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2.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(1): 77-80, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780189

RESUMO

Abstract: Death after carotid sinus trauma is usually attributed to death from inhibition, a type of sudden death. Currently, the number of incidents is scarce, and related studies are few. Therefore, how to determine the involvement of carotid sinus and determine the role of diseases in the cause of death has always been a difficult point in forensic investigation. This article sorts out the research literature on carotid sinus related death at home and abroad in recent years, systematically reviews the anatomic structure of the carotid sinus nerve, the clinical epidemiology of carotid sinus syndrome, and the research on the death mechanism of carotid sinus injury at home and abroad in recent years, in order to provide references for forensic pathology research and prosecution.


Assuntos
Seio Carotídeo , Medicina Legal , Morte Súbita , Patologia Legal , Humanos
3.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(12): 856-860, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789367

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the efficacy and technical features of fully endoscopic microvascular decompression(MVD) in primary trigeminal neuralgia(PTN) via keyhole approach. Methods: The clinical data of 97 patients with PTN underwent fully endoscopic MVD via keyhole approach in the Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University from December 2014 to February 2019 was collected. During fully endoscopic MVD in PTN via keyhole approach, performer use natural clearance without grinding except developed rock bone crest or excessive retraction of the brain tissue, visually and panoramically observe and evaluate the CPA area, accurately identify the responsible vessels, to avoid the omission of responsible vessels or insufficient decompression. And the use of preplaced technology, bridging technology and submersible technology, ensure the efficacy of surgery and reduce the surgical side injuries.Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain score was used to evaluate the efficacy and identify the recurrence. The surgical efficacy was analyzed. Results: The offending vessels were identified under endoscope in 96 cases. Among them, arterial compression was found in 77 cases, venous compression in 6 cases, and both arterial and venous compression in 13 cases. About the pain outcomes, 87 cases had immediate and complete relief of pain, 5 cases had almost relief of pain, 4 cases had partial relief of pain, and still needed medication control, but the dose was lower than that before operation, and 1 case had no obvious relief of pain. About complications, there were 4 cases of temporary facial numbness, 1 case of temporary hearing loss, both of them recovered after symptomatic treatment. There was no cerebral infarction or hemorrhage, intracranial or incision infection. All cases were followed up for 3.0-38.0 months with a median period of(22.4±2.2) months. During the follow-up periods, postoperative recurrence occurred in 3 cases. Conclusion: Fully endoscopic MVD for PTN through keyhole approach, provides panoramic view to avoid omission of offending vessels and reduce complications, seemed to be a safe and effective surgical method.


Assuntos
Cirurgia de Descompressão Microvascular , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo , Artérias , Endoscopia , Humanos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Resultado do Tratamento , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/cirurgia
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(5): 2403-2408, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755976

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the curative effect of hemoperfusion therapy on central nervous system injury in patients with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid poisoning. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 60 patients with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid poisoning were enrolled in this study. They were admitted to the Emergency Department of Qinghai Provincial People's Hospital from 2015 to 2018 and were randomly divided into two groups by random number table method. One group was control group (routine treatment group), and the other group was the treatment group (hemoperfusion therapy was added on the basis of routine treatment). Glasgow coma score (GCS), APACHE II score, and MMSE score were used to evaluate the effects before treatment and 7 days after treatment. The results were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: After treatment, GCS in the treatment group was higher than that in the control group, while APACHE II score was lower than that in the control group, and MMSE score was significantly higher than that in the control group, with statistically significant difference (p<0.05). The effective rate in the control group was only 26.67%, and that in the treatment group was 86.67%, with statistically significant difference (c2=19.62, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Hemoperfusion therapy can promote the recovery of central nervous system in patients with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid poisoning, reduce the injury of other organs, and significantly reduce the mortality of patients.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Small intracranial aneurysms are being increasingly detected while the rupture risk is not well-understood. We aimed to develop rupture-risk models of small aneurysms by combining clinical, morphologic, and hemodynamic information based on machine learning techniques and to test the models in external validation datasets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2010 to December 2016, five hundred four consecutive patients with only small aneurysms (<5 mm) detected by CTA and invasive cerebral angiography (or surgery) were retrospectively enrolled and randomly split into training (81%) and internal validation (19%) sets to derive and validate the proposed machine learning models (support vector machine, random forest, logistic regression, and multilayer perceptron). Hemodynamic parameters were obtained using computational fluid dynamics simulation. External validation was performed in other hospitals to test the models. RESULTS: The support vector machine performed the best with areas under the curve of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.85-0.92) and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.74-0.98) in the training and internal validation datasets, respectively. Feature ranks suggested hemodynamic parameters, including stable flow pattern, concentrated inflow streams, and a small (<50%) flow-impingement zone, and the oscillatory shear index coefficient of variation, were the best predictors of aneurysm rupture. The support vector machine showed an area under the curve of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.69-0.94) in the external validation dataset, and no significant difference was found for the areas under the curve between internal and external validation datasets (P = .21). CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that machine learning had a good performance in predicting the rupture status of small aneurysms in both internal and external datasets. Aneurysm hemodynamic parameters were regarded as the most important predictors.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707278

