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1.
Meat Sci ; 179: 108530, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946021

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of l-arginine and l-lysine on the water holding capacity, shear force, color, and protein denaturation of frozen porcine Longissimus lumborum. Four batches were prepared, each corresponding to samples of an experimental treatment: without a cryoprotective solution, injecting a 0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate and 0.5% NaCl solution, a 0.5% l-arginine solution, or a 0.5% l-lysine solution. The results showed that both l-arginine and l-lysine decreased thawing loss, cooking loss, shear force, L⁎ values, b⁎ values, and surface hydrophobicity, but they increased pH values, a⁎ values, percentages of peak areas for T21 relaxation times, and Ca2+-ATPase activity. Additionally, both histological and transmission electron microscopy images showed that l-lysine, and especially l-arginine could inhibit the formation of gaps between fiber bundles, alleviate the disruption of intracellular spaces, and maintain the structural integrity of sarcomeres. Overall, the results showed that both l-arginine and l-lysine hindered the structural damage of muscle fibers during freezing and protected myofibrillar proteins from denaturation, ultimately contributing to superior quality attributes.

2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 811-817, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957203

RESUMO

Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is considered to be an effective treatment for inflammation-related diseases, and small molecules origin from natural products show promising activity against sEH. Two undescribed protostanes, 3ß-hydroxy-25-anhydro-alisol F (1) and 3ß-hydroxy-alisol G (2) were isolated from Alisma orientale and identified as new sEH inhibitors with IC50 values of 10.06 and 30.45 µM, respectively. Potential lead compound 1 was determined as an uncompetitive inhibitor against sEH, which had a Ki value of 5.13 µM. In-depth molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations revealed that amino acid residue Ser374 plays an important role in the inhibition of 1, which also provides an idea for the development of sEH inhibitors based on protostane-type triterpenoids.

3.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 187, 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, the genetic contribution to Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unclear. Mutations in the collagen type VI alpha 3 (COL6A3) gene were recently identified as a cause of isolated dystonia. Since PD and dystonia are closely related disorders with shared clinical and genetic characteristics, we explored the association between COL6A3 and PD in a Chinese cohort. METHODS: We performed genetic screening of COL6A3 in a Chinese cohort of 173 patients with sporadic PD and 200 healthy controls. We identified variants that are likely to have pathogenic effects based on: 1) a minor allele frequency of < 0.01; and 2) the variant being recognized as deleterious by at least 15 different in silico predicting tools. Finally, we tested the aggregate burden of COL6A3 on PD via SKAT-O analysis. RESULTS: First, we found compound heterozygous COL6A3 gene mutations in one early-onset PD patients. Then, we explored whether COL6A3 variants contributed to increased risk of developing PD in a Chinese population. We detected 21 rare non-synonymous variants. Pathogenicity predictions identified 7 novel non-synonymous variants as likely to be pathogenic. SKAT-O analysis further revealed that an aggregate burden of variants in COL6A3 contributes to PD (p = 0.038). CONCLUSION: An increased aggregate burden of the COL6A3 gene was detected in patients with PD.

4.
Brain Behav ; : e02161, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960706

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endovascular therapy is the standard of care for severe acute ischemic stroke caused by large-vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation, but there is a debate on the optimal anesthetic approach during this therapy. Meta-analyses of observational studies suggest that general anesthesia increases disability and death compared with conscious sedation However, their results are conflicting. This meta-analysis study was performed to assess the relationship between the effects of general anesthesia compared to conscious sedation during endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: Through a systematic literature search up to August 2020, 18 studies included 4,802 subjects at baseline with endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke and reported a total of 1,711 subjects using general anesthesia and 1,961 subjects using conscious sedation were found. They recorded relationships between the effects of general anesthesia compared to conscious sedation during endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Odds ratio (OR) or Mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated between the effect of general anesthesia compared to conscious sedation during endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke using the dichotomous or contentious methods with a random or fixed-effect model. RESULTS: No significant difference were found between general anesthesia and conscious sedation during the endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke in functional independence at 90 days (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.44-1.40, p = 40); successful recanalization at 24 hr (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.62-2.41, p = 55); mortality at 90 days (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.83-2.24, p = .22); interventional complication (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.76-2.02, p = .40); symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.41-0.99, p = .05); aspiration pneumonia (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.58-1.58, p = .87); and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score after 24 hr (MD, 0.38; 95% CI, -1.15-1.91, p = .62); with relative relationship favoring general anesthesia only in decreasing the symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: General anesthesia has no independent relationship compared to conscious sedation during the endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke with a relative relationship favoring general anesthesia only in decreasing the symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. This relationship encouraged us to recommend either anesthetic strategy during the endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke with no possible fear of higher complication.

