization of the carbohydrate components. Moreover, an overview of the most recent results related to LJP biological activities is provided. This review provides a useful reference for further research, production, and application of LJPs in functional foods and therapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Laminaria , Antioxidantes , Hipoglicemiantes , Extratos Vegetais , Polissacarídeos
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(23): 6114-6129, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951239

RESUMO

At present, 141 compounds have been isolated from Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora and P. kurroa of the Scrophulariaceae plants, including 46 iridoid glycosides, 29 tetracyclic triterpenoids, 25 phenylpropanoids, and 11 phenylethanoid glycosides. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated that they have liver-, heart-, brain-, kidney-, and nerve cells-protecting effects as well as anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-asthma, anti-diabetic, immunomodulatory, and blood lipid-lowering activities. This article reviews the chemical components and pharmacological activities of P. scrophulariiflora and P. kurroa, aiming to provide a basis for the in-depth research, development, and utilization of the two plants.


Assuntos
Picrorhiza , Triterpenos , Glicosídeos Iridoides , Triterpenos/farmacologia
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(18): 4697-4703, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581078

RESUMO

The present study aimed to regulate the market circulation of Caryophylli Flos and formulate standards for commodity specifications and grades of Caryophylli Flos. Market survey was carried out in four major medicinal material markets with 48 samples of Caryophylli Flos collected. The property, 100-seed weight, impurity percentage, moisture, and eugenol content in Caryophylli Flos of different specifications from different producing areas were determined and analyzed. The results showed that 27.1% of the samples surveyed on the markets did not meet the requirements of Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition). The 100-seed weight and the property are important factors for the classification of Caryophylli Flos specifications. There were significant differences in the property, 100-seed weight, impurity percentage, and eugenol content in Caryophylli Flos samples of different specifications from different producing areas, and also differences in the proportions of different specifications in Caryophylli Flos samples from different producing areas. The African-originated Xiaohong(medium grade) and Guangxi-originated Xiaohong(medium grade) accounted for 70% and 66.7% respectively, the Indonesian-originated Dahong(top grade) for 56.2%. In conclusion, there are many problems in the circulation of Caryophylli Flos at present, mainly including the loss of origin information, no standards for specifications, non-implementation of grade standards, excessive impurities, and no evidence for authenticity identification. According to the classification of Caryophylli Flos specifications in this study, the average eugenol content of Xiaohong is significantly higher than the Dahong by 4.74%.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Indonésia
4.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 700367, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335665

RESUMO

Fruit of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka called as "Xiang yuan" in Chinese, which means fragrant and round. It was widely used in the pharmaceutical and food industries. This fruit has well-known health benefits such as antioxidant, radical scavenging, and anti-inflammatory. Naringin, deacetylnomilin, citric acid, limonin, and nomilin were the characteristic components of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka. Although the fruit of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka possessed many applications, there was a lack of research on the growth period and drying process. In this study, plant metabolomics was used to analyze the biomarkers of the growth period, and appearance indicators and metabolites abundance were combined for the analysis of change regularities of the growth period. The representative differential metabolites of naringin, citric acid, and limonin were screened out, and the abundance of these components was relatively highest in the middle of the growth period. Therefore, the fruit of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka should be harvested before it turned yellow completely, which could effectively ensure the content of potential active ingredients. In the comparison of different drying methods, citric acid and naringin were considered to be representative differential components, but limonoids were relatively stable and not easily affected by drying methods. Naringin was an index component that could not only be reflected the maturity but also related to different drying methods. Considering its physical and chemical properties and its position, naringin had the potential to be a biomarker of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka.