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our aim was to study the association between abnormal findings on chest and brain imaging in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and neurologic symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective, international multicenter study, we reviewed the electronic medical records and imaging of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from March 3, 2020, to June 25, 2020. Our inclusion criteria were patients diagnosed with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection with acute neurologic manifestations and available chest CT and brain imaging. The 5 lobes of the lungs were individually scored on a scale of 0-5 (0 corresponded to no involvement and 5 corresponded to >75% involvement). A CT lung severity score was determined as the sum of lung involvement, ranging from 0 (no involvement) to 25 (maximum involvement). RESULTS: A total of 135 patients met the inclusion criteria with 132 brain CT, 36 brain MR imaging, 7 MRA of the head and neck, and 135 chest CT studies. Compared with 86 (64%) patients without acute abnormal findings on neuroimaging, 49 (36%) patients with these findings had a significantly higher mean CT lung severity score (9.9 versus 5.8, P < .001). These patients were more likely to present with ischemic stroke (40 [82%] versus 11 [13%], P < .0001) and were more likely to have either ground-glass opacities or consolidation (46 [94%] versus 73 [84%], P = .01) in the lungs. A threshold of the CT lung severity score of >8 was found to be 74% sensitive and 65% specific for acute abnormal findings on neuroimaging. The neuroimaging hallmarks of these patients were acute ischemic infarct (28%), intracranial hemorrhage (10%) including microhemorrhages (19%), and leukoencephalopathy with and/or without restricted diffusion (11%). The predominant CT chest findings were peripheral ground-glass opacities with or without consolidation. CONCLUSIONS: The CT lung disease severity score may be predictive of acute abnormalities on neuroimaging in patients with COVID-19 with neurologic manifestations. This can be used as a predictive tool in patient management to improve clinical outcome.

7.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(8): 597-601, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663192

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of Nimotuzumab combined with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 65 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated with Nimotuzumab combined with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital were selected from January 2015 to November 2018. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy and intracavitary post-packaging were used for radiation therapy. Platinum and paclitaxel were used for chemotherapy. Nimotuzumab were 400 mg/week. The clinical efficacy, the changes of serum tumor markers and the occurrence of adverse events were observed for 2 years, and the evaluation was performed once for every 3 months. Results: Sixty-one cases could be evaluated by imaging during the follow-up. The best curative effect evaluation showed that complete remission (CR) was 43 (70.5%), partial remission (PR) was 9 (14.8%), stable disease (SD) was 6 (9.8%) and objective response rate (CR+PR) was 85.3%, disease control rate (CR+PR+SD) was 95.1%. Survival analysis showed that one-year overall survival rate was 93.9% and two-year overall survival rate was 79.6%. After 3 months of treatment, the serum tumor markers SCC, CA125, CEA, and HE4 were significantly lower than those before treatment (P<0.05). Safety assessments showed that the main adverse events were hematochezia, abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever and dizziness, and 37 cases of them were grades Ⅰ-Ⅱ. Conclusion: Nimotuzumab combined with concurrent chemoradiotherapy has a good clinical effect in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer, significantly reduces serum tumor marker levels after treatment, and is safe and tolerable in clinical use.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia , Feminino , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
8.
Anim Genet ; 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683721