5.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972758

RESUMO

Metallic zinc is an ideal anode due to its high theoretical capacity (820 mAh g-1), low redox potential (-0.762 V versus the standard hydrogen electrode), high abundance and low toxicity. When used in aqueous electrolyte, it also brings intrinsic safety, but suffers from severe irreversibility. This is best exemplified by low coulombic efficiency, dendrite growth and water consumption. This is thought to be due to severe hydrogen evolution during zinc plating and stripping, hitherto making the in-situ formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) impossible. Here, we report an aqueous zinc battery in which a dilute and acidic aqueous electrolyte with an alkylammonium salt additive assists the formation of a robust, Zn2+-conducting and waterproof SEI. The presence of this SEI enables excellent performance: dendrite-free zinc plating/stripping at 99.9% coulombic efficiency in a Ti||Zn asymmetric cell for 1,000 cycles; steady charge-discharge in a Zn||Zn symmetric cell for 6,000 cycles (6,000 h); and high energy densities (136 Wh kg-1 in a Zn||VOPO4 full battery with 88.7% retention for >6,000 cycles, 325 Wh kg-1 in a Zn||O2 full battery for >300 cycles and 218 Wh kg-1 in a Zn||MnO2 full battery with 88.5% retention for 1,000 cycles) using limited zinc. The SEI-forming electrolyte also allows the reversible operation of an anode-free pouch cell of Ti||ZnxVOPO4 at 100% depth of discharge for 100 cycles, thus establishing aqueous zinc batteries as viable cell systems for practical applications.

6.
J Food Sci ; 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931849

RESUMO

White hepatopancreas syndrome has recently emerged in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) aquaculture, causing considerable economic loss. The hepatopancreas color of diseased crabs becomes gradually lighter, turning from yellow to yellow-white to white. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the changes in nutrient composition in three edible parts (hepatopancreas, ovaries, and muscle) of adult females with different colored hepatopancreases. Three groups were assessed in this study, including a yellow hepatopancreas group (control, L * = 63.92, a * = 22.14, b * = 60.95), a yellow-white hepatopancreas group (YWHG, L * = 65.06, a * = 22.35, b * = 57.80), and a white hepatopancreas group (WHG, L * = 65.72, a * = 10.70, b * = 30.52). No statistically significant differences in average weight, tissue indices, and total edible yield were observed among the three crab groups (P >0.05). The moisture content of the hepatopancreases and ovaries in WHG was 56.12% and 9.23% higher than the control values (P <0.05), whereas hepatopancreas crude fat and ovary crude protein levels were 62.23% and 11.45% lower than the control values (P < 0.05). The total carbohydrate levels of the three edible tissues were significantly higher and the crude protein content of ovaries was significantly lower in YWHG (P < 0.05). Most amino acid levels in the WHG muscle and ovaries were significantly lower than the control (P < 0.05). Moreover, the hepatopancreas levels of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and n-6PUFA in WHG were 24.88% and 31.83% lower than in control group, whereas the hepatopancreas levels of total PUFA and n-6PUFA in YWHG were also 21.88% and 23.20% lower compared to the controls (P < 0.05). Overall, the growth and the edible parts were not affected in YWHG and WHG. Moreover, YWHG crabs exhibited few effects on nutritional value; however, the fatty acid composition of crabs was significantly changed. In contrast, WHG crabs exhibited poor nutritional quality. Nonetheless, the consumption of crabs with yellow-white or white hepatopancreases is not recommended since the animal also referred to as diseased crabs.

7.
Zool Res ; 42(3): 294-299, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929104

RESUMO

During a terrestrial vertebrate survey of the Dabie Mountains in Anhui Province, eastern China, we collected four Asian shrew mole specimens (hereafter, shrew moles). Based on published literature and comparison with previously collected materials, the four specimens were similar to shrew moles from the mountains of Southwest China; however, no species in this group has been previously recorded from the Dabie Mountains. The genetic and morphological characteristics of the specimens were analyzed, based upon which a new species of shrew mole is described, named Uropsilus dabieshanensis sp. nov.