5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(11): 2737-2745, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296570

RESUMO

Drynariae Rhizoma is warm in nature and bitter in taste, mainly acting on liver and kidney systems. It is a common Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of fracture and bone injury. The chemical compositions of Drynariae Rhizoma mainly include flavonoids, triterpenoids, phenylpropanoids and lignans. At present, modern pharmacological and clinical studies have shown that Drynariae Rhizoma has the effects of anti osteoporosis, promoting fracture healing, kidney protection, anti-inflammatory, promoting tooth growth, preventing and treating aminoglycoside ototoxicity and lowering blood lipid. In addition, the toxicity evaluation experiment of Drynariae Rhizoma has also shown that it has no obvious toxic and side effects. Naringin is a kind of dihydroflavone in Drynariae Rhizoma. Many studies have shown that naringin and other total flavonoids play an important role in anti-osteoporosis, promoting fracture healing, anti-inflammation, promoting tooth growth and lowering blood lipid. In this study, the research progresses on chemical consti-tuents and pharmacological activities of Drynariae Rhizoma in recent years were reviewed, and some mechanisms of action were summarized, to provide references for the further research and development of Drynariae Rhizoma.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Osteoporose , Polypodiaceae , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Flavonoides , Humanos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Rizoma
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(10): 2607-2616, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047110

RESUMO

Rubi Fructus is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine. The origin of Rubi Fructus is the dried fruit of Rubus chingii, a plant of the family Rosaceae, according to the 2015 edition of Chinese pharmacopoeia. There are some differences in the plant origin of Rubi Fructus in ancient herbal literature, to trace back its sources, we conducted a textual research on its origin, producing areas, quality evaluation, processing and concocting, properties, tastes and efficacy etc. based on the records of ancient herbal literatures and combined with plant morphology and related investigation. RESULTS:: showed that the variety of Rubi Fructus was more complex among ancient herbal literature, including R. coreanus, R. hirsutus, R. corchorifolius, R. foliolosus and other mixed varieties. Most scholars believe that the R. chingii has not been recorded in ancient herbal literature, while R. chingii was recorded as early as the Ming Dynasty in Compendium of materia medica through our textual research. Ancient Chinese herbs recorded that Rubi Fructus was mostly produced in Hubei, Shandong, Shanxi and Jiangsu provinces, while R. chingii mainly produced in Anhui, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Fujian and other provinces nowadays. Also, it was recorded that Rubi Fructus harvested in wheat field during May were the best. Besides, R. chingii with big, full, grain integrate, firm, yellow and green color, sour taste and impurity free possess the best quality in the contemporary. The ancient records of processing and concocting, properties, tastes and efficacy were basically the same as modern ones.These results provide the basis for the correct utilization and further development of Rubi Fructus.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , Rubus , China , Frutas , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(9): 2119-2132, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047112

RESUMO

Based on the systematic retrieval and the reported components of Sojae Semen Nigrum and Sojae Semen Praeparatum, this study conducted in-depth analysis of conversion of components in the fermentation process, and discussed types and possible mec-hanisms of conversion of chemical components, so as to provide the basis for studying technology, medicinal ingredients and quality standards. According to the analysis, there is a certain degree of conversion of nutrients(like protein, sugar, lipid), bioactive substances(like isoflavones, saponins, γ-aminobutyric acid) and other substances(like nucleosides, melanoids, biamines, etc) in the process of fermentation.


Assuntos
Isoflavonas , Soja , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fermentação , Isoflavonas/análise , Sêmen/química
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(7): 1846-1850, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982490

RESUMO

Indication and functions is an important key information in the research and development of the ancient classical formulas, which directly affects the clinical positioning of the compound formulas and their reasonable, effective and safe use after marke-ting. It is also the embodiment of the ultimate vitality of ancient classical formulas. Due to the particularity of ancient classical formulas, it is of great significance to accurately define and describe the functions and indications of classical formulas to exert their unqiue advantages. Based on the analysis of the provenances, classification of clinical indications, and functions of 100 prescriptions in the Catalogue of Ancient Classical Formulas(First Batch), this paper summarized the incompleteness, irregularity and inconsistency in the original text, the differences in terminology between ancient and modern times, and the evolution of the meanings of prescriptions in different dynasties. In addition, under the guidance of the general principle of textual researh on ancient classical formulas, which is to inherit the essence, make the past serve the present, link up the past and the present, and bulid consensus, this paper proposed the following ideas: respecting the original meanings and provenances of ancient classical formulas, taking full consideration of the development and evolution, serving the current clinical application and health needs, accurately linking up the ancient and modern terminologies, standardizing the expression of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) terminology, highlighting the characteristics of TCM, attaching importance to the textual research principles and suggestions of post-marketing evidence-based and clinical positioning research, so as to determine the the functions and indications of the ancient classical formulas in a scientific, standardized and reasonable way and better guide the clinical application of the classical formulas.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Óleos Voláteis , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Prescrições
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(1): 86-93, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645056