RESUMO

The Z chromosome of the silkworm contains a major gene that influences silk yield. This major locus on chromosome Z accounts for 35.10% of the phenotypic variance. The location and identification of the gene have been a focus of silkworm genetics research. Unfortunately, identification of this gene has been difficult. We used extreme phenotype subpopulations and selected from a backcross population, BC1 M, which was obtained using the high-yield strain 872B and the low-yield strain IS-Dazao as parents, for mapping the gene on the chromosome Z. The candidate region was narrowed down to 134 kb at the tip of the chromosome. BmAbl1 in this region correlated with silk gland development by spatiotemporal expression analysis. This gene was differentially expressed in the posterior silk glands of the high- and low-yield strains. In BmAbl1, an insertion-deletion (indel) within the 10th exonic region and an SNP within the 6th intronic region were detected and shown to be associated with cocoon shell weight in 84 Bombyx mori strains with different yields. Nucleotide diversity analysis of BmAbl1 and its 50 kb flanking regions indicated that BmAbl1 has experienced strong artificial selection during silkworm domestication. This study is the first to identify the genes controlling silk yield in the major QTL of the Z chromosome using forward genetics.

9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(2): 284-290, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626617

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the relationship between smoking status and sleep duration in male adults in urban-rural areas of 15 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) in China in 2015. Methods: Data were derived from the China Nutritional Transition Cohort Study 2015, a total of 4 419 participants aged 18-64 years, including 1 713 urban males (38.8%) and 2 706 rural males (61.2%), with complete information about smoking status and sleep duration were included in the final analysis. Based on the number of cigarettes consumed daily, the current smokers were classified to be heavy (25 cigarettes/d and above), moderate (15-24 cigarettes/d), and light (1-14 cigarettes/d). Sleep duration was classified to be insufficient (<7 h/d), sufficient (7-9 h/d), and excessive (9 h/d and above). Two-level mixed-effects linear and logistic regression models were used for association analysis. Results: The smoking rates in male adults in urban and rural areas were 45.7% and 53.8%, respectively. In male heavy smokers in urban and rural areas, the proportions of sufficient sleep were the lowest (66.7% and 68.1%). However, the proportions of sleep deprivation were highest (15.3% and 20.3%). After controlling for confounding factors, the net effect on male heavy smokers was a significant decrease of 0.21 h/d (ß=-0.21, 95%CI: -0.44 - -0.01) in sleep duration. Moreover, the odds ratio for insufficient sleep were 1.83 (95%CI: 1.03-3.23) in male heavy smokers in rural area compared with nonsmokers. Conclusion: Heavy smoking is associated with decreased sleep duration and increased risk of sleep deprivation in male adults in rural China.


Assuntos
Sono , Fumar , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535330

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the neurotoxicity of crotonaldehyde exposure in male rats and its possible mechanism of action. Methods: From July to October 2019, 24 specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group and 2.5, 4.5, and 8.5 mg/kg exposure groups, with 6 rats in each group, and the rats in these groups were given oral administration of crotonaldehyde solution at doses of 0.0, 2.5, 4.5, and 8.5 mg/kg, respectively, 5 times a week for 90 consecutive days. Body weight was measured after exposure, and brain tissue and liver tissue were collected. The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in brain tissue and the level of acetylcholine (ACh) in liver tissue were measured; The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in brain tissue were measured; ELISA was used to measure the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) , interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) , and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in brain tissue. Results: Compared with the control group, the 2.5, 4.5, and 8.5 mg/kg exposure groups had a significant reduction in the activity of AChE in brain tissue, and the 8.5 mg/kg exposure group had a significant increase in the level of ACh in liver tissue (P<0.05) . Compared with the control group, the 4.5 and 8.5 mg/kg exposure groups had a significant increase in the level of MDA and significant reductions in the level of GSH and the activities of SOD and GSH-Px in brain tissue (P<0.05) . Compared with the control group, the 2.5, 4.5, and 8.5 mg/kg exposure groups had significant increases in the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in brain tissue, and the 4.5 and 8.5 mg/kg exposure groups had a significant increase in the level of IL-1ß (P<0.05) . Conclusion: Crotonaldehyde exposure can induce nervous system injury in rats, possibly by altering oxidative balance and upregulating the expression of inflammatory factors in brain tissue.