8.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(5): 103040, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33873046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tracheobronchial stent placement for malignant airway strictures has been proved to improve respiratory function, but experience for benign tracheobronchial stenoses is limited. The purpose of our study is to investigate the efficacy of covered expandable metallic stents, inserted through a suspension laryngoscope, treating tracheal stenosis following intubation or tracheostomy. METHODS: From 2010 to 2018, 67 adult patients with the benign tracheal stenosis, underwent stent placement, using a suspension laryngoscope. According to the date of stent placement and stent caliber, these patients have been subdivided into two groups: Group 1 (from 2010 to 2013, stent caliber ranging from 16 to 20 mm) and Group 2 (from 2014 to 2018, stent caliber ranging from 18 to 22 mm). Complications, related reinterventions, and long-term prognosis were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Primary successful stent placement was achieved and symptoms were improved in all patients. Complications occurred in 27 (40.3%) cases. Among these, there were 14 (20.9%) cases with stent migration, 10 (14.93%) with granulation tissue formation and 3 (4.48%) with pneumonia. Stent migration in Group 1 was nearly 30% higher than that in Group 2 (P = 0.002). Five of the 8 patients who had placement of 16 mm stents had stent migration, more often than with 20 mm stents (P = 0.002). Ten patients' trachea had slight narrowing but without any symptoms. Six patients still had granulation tissue but without any growth at least two-year follow-up (2 patients whose stents were removed more than 1 year after placement). Even without tracheal narrowing and granulation tissue, 5 patients felt persistent shortness of breath. 92.5% of the patients reported to be satisfied with significant improvement in symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with tracheal obstruction secondary to intubation or tracheostomy can benefit from tracheal stents. Placing 16 mm stents might lead to stent migration more easily than 20 mm stents. Tracheal stents placed by a suspension laryngoscope provide a reasonable alternative to open surgery for patients with benign tracheal stenosis or obstruction.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908246

RESUMO

We report a class of high-voltage organic solar cells (OSCs) processed by the environmentally friendly solvent tetrahydrofuran (THF), where four benzotriazole (BTA)-based p-type polymers (PE31, PE32, PE33, and J52-Cl) and a BTA-based small molecule BTA5 are applied as p-type and n-type materials, respectively, according to "Same-A-Strategy" (SAS). The single-junction OSCs based on all four material blends exhibit a high open-circuit voltage (VOC) above 1.10 V. We systematically study the impact of the three different substituents (-OCH3, -F, -Cl) on the BTA unit of the polymer donors. Interestingly, PE31 containing the unsubstituted BTA unit shows the efficient hole transfer and more balanced charge mobilities, thus leading to the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.08% with a VOC of 1.11 V and a JSC of 13.68 mA cm-2. Due to the upshifted highest electron-occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level and the weak crystallinity of the methoxy-substituted polymer PE32, the resulting device shows the lowest PCE of 7.40% with a slightly decreased VOC of 1.10 V. In addition, after the chlorination and fluorination, the HOMO levels of the donor materials PE33 and J52-Cl are gradually downshifted, contributing to increased VOC values of 1.16 and 1.21 V, respectively. Our results prove that an unsubstituted p-type polymer can also afford high voltage and promising performance via non-halogenated solvent processing, which is of great significance for simplifying the synthesis steps and realizing the commercialization of OSCs.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808496

RESUMO

Aptamers are short single-stranded DNA, RNA, or synthetic Xeno nucleic acids (XNA) molecules that can interact with corresponding targets with high affinity. Owing to their unique features, including low cost of production, easy chemical modification, high thermal stability, reproducibility, as well as low levels of immunogenicity and toxicity, aptamers can be used as an alternative to antibodies in diagnostics and therapeutics. Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), an experimental approach for aptamer screening, allows the selection and identification of in vitro aptamers with high affinity and specificity. However, the SELEX process is time consuming and characterization of the representative aptamer candidates from SELEX is rather laborious. Artificial intelligence (AI) could help to rapidly identify the potential aptamer candidates from a vast number of sequences. This review discusses the advancements of AI pipelines/methods, including structure-based and machine/deep learning-based methods, for predicting the binding ability of aptamers to targets. Structure-based methods are the most used in computer-aided drug design. For this part, we review the secondary and tertiary structure prediction methods for aptamers, molecular docking, as well as molecular dynamic simulation methods for aptamer-target binding. We also performed analysis to compare the accuracy of different secondary and tertiary structure prediction methods for aptamers. On the other hand, advanced machine-/deep-learning models have witnessed successes in predicting the binding abilities between targets and ligands in drug discovery and thus potentially offer a robust and accurate approach to predict the binding between aptamers and targets. The research utilizing machine-/deep-learning techniques for prediction of aptamer-target binding is limited currently. Therefore, perspectives for models, algorithms, and implementation strategies of machine/deep learning-based methods are discussed. This review could facilitate the development and application of high-throughput and less laborious in silico methods in aptamer selection and characterization.