RESUMO

Caffeic acid and its oligomers are the main water-soluble active constituents of the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) Arnebiae Radix. These compounds possess multiple biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, cardiovascular protective, liver protective, anti-liver fibrosis, antiviral and anticancer activities. The phenylpropanoid pathway in plants is responsible for the biosynthesis of caffeic acid and its oligomers. Glycosylation can change phenylpropanoid solubility, stability and toxic potential, as well as influencing compartmentalization and biological activity. In view of the important role played by de-glycosylation in the regulation of phenylpropanoid homeostasis, the biosynthesis of caffeic acid and its oligomers are supposed to be under the control of relative UDP-glycosyltransferases(UGTs). Through the data mining of Arnebia euchroma transcriptome, we cloned 15 full-length putative UGT genes. After recombinant expression using the prokaryotic system, the crude enzyme solution of the putative UGTs was examined for the glycosylation activities towards caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid in vitro. AeUGT_01, AeUGT_02, AeUGT_03, AeUGT_04 and AeUGT_10 were able to glycosylate caffeic acid and/or rosmarinic acid resulting in different mono-and/or di-glycosylated products in the UPLC-MS analyses. The characterized UGTs were distantly related to each other and divided into different clades of the phylogenetic tree. Based on the observation that each characterized UGT exhibited substrate or catalytic similarity with the members in their own clade, we supposed the glycosylation abilities towards caffeic acid and/or rosmarinic acid were evolved independently in different clades. The identification of caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid UGTs from A. euchroma could lead to deeper understanding of the caffeic acid oligomers biosynthesis and its regulation. Furthermore, these UGTs might be used for regiospecific glycosylation of caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid to produce bioactive compounds for potential therapeutic applications.


Assuntos
Boraginaceae , Glicosiltransferases , Boraginaceae/genética , Ácidos Cafeicos , Cromatografia Líquida , Cinamatos , Clonagem Molecular , Depsídeos , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Filogenia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(5): 1284-1292, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787124

RESUMO

It is the core of the development for Chinese patent medicine enterprises to cultivate large varieties of Chinese patent medicine, and the selection of potential "seed" products is the prerequisite for the cultivation strategy. By constructing the evaluation model from multiple dimensions of value and risk, we can conduct specialized evaluation of Chinese patent medicines to effectively, professionally and objectively select the "seed" products with large variety cultivation potential. In this paper, the establishment of a multidimensional evaluation system would be discussed from the aspects of drug naming and prescription composition, safety risk and supply guarantee of raw materials and medicinal materials, competition situation, access to policy catalogue, scientific and technological support, clinical evidence and recognition, systematical and standardized collection of information on product instructions, quality standards, policy catalogue, scientific and technological literature, market competition and clinical application of Chinese patent medicines. Through the objective evaluation index and the range of objective index, the multi-dimensional evaluation model on values and risks of Chinese patent medicine products was discussed. Based on this model, a batch of Chinese patent medicine products can be quickly and comprehensively analyzed, and quantitative comparison can be formed among different types and fields of products. According to the evaluation results of the model and the comprehensive evaluation of experts, high-quality "seed" products can be selec-ted, laying a solid foundation for the next step of large variety cultivation. With use of this model, we can further clarify the external competitive advantages and internal priority levels of each product, and provide support for enterprises to optimize product structure and improve product strategic layout.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/efeitos adversos , Controle de Qualidade
11.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 6(1): 182-184, 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537436

RESUMO

The complete mitochondrial genome of medicinal plant, Euonymus alatus, was sequenced for the first time. The genome sequence is 1,045,106 bp in length (GenBank accession number MW009108), with 44.98% GC contents. There are 72 genes in the genome, including 41 known protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), and three ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). The phylogenetic trees of 28 species are constructed using the maximum-likelihood method. The information will provide references for phylogenetic research.