Assuntos
Aldeídos , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
12.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 37(3): 1-12, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618448

RESUMO

Objective: To conduct a bibliometric and visual analysis of the current status and trends of international research on keloids. Methods: The articles on keloid research from 2000 to 2020 in the core collection of Web of Science database were retrieved. The bibliometrics method was applied to analyze the number of articles published per year, journals and first authors, countries and research institutions, research fields, the annual citation frequency of cumulative published articles, highly cited articles, keywords. CiteSpace V software was applied to visually cluster keywords, while VOS-viewer software was applied to visually cluster keywords in titles and abstracts in order to analyze research directions and development trends. Results: A total of 2 693 keloid-related articles were retrieved. From 2000 to 2020, the number of keloid-related articles published every year showed a significant upward trend. Totally 777 journals published keloid-related articles, of which "Dermatologic Surgery" published the most. Rei Ogawa published the largest number of keloid-related articles as the first author, who published 52 related articles. A total of 98 countries conducted keloid-related research, of which the United States was the country with the largest number of related articles published (613 articles), followed by China (524 articles) and Japan (107 articles). A total of 2 656 institutions conducted keloid-related research, and the institution with the largest number of related articles published was Shanghai Jiao Tong University of China (67 articles). According to the subject classification of the Web of Science database, the included articles involved 110 research fields, and the top three were dermatology, surgery, and medicine, research and experimental. The included articles were cited 47 746 times in total, and the citation frequency of cumulative published articles increased by year. The most frequently cited article (152 times) was published in 2011. There were a total of 45 571 keywords in the included literature. The top 5 keywords ranked according to the number of articles involved from high to low were keloid (588 articles), hypertrophic scar (385 articles), expression (198 articles), fibroblast (155 articles), and scar (133 articles). The keyword map visualized by CiteSpaceV software further displayed that the research focused on the cause, performance, and composition of keloids. VOS-viewer software analysis showed that the research direction of keloids was divided into two categories of clinical keloid management and keloid mechanism research; the initial research hotspots were mainly to explore the diagnosis and treatment of keloids from individual cases, with a preference for apparent research; in the later stage, the focus was on the overall management of keloids, in which the mechanism research went to the molecular level. Conclusions: At present, international research interest on keloids is showing an upward trend. Both foreign (the United States, etc.) and domestic research institutions are conducting in-depth explorations of keloids. With dermatology as the leader, the research trend is gradually shifting from apparent research to molecular research.

15.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 60(2): 122-127, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503722

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the intrinsic organization of cortical circuitry in individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) via resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) connectome analysis and its correlation with cognitive level. Methods: From June 2017 to November 2019, thirty-six middle-aged and elderly individuals with complaints of memory decline and 32 normal controls (NC) were enrolled from communities in Nanjing. We collected cognitive scale performance,T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and rs-fMRI data of all subjects. There were 5 males and 31 females in the SCD group, with an average age of (64±5) years. In the NC group, there were 8 males and 24 females, with an average age of (65±5) years. Preprocessing of rs-fMRI data was conducted, then the cerebral cortex was divided into 333 cortical parcels (nodes) and 10 predefined communities according to the prior template. Further, we established full connection matrices between cortical parcels and calculated the within-module degree (WMD) and participation coefficient (PC) of each node based on the matrices. The WMD and PC values were compared between the SCD and NC groups,and their correlations with cognitive scale performance were analyzed. Results: Compared to the NC group,the SCD group showed increased WMD in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)(P<0.05,FDR corrected) and the middle frontal gyrus (P<0.005,uncorrected) of the right frontoparietal network (FPN). The SCD group also showed decreased WMD(P<0.05,FDR corrected) in the superior occipital gyrus of the left visual network (VN) and decreased PC (P<0.005,uncorrected) in the supramarginal gyrus of the left dorsal attention network (DAN). The WMD values in the DLPFC showed significant positive correlations with the auditory verbal learning test (AVLT)short-delayed memory (r=0.364,P=0.029),recognition memory (r=0.364, P=0.029) and the Boston naming test scores (BNT, r=0.356, P=0.033)in the SCD group. The PC values in the supramarginal gyrus were significantly positively correlated with the BNT scores (r=0.413, P=0.012) in the SCD group. Conclusion: Cortical network imbalance and reconstruction characterized by decreased intra-module connectivity of VN and inter-module connectivity of DAN exist in SCD subjects,while increased intra-module connectivity of FPN may serve in a compensatory way for the early cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Conectoma , Idoso , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Lobo Frontal , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 60(2): 179-184, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503735