11.
Neural Regen Res ; 16(11): 2257-2263, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818510

RESUMO

Our previous study has confirmed that astrocytes overexpressing neurogenic differentiation factor 1 (NEUROD1) in the spinal cord can be reprogrammed into neurons under in vivo conditions. However, whether they can also be reprogrammed into neurons under in vitro conditions remains unclear, and the mechanisms of programmed conversion from astrocytes to neurons have not yet been clarified. In the present study, we prepared reactive astrocytes from newborn rat spinal cord astrocytes using the scratch method and infected them with lentivirus carrying NEUROD1. The results showed that NEUROD1 overexpression reprogrammed the cultured reactive astrocytes into neurons in vitro with an efficiency of 13.4%. Using proteomic and bioinformatic analyses, 1952 proteins were identified, of which 92 were differentially expressed. Among these proteins, 11 were identified as candidate proteins in the process of reprogramming based on their biological functions and fold-changes in the bioinformatic analysis. Furthermore, western blot assay revealed that casein kinase II subunit alpha (CSNK2A2) and pinin (PNN) expression in NEUROD1-overexpressing reactive astrocytes was significantly increased, suggesting that NEUROD1 can directly reprogram spinal cord-derived reactive astrocytes into neurons in vitro, and that the NEUROD1-CSNK2A2-PNN pathway is involved in this process. This study was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Fujian Medical University, China (approval No. 2016-05) on April 18, 2016.

12.
Food Chem ; 357: 129726, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866240

RESUMO

Pickering emulsions stabilized by zein/carboxymethyl dextrin nanoparticles were added to the κ-carrageenan-based gel matrix to prepare emulsion gels via EDC - induced covalent crosslinking. Texture, WHC and freeze-thaw stability of the emulsion gels increased after crosslinking. The Confocal laser scanning microscope and SEM suggested that droplet clusters could be observed in gel with higher concentration of emulsion. The rheological measurements indicated that the viscosity and gel-like structure were relied on crosslinking agent and emulsion concentration. The photothermal stability of curcumin was significantly enhanced after crosslinking. In addition, in vitro digestion study suggested that the bioaccessibility of curcumin in emulsion gel crosslinked was lower compared to emulsion gel without crosslinking agent. These studies might facilitate the preparation of emulsion gels with excellent stability for bioactive compounds delivery in food and pharmaceutical applications.

13.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 874-884, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890550

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is unlikely to abate until sufficient herd immunity is built up by either natural infection or vaccination. We previously identified ten linear immunodominant sites on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein of which four are located within the RBD. Therefore, we designed two linkerimmunodominant site (LIS) vaccine candidates which are composed of four immunodominant sites within the RBD (RBD-ID) or all the 10 immunodominant sites within the whole spike (S-ID). They were administered by subcutaneous injection and were tested for immunogenicity and in vivo protective efficacy in a hamster model for COVID-19. We showed that the S-ID vaccine induced significantly better neutralizing antibody response than RBD-ID and alum control. As expected, hamsters vaccinated by S-ID had significantly less body weight loss, lung viral load, and histopathological changes of pneumonia. The S-ID has the potential to be an effective vaccine for protection against COVID-19.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920991

RESUMO

Aptamers are promising therapeutic and diagnostic agents for various diseases due to their high affinity and specificity against target proteins. Structural determination in combination with multiple biochemical and biophysical methods could help to explore the interacting mechanism between aptamers and their targets. Regrettably, structural studies for aptamer-target interactions are still the bottleneck in this field, which are facing various difficulties. In this review, we first reviewed the methods for resolving structures of aptamer-protein complexes and for analyzing the interactions between aptamers and target proteins. We summarized the general features of the interacting nucleotides and residues involved in the interactions between aptamers and proteins. Challenges and perspectives in current methodologies were discussed. Approaches for determining the binding affinity between aptamers and target proteins as well as modification strategies for stabilizing the binding affinity of aptamers to target proteins were also reviewed. The review could help to understand how aptamers interact with their targets and how alterations such as chemical modifications in the structures affect the affinity and function of aptamers, which could facilitate the optimization and translation of aptamers-based theranostics.