12.
Phytochemistry ; 183: 112644, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429352

RESUMO

The genus Corydalis is a botanical source of various pharmaceutically active components. Its member species have been widely used in traditional medicine systems in Southeast Asia, especially in China for thousands of years. They have been administered to treat the common cold, hypertension, hepatitis, hemorrhage, edema, gastritis, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and neurological disorders. Analgesia is the most important effect of Corydalis products, which are relatively non-addictive and associated with low tolerance compared with other analgesics. Certain Corydalis species are rich in alkaloids, which have strong biological activity, and also contain coumarins, flavonoids, steroids, organic acids and other chemical components. These constituents have pharmacological efficacy against diseases of the nervous, cardiovascular and digestive systems. Numerous investigations have been performed on these plants and their components. Here, we systemically summarized the chemical constituents of important medicinal member species of Corydalis that have been reported since 1962. A total 381 alkaloids were enumerated, including 117 quaternary isoquinoline type, 60 Benzophenanthridine type, 37 aporphine type, 10 protopine type, 59 phthalide isoquinoline type, 52 simple isoquinoline-type, 25 lignin amides and 21 other alkaloids. Thus, we have provided a basis for further explorations into the pharmacologically active constituents of Corydalissp.(Papaveraceae) to develop medicines that exert strong effects, are relatively non-addictive, and result in few side effects.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Corydalis , Plantas Medicinais , Alcaloides/farmacologia , China , Medicina Tradicional
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(12): 2982-2991, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627476

RESUMO

Dao-di herbs are an important part of clinical medicine in traditional Chinese medicine. They are also precious wealth left to human beings from history, which contain deep traditional Chinese cultural connotations and play an important role in supporting and serving the Chinese medicine business. The relevant policy documents introduced by various national ministries and commissions have many contents and requirements related to the promotion of Dao-di herbs protection and industrial development. Due to the Dao-di herbs industry has a series of characteristics, such as a long chain, many involved links, long cycles, multiple production entities, multiple locations, and various types, the high-quality development of the industry has put forward higher requirements on the linkage between upstream and downstream, production entities, traceability of the whole process and information sharing. This article takes Dao-di herbs certification work as an application scenario and entry point, and discusses it from the perspective of block chain and information technology. It proposes the following work ideas: establish multi-party consensus from the macro-organizational management, business, and operational technical levels, and unblock channels for data and information, to achieve institutionalization of certification; establish certification-related standards and specifications to achieve certification standardization; build a certification hardware system to achieve certification networking; build a certification software system to develop functions for specific information content such as identity, origin, production, production process, quality, product and brand of authentic medicinal material production interactively, and realize certification programmatic; data security and sharing of related production activities to achieve socialization of certification. Make full use of modern technologies such as blockchain, the internet of things, big data and information technology, and through the joint participation of management, production, use and the public, the whole process information of Daodi herbs is integrated to form an interconnected information sharing application mode, thus, to serve and promote the high-quality development of Dao-di herbs industry.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Plantas Medicinais , Blockchain , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Tecnologia
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(9): 2130-2137, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495562

RESUMO

The purpose of this article is to study the degradation of chemical compositions after the silkworm excrement being expelled from the silkworm, and to determine its main metabolic compositions and their changing relationships. This research is based on UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology. Based on the systematic analysis of the main chemical compositions contained in silkworm excrement, the principal compositions analysis(PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) on commercial silkworm excrement and fresh silkworm excrement were analyzed for differences. The S-plot chart of OPLS-DA was used to select and identify the chemical compositions that contributed significantly to the difference. At the same time, the relative peak areas of the different compositions were extracted by Masslynx to obtain the relative content of different compositions in fresh silkworm excrement. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the chemical compositions between fresh silkworm excrement and commercial silkworm excrement. The difference compositions were mainly flavonoid glycosides and Diels-Alder type composition, and two types of compounds are degradated during the storage of silkworm sand. In this study, the chemical compositions of fresh silkworm excrement were systematically identified and analyzed for the first time by mass spectrometry, and it was found that some chemical compositions of silkworm excrement were degradated with time during storage.