RESUMO

A 47-year-old female who had a history of asthma and sinusitis in the past was admitted to hospital with limbs numbness and pain for ten days. The symptoms were aggravated for eight hours. On admission, significant peripheral eosinophilia was noted. Paranasal sinusitis and transient bronchiolitis were found by CT scan.Electromyogram demonstrated multiple mononeuropathy. Eosinophilia was indicated by bone marrow biopsy. The diagnosis of eosinophilic granulomatous polyangiitis(EGPA) was determined. The patient got better after applying glucocorticoid and cyclophosphamide.Later she developed abdominal pain and partial oculomotor nerve palsy, while her condition improved after continued immunosuppression and anticoagulant therapy. She was hospitalized for the third time because of headache. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was diagnosed after lumber puncture and cranial MRI+MRA+MRV and other examinations. She was relieved after conservative treatment. Subarachnoid hemorrhage with EGPA is rare. This case may improve physicians' understanding of EGPA complicated with subarachnoid hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Asma , Síndrome de Churg-Strauss , Asma/complicações , Diplopia , Feminino , Cefaleia , Humanos , Hipestesia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 59(1): 18-23, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412629

RESUMO

Objective: To evalutate the safety and efficacy of infrahepatic inferior vena cava clamping robot-assisted laparoscopic liver resection. Methods: All data about 24 patients with robotic liver resection at Hepatic Surgery Center,Tongji Hospital,Tongji Medical College,Huazhong University of Science and Technology between February 2015 and December 2017 were collected and analyzed. These patients were divided into two groups based on different methods to decrease central venous pressure. Eight patients(6 males and 2 females,aged 49 years(range:50 to 56 years)) were applied with infrahepatic inferior vena cava clamping,and the other 16 matched cases (15 males and 1 female,aged 53 years(range:38 to 69 years)) were categorized into lowering central venous pressure group. Intraoperative blood loss,blood transfusion,intraoperative hemodynamic parameters,postoperative complications,and renal function were compared by t-test,non-parametric test,χ2 test,or Fisher exact test. Results: There was significantly difference in the intraoperative blood loss between the infrahepatic vena cava clamping group and the lowering central venous group(200(220) ml (range:100 to 400 ml) vs. 750(800) ml (range:100 to 2 000 ml),Z=‒2.169,P=0.030). The clamping time of portal triad and infrahepatic inferior vena cava were 24 (18) minutes and 29 (20) minutes in the infrahepatic inferior vena cava clamping group, and portal triad clamping time was 23 (23) minutes in the low central venous group. There was no significant difference between the two groups (Z=‒0.323, P=0.747). There was no intraoperative blood transfusion in the infrahepatic inferior vena cava clamping group, and 5 cases in the low central venous group, with a transfusion volume of 1.5(1.5)U. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (Z=‒3.353, P=0.001). However, the mean arterial pressure in the infrahepatic vena cava clamping group decreased from (88.6±4.9) mmHg to (67.4±3.8) mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa), which was lower than that of lowering central venous group (72.4±3.3) mmHg (t=2.315,P=0.003). And there were no significant differences related to postoperative complications rate or hepatic and renal function in both groups. Conclusion: The infrahepatic inferior vena cava technology is safe and feasible to decrease central venous pressure during robotic liver resections,which will not affect the recovery of hepatic and renal functions.


Assuntos
Hepatectomia/métodos , Laparoscopia , Hepatopatias/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Veia Cava Inferior/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Venosa Central/fisiologia , Constrição , Feminino , Humanos , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veia Cava Inferior/fisiologia , Veia Cava Inferior/fisiopatologia
18.
Mycopathologia ; 186(1): 53-70, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313977

RESUMO

In vitro susceptibility testing for Trichophyton rubrum has shown resistance to terbinafine, azoles and amorolfine, locally, but epidemiological cutoffs are not available. In order to assess the appropriateness of current first-line antifungal treatment for T. rubrum in China, we characterized antifungal susceptibility patterns of Chinese T. rubrum strains to nine antifungals and also described the upper limits of wild-type (WT) minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) (UL-WT) based on our study and another six studies published during the last decades. Sixty-two clinical isolates originating from seven provinces in China were identified as T. rubrum sensu stricto; all Chinese strains showed low MICs to eight out of nine antifungal drugs. Terbinafine (TBF) showed the lowest MICs of all antifungal classes tested in both the Chinese and global groups, with a 97.5% UL-WT MIC-value of 0.03 mg/L. No non-WT isolates were observed for TBF in China, but were reported in 18.5% of the global group. Our study indicated that TBF was still the most active drug for Chinese T. rubrum isolates, and all strains were within the WT-population. TBF therefore remains recommended for primary therapy to dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum in China now, but regular surveillance of dermatophytes and antifungal susceptibility is recommended.