15.
EBioMedicine ; 66: 103314, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nucleic acids are potent stimulators of type I interferon (IFN-I) and antiviral defense, but may also promote pathological inflammation. A range of diseases are characterized by elevated IFN-I, including systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus). The DNA-activated cGAS-STING pathway is a major IFN-I-inducing pathway, and activation of signaling is dependent on trafficking of STING from the ER to the Golgi. METHODS: Here we used cell culture systems, a mouse lupus model, and material from lupus patients, to explore the mode of action of a STING antagonistic peptide, and its ability to modulate disease processes. FINDINGS: We report that the peptide ISD017 selectively inhibits all known down-stream activities of STING, including IFN-I, inflammatory cytokines, autophagy, and apoptosis. ISD017 blocks the essential trafficking of STING from the ER to Golgi through a mechanism dependent on the STING ER retention factor STIM1. Importantly, ISD017 blocks STING activity in vivo and ameliorates disease development in a mouse model for lupus. Finally, ISD017 treatment blocks pathological cytokine responses in cells from lupus patients with elevated IFN-I levels. INTERPRETATION: These data hold promise for beneficial use of STING-targeting therapy in lupus. FUNDING: The Novo Nordisk Foundation, The European Research Council, The Lundbeck Foundation, European Union under the Horizon 2020 Research, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Chulalongkorn University.

16.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(9): 854-865, 2021 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various surgical procedures have been described for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) at the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) close to the Z-line. However, surgery for EGJ-GIST involving Z-line has been rarely reported. AIM: To introduce a novel technique called conformal resection (CR) for open resection of EGJ-GIST involving Z-line. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 43 patients having GISTs involving Z-line were included. The perioperative outcomes of patients receiving CR (n = 18) was compared with that of proximal gastrectomy (PG) (n = 25). RESULTS: CR was successfully performed in all the patients with negative microscopic margins. The mean operative time, time to first passage of flatus, and postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter in the CR group (P < 0.05), while the intraoperative blood loss was similar in the two groups. The postoperative gastroesophageal reflux as diagnosed by esophageal 24-h pH monitoring and quality of life at 3 mo were significantly in favor of CR compared to PG (both P < 0.001). The 5-year disease-free survival between the two groups was similar (P = 0.163). The cut- off value for the determination of CR or PG was 7.0 mm above the Z-line (83.33% sensitivity, 84.00% specificity, 83.72% accuracy). CONCLUSION: CR is safe and feasible for EGJ-GIST located within 7.0 mm above the Z-line.

17.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(8): 725-736, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic submucosal dissection to treat mucosal and submucosal lesions sometimes results in low rates of microscopically margin-negative (R0) resection. Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) has a high R0 resection rate and allows for the definitive diagnosis and treatment of selected mucosal and submucosal lesions that are not suitable for conventional resection techniques. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of EFTR using an over-the-scope clip (OTSC). METHODS: This prospective, single-center, non-randomized clinical trial was conducted at the endoscopy center of Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University. The study included patients aged 18-70 years who had gastric or colorectal submucosal tumors (SMTs) (≤ 20 mm in diameter) originating from the muscularis propria based on endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and patients who had early-stage gastric or colorectal cancer (≤ 20 mm in diameter) based on EUS and computed tomography. All lesions were treated by EFTR combined with an OTSC for wound closure between November 2014 and October 2016. We analyzed patient demographics, lesion features, histopathological diagnoses, R0 resection (negative margins) status, adverse events, and follow-up results. RESULTS: A total of 68 patients (17 men and 51 women) with an average age of 52.0 ± 10.5 years (32-71 years) were enrolled in this study, which included 66 gastric or colorectal SMTs and 2 early-stage colorectal cancers. The mean tumor diameter was 12.6 ± 4.3 mm. The EFTR procedure was successful in all cases. The mean EFTR procedure time was 39.6 ± 38.0 min. The mean OTSC defect closure time was 5.0 ± 3.8 min, and the success rate of closure for defects was 100%. Histologically complete resection (R0) was achieved in 67 (98.5%) patients. Procedure-related adverse events were observed in 11 (16.2%) patients. The average post-procedure length of follow-up was 48.2 ± 15.7 mo. There was no recurrence during follow-up. CONCLUSION: EFTR combined with an OTSC is an effective and safe technique for the removal of select subepithelial and epithelial lesions that are not amenable to conventional endoscopic resection techniques.