Assuntos
Bombyx , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Discriminante , Espectrometria de Massas
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(7): 1707-1716, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32489053

RESUMO

Through consulting the ancient herbs and medical books, combining with modern literature, this paper makes textual research on herbal medicine, and textual research on the name, origin, position and harvest and processing changes of the medicinal herbs in ancient classical prescriptions. According to research, Cinnamon medicinal materials were first listed in the Shennong's Herbal Classic, as the name of "Jungui" and "Mugui". Among them, Jungui has undergone the evolution of "Qungui-Jungui-Tonggui-Jungui". After the Northern and Southern Dynasties, a half-volume fatty "Gui" was added, but the usage of the three was no different. The names of Cinnamomi Ramulus and Cinnamomi Cortex did not appear until the Tang Dynasty, and they were preferably thick-skinned and with no cork cambium, and they were mostly used in the name of "Guixin"; Since the Song and Yuan Dynasties, the medicinal parts of cassia have gradually separated. Cinnamomi Cortex is the trunk bark of sapling or branch bark, the twig is Cinnamomi Ramulus, and the tenderest twig is Liugui, Song Dynasty unified the name as "Guizhi"; After the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Cinnamomi Cortex was used as the trunk bark, and Cinnamomi Ramulus was used as the tender twig; In modern times, the Chinese Pharmacopoeia stipulates that the Cinnamomi Ramulus is the young branch of C. cassia, which is Cinnamomum, and Cinnamomi Cortex was the dried trunk bark. From the plant morphology recorded in the previous herbals and the drawings, combined with the distribution of the origins described in the previous herbals, the mainstream plant used as a medicine in the past generations should be C. cassia, but there are other sect. Cinnamomum plants that are also used in medicine everywhere, such as C. chekiangensis, C. bejolghota, C. wilsonii, etc. Throughout the ages, different plant morphologies and medicinal traits have been used to distinguish different categories. The origins of the past dynasties are mostly present in Guangdong, Guangxi province and Vietnam, and are regarded as authentic. The methods for the harvest and processing of cinnamon medicinal materials are basically the same from ancient to modern times.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Plantas Medicinais , China , Medicina Herbária , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Fitoterapia , Vietnã
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 697-703, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237531

RESUMO

Through consulting the herbs and medical books of past dynasties, combining with modern literature and field investigation, this paper made textual research on the name, origin, producing area, harvesting and processing of Bupleuri Radix used in the Catalogue of Ancient Classical Prescriptions(the first batch).From Han to the Southern and Northern Dynasties, the source of Bupleuri Radix was a mixture of Bupleurum and Peucedanum, it's hard to define the origin of authentic products.In Tang Dynasty, Caryophyllaceae had been used as Bupleuri Radix. In Song Dynasty, it was clear that the genuine production area of Bupleuri Radix was Yinzhou, its origin was B. corzonerifolium and B. yinchowense.After the Ming Dynasty, B. chinense gradually became the mainstream. It has been confirmed that there were differences in the efficacy between Stellaria dichotoma in Caryophyllaceae and Bupleurum in Umbelliferae, however, the use of S. dichotoma is still attributed to Bupleuri Radix. In the Qing Dynasty, S. dichotoma was distinguished from Bupleuri Radix as another medicine. Among the prescriptions containing Bupleuri Radix included in the Catalogue of Classical Prescriptions in Ancient China(the first batch), the mainstream of genuine Bupleuri Radix should be B. scorzonerifolium and B. chinense. It is suggested that the genuine base of Bupleuri Radix should be selected according to the current resources and industrial development of Bupleuri Radix, and it should conform to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia.


Assuntos
Bupleurum/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Raízes de Plantas/química , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Prescrições
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(23): 5819-5828, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496123

RESUMO

In this paper, through the collection and collation of ancient herbs, medical books and prescriptions, combined with modern literature, the historical changes of the name, origin, position, medicinal parts, collection, processing and processing of bluegrass were systematically combed and verified.It can be seen from the research that bluegrass was first used as medicine by the fruit, namely blueberry, which was originally Polygonum tinctorium. Since the Ming and Qing Dynasties, blueberry was rarely used, and it has been no longer used medicinally. In the Wei and Jin Dynasties, the medicinal parts extended to the stems and leaves, and most of them used juice as medicine.Since the Tang Dynasty, origin has been extended to Isatis indigotica, Baphicacanthus cusia, Indigofera tinctoria, Compositae plant Wulan, etc. In the Song Dynasty, the medicinal parts extended to the roots, and the "Banlangen" began to appear, and gradually became the main medicinal parts of blue medicinal materials, the main base of which was B. cusia. Since the Qing Dynasty, I. indigotica, a Cruciferae, has gradually become a genuine indigo root, while B. cusia has become a southern indigo root. It was the first mineral dye imported from abroad for thrush, and then used as medicine, also known as clam powder. Because it was found that it had the same effect with the extract of bluegrass, it was also named indigo naturalis in China, which has lasted till now. The main stream of Isatidis Folium in the past dynasties is the dry stem and leaf of Clerodendrum cyrtophylum. Since the Qing Dynasty, the stem and leaf of Isatis indigotica, P. tinctorium and other blue grasses have been gradually mixed as substitutes and gradually become the mainstream.