19.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 42(2): 354-361, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Selective ophthalmic artery infusion chemotherapy has improved ocular outcomes in children with retinoblastoma. Our aim was to correlate quantitative tumor reduction and dichotomous therapeutic response with technical and adjunctive factors during selective ophthalmic artery infusion chemotherapy for retinoblastoma. An understanding of such factors may improve therapeutic efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients with retinoblastoma treated by selective ophthalmic artery infusion chemotherapy at a single center during a 9-year period were reviewed. Only first-cycle treatments for previously untreated eyes were studied. Adjunctive factors (intra-arterial verapamil, intranasal oxymetazoline external carotid balloon occlusion) and technical factors (chemotherapy infusion time, fluoroscopy time) were documented by medical record review. Quantitative tumor reduction was determined by blinded comparison of retinal imaging acquired during examination under anesthesia before and 3-4 weeks after treatment. The dichotomous therapeutic response was classified according to quantitative tumor reduction as satisfactory (≥ 50%) or poor (<50%). RESULTS: Twenty-one eyes met the inclusion criteria. Patients ranged from 2 to 59 months of age. Adjuncts included intra-arterial verapamil in 15, intranasal oxymetazoline in 14, and external carotid balloon occlusion in 14. Quantitative tumor reduction ranged from 15% to 95%. Six showed poor dichotomous therapeutic response. A satisfactory dichotomous therapeutic response was correlated with intra-arterial verapamil (P = .03) in the aggregate cohort and in a subgroup undergoing treatment with single-agent melphalan at a dose of <5 mg (P = .02). In the latter, higher average quantitative tumor reduction correlated with intra-arterial verapamil (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Intra-arterial verapamil during selective ophthalmic artery infusion chemotherapy is correlated with an improved therapeutic response, particularly when treating with lower doses of single-agent melphalan.

20.
J Microsc ; 281(1): 97-105, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844429

RESUMO

Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy is expected to be a powerful tool for observing the cellular-level functionality and morphology information of thick tissue owe to its unique imaging properties. However, the maximum attainable resolution obtainable by SHG microscopy is limited by the use of long-wavelength, near-infrared excitation. In this paper, we report the use of pixel reassignment to improve the spatial resolution of SHG microscopy. The SHG signal is imaged onto a position-sensitive camera, instead of a point detector typically used in conventional SHG microscope. The data processing is performed through pixel reassignment and subsequent deblurring operation. We present the basic principle and a rigorous theoretical model for SHG microscopy using pixel reassignment (SHG-PR). And for the first time, the optimal reassignment factor for SHG-PR is derived based on the coherent characteristics and the dependence of wavelength in SHG microscopy. To evaluate the spatial resolution improvement, images of nano-beads separated by different distances and of a microtubule array have been simulated. We gain about a 1.5-fold spatial resolution enhancement compared to conventional SHG microscopy. When a further deblurring operation is implemented, this method allows for a total spatial resolution enhancement of about 1.87. Additionally, we demonstrate the validity of SHG-PR for raw data with noise. LAY DESCRIPTION: Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy has emerged as a powerful imaging technique in clinical diagnostics and biological research. SHG microscopy is label-free and provides intrinsic optical sectioning for three-dimensional (3D) imaging. However, a near-infrared excitation wavelength results a restriction in the maximum attainable spatial resolution of SHG microscopy. In this paper, we present a simple resolution-enhanced SHG imaging method, SHG microscopy using pixel reassignment (SHG-PR). We demonstrate a rigorous theoretical model for SHG-PR and derive the optimal reassignment factor. The simulation result shows the clear improvement of the image resolution and contrast in the SHG-PR after deblurring operation. The FWHM value of single microtubule shows that SHG-PR enables a spatial resolution enhancement by a factor of 1.5, compared to conventional SHG microscopy. After a proper deblurring operation, this method allows for a total spatial resolution enhancement of about 1.87. The improvements of spatial resolution and contrast are still valid for raw data with noise. It is expected that this method can contribute towards new insights in unstained tissue morphology, interaction of cells, and diseases diagnosis.

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