18.
Exp Neurol ; 341: 113692, 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727099

RESUMO

Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) was found to be induced in the context of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) before. This study further investigates its role in the development of SAH-induced early brain injury (EBI). Firstly, rats were randomly divided into Sham and SAH groups for analysis of temporal patterns and cellular localization of TREM-1. Secondly, TREM-1 intervention was administrated to produce Sham, vehicle, antagonist and agonist groups, for analyzing TREM-1, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and NF-κB expressions at 24 h post-modeling, and EBI assessment at 24 h and 72 h. Thirdly, TLR4 inhibitor (TAK-242) was exploited to produce Sham, Sham+TAK-242, SAH, and SAH + TAK-242 groups to analyze the effects of TLR4 inhibition on TREM-1 induction and EBI evaluation at 72 h. Fourthly, the relationship of soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1) levels in cerebrospinal fluid of SAH patients with Hunt-Hess grades were explored. The results showed that TREM-1 increased in the brain after experimental SAH (eSAH) early at 6 h and peaked at 48 h, which was found to be located in microglia and endothelial cells. TREM-1 inhibition attenuated EBI associated with TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB suppression, while enhancement had the opposite effects. Contrarily, TLR4 inhibition prevented TREM-1 induction and ameliorated EBI. In addition, sTREM-1 levels in SAH patients positively correlated with Hunt-Hess grades. Overall, the present study provides new evidence that TREM-1 increases dynamically in the brain after eSAH and it is located in microglia and endothelial cells, which may aggravate EBI by interacting with TLR4 pathway. And sTREM-1 in patients might act as a monitoring biomarker of EBI, providing new insights for future studies.

19.
Plant J ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735469

RESUMO

Sexual reproduction in angiosperms is siphonogamous, and the interaction between pollen tube and pistil is critical for successful fertilization. Our previous study demonstrated that mutation of the Arabidopsis turgor regulation defect 1 (TOD1) gene leads to reduced male fertility, a result of retarded pollen tube growth in the pistil. TOD1 encodes a Golgi-localized alkaline ceramidase, a key enzyme for the production of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which is involved in the regulation of turgor pressure in plant cells. However, whether TOD1s play a conserved role in the innovation of siphonogamy is largely unknown. In this study, we provide evidence that OsTOD1, which is similar to AtTOD1, is also preferentially expressed in rice pollen grains and pollen tubes. OsTOD1 knockout results in reduced pollen tube growth potential in rice pistil. Both the OsTOD1 genomic sequence with its own promoter and the coding sequence under the AtTOD1 promoter can partially rescue the attod1 mutant phenotype. Furthermore, TOD1s from other angiosperm species can partially rescue the attod1 mutant phenotype, while TOD1s from gymnosperm species are not able to complement the attod1 mutant phenotype. Our data suggest that TOD1 acts conservatively in angiosperms, and this opens up an opportunity to dissect the role of sphingolipids in pollen tube growth in angiosperms.

20.
Vet Microbiol ; 254: 108953, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647714

RESUMO

Strangles is an acute and frequently diagnosed infectious disease caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. equi. Infection with this pathogen can cause grave losses to the equine industry. The present work investigates glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), an important surface-localized virulence factor of S. equi, to determine whether it could be developed into an efficacious and suitable subunit vaccine against strangles. Two different recombinant fragments of S. equi GAPDH, namely, GAPDH-L and GAPDH-S, were constructed and expressed. Further, the antigenicity and immunogenicity of these two recombinant proteins were compared and evaluated in a mouse model. Our results revealed that immune responses were efficiently induced by the proteins in immunized mice. Remarkably, higher survival rates and significantly lower bacterial loads in the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen were observed in the GAPDH-S group compared with the GAPDH-L group after challenge with S. equi. High levels of specific antibodies, elevated antibody titers, and increased proportions of CD8 + T cells further indicated that GAPDH-S elicited better humoral and cellular immune responses than GAPDH-L. Furthermore, the induction of TCR, TLR-2, TLR-3, and TLR-4 significantly increased in the GAPDH-S group compared with those in the GAPDH-L and negative control groups. In summary, our results indicate that the optimized recombinant protein GAPDH-S is a promising candidate construct that may be further developed into a multivalent subunit vaccine for strangles.

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