Assuntos
Clerodendrum , Isatis , Plantas Medicinais , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(22): 5007-5011, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872612

RESUMO

To clarify the species and preparation of " Baihe"( Lilii Bulbus),a traditional Chinese medicine,we investigated the relative ancient Chinese literature on this medicine. The study concluded that Lilium brownii var. viridulum is the authentic lily for medical use. In the Ben Cao Yan Yi and some medical books in the Ming and Qing Dynasties,L. lancifolium( Juandan) was also mistakenly used as genuine lily,but most doctors believe that this variety should not be used for medicinal purposes; L. pumilum( Shandan)began to be used as a medicine from Ri Hua Zi Ben Cao,but mainly for surgery,the effect is also different from L. brownii var. viridulum. We suggested Shandan be used as the species for another medicine as " Hong Bai He( red lily) " due to its red flower. All above three species recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia are not corresponded to the condition of ancient doctors' uses. Therefore,as for developing of traditional classical formula,L. brownii var. viridulum should be chosen and used as Baihe. The birth places for Baihe include Gansu,Hubei,Anhui and Shandong province. The drug preparations of Baihe include crude medicine,roasting and steaming,which preparation should be chosen depends on the formula which contains Baihe.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Lilium , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Livros , China , Raízes de Plantas
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(21): 4768-4771, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872676

RESUMO

"Huangbo" is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine in clinic,which is mainly divided into " Chuanhuangbo" and " Guanhuangbo" in the market today. It's better to use thick and dark stem bark as medicine. This study combed the germplasms of " Huangbo" in Chinese herbal medicines and ancient medical books,which showed that the name,origin and processing of " Huangbo" had undergone evolution and changes since the ancient times. The results showed that " Huangbo" was first known as " Bomu" from " Sheng Nong's Herbal Classic". There was an attached name " Tanhuan" and the alias " Huangbo" besides " Bomu" in herbal books in Tang and Song Dynasty. Before Tang Dynasty, " Bomu" was mainly originated from stems or roots of Berberis species in Berberiaceae,and then it was mainly derived from the dry bark of Phellodendron chinense in Rutaceae since Song Dynasty. In Ming Dynasty,some herbal books recorded it name as " Huangbo",whose origin and medicinal parts remained unchanged,taking Sichuan as the best producing area. During the Republic of China era,the name " Huangbo" has evolved to " Huangbo",and the variety differentiation of " Chuanhuangbo", " Guanhuangbo" and " Yanghuangbo" appeared,in which " Guanhuangbo" was mainly derived from Ph. amurense Rupr.. In modern times,although species differentiation still exists in " Huangbo",the market is still dominated by " Chuanhuangbo".


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Phellodendron , Livros , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Raízes de Plantas
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(19): 4142-4151, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872691

RESUMO

Maca( Lepidium meyenii) known as the " national treasure of Peru" and " South American ginseng",is annual or biennial herbs of the genus Lepidium in Cruciferae. It mainly contains proteins,amino acids,polysaccharides,alkaloids( including:macamides,imidazoles,hydroxypyridines,carbazoles,organic amines and so on),glucosinolates,macaenes,thioethylurea,sterols and other chemical constituents. In recent years,more and more studies have found that it could treat osteoporosis and improve prostatehyperplasia,and possessed anti-cancer,female climacteric syndrome,rheumatism,antioxidant and other pharmacological effects. In this paper,the chemical constituents and bioactivity of Maca were reviewed,which could provide the basis for the further development and utilization of Maca.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Lepidium , Extratos Vegetais , Antioxidantes , Peru
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