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1.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(8): 814-820, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511171

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the survival rate and the incidence of complications of very preterm infants and the factors influencing the survival rate and the incidence of complications. METHODS: The medical data of the very preterm infants with a gestational age of <32 weeks and who were admitted to the Department of Neonatology in 11 hospitals of Jiangsu Province in China from January 2018 to December 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Their survival rate and the incidence of serious complications were analyzed. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors for death and serious complications in very preterm infants. RESULTS: A total of 2 339 very preterm infants were enrolled, among whom 2 010 (85.93%) survived and 1 507 (64.43%) survived without serious complications. The groups with a gestational age of 22-25+6 weeks, 26-26+6 weeks, 27-27+6 weeks, 28-28+6 weeks, 29-29+6 weeks, 30-30+6 weeks, and 31-31+6 weeks had a survival rate of 32.5%, 60.6%, 68.0%, 82.9%, 90.1%, 92.3%, and 94.8% respectively. The survival rate tended to increase with the gestational age (P<0.05) and the survival rate without serious complications in each gestational age group was 7.5%, 18.1%, 34.5%, 52.2%, 66.7%, 75.7%, and 81.8% respectively, suggesting that the survival rate without serious complications increased with the gestational age (P<0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that high gestational age, high birth weight, and prenatal use of glucocorticoids were protective factors against death in very preterm infants (P<0.05), and 1-minute Apgar score ≤3 was a risk factor for death in very preterm infants (P<0.05); high gestational age and high birth weight were protective factors against serious complications in very preterm infants who survived (P<0.05), while 5-minute Apgar score ≤3 and maternal chorioamnionitis were risk factors for serious complications in very preterm infants who survived (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The survival rate is closely associated with gestational age in very preterm infants. A low 1-minute Apgar score (≤3) may increase the risk of death in very preterm infants, while high gestational age, high birth weight, and prenatal use of glucocorticoids are associated with the reduced risk of death. A low 5-minute Apgar score (≤3) and maternal chorioamnionitis may increase the risk of serious complications in these infants, while high gestational age and high birth weight may reduce the risk of serious complications.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
2.
J Gen Virol ; 102(9)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524074

RESUMO

Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is the causative agent of feline infectious peritonitis and diarrhoea in kittens worldwide. In this study, a total of 173 feline diarrhoeal faecal and ascetic samples were collected from 15 catteries and six veterinary hospitals in southwest China from 2017 to 2020. FCoV was detected in 80.35 % (139/173) of the samples using the RT-nPCR method; these included infections with 122 type I FCoV and 57 type II FCoV. Interestingly, 51 cases had co-infection with types I and II, the first such report in mainland China. To further analyse the genetic diversity of FCoV, we amplified 23 full-length spike (S) genes, including 18 type I and five type II FCoV. The type I FCoV and type II FCoV strains shared 85.5-98.7% and 97.4-98.9% nucleotide (nt) sequence identities between one another, respectively. The N-terminal domain (NTD) of 23 FCoV strains showed a high degree of variation (73.6-80.3 %). There was six type I FCoV strains with two amino acid insertions (159HL160) in the NTD. In addition, 18 strains of type I FCoV belonged to the Ie cluster, and five strains of type II FCoV were in the IIb cluster based on phylogenetic analysis. Notably, it was first time that two type I FCoV strains had recombination in the NTD, and the recombination regions was located 140-857 nt of the S gene. This study constitutes a systematic investigation of the current infection status and molecular characteristics of FCoV in southwest China.

3.
J Med Chem ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517696

RESUMO

The development of novel therapeutic strategies for combating Alzheimer's disease (AD) is challenging but imperative. Multifunctional nanoparticles are promising tools for regulating complex pathological dysfunctions for AD treatment. Herein, we constructed multifunctional nanoparticles consisting of regadenoson (Reg), nitric oxide (NO) donor, and YC-1 in a single molecular entity that can spontaneously self-assemble into nanoparticles and load donepezil to yield Reg-nanoparticles (Reg-NPs). The Reg moiety enabled the Reg-NPs to effectively regulate tight junction-associated proteins in the blood-brain barrier, thus facilitating the permeation of donepezil through the barrier and its accumulation in the brain. Moreover, the released NO and YC-1 activated the NO/cGMP/CREB signaling pathway by stimulating soluble guanylyl cyclase and inhibiting phosphodiesterase activity, which finally reduced cytotoxicity induced by aggregated Aß in the neurons and was beneficial for synaptic plasticity and memory formation.

4.
Pharm Biol ; 59(1): 1256-1259, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517743

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Pachymic acid and bavachin are commonly used drugs in the therapy of lung cancer. OBJECTIVE: The co-administration of pachymic acid and bavachin was investigated to evaluate their potential drug-drug interaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pharmacokinetics of bavachin (10 mg/kg) was studied in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in the presence of pachymic acid (5 mg/kg) (n = 6). The rats without pre-treatment of pachymic acid were set as the control and the pre-treatment of pachymic acid was conducted for 7 days before the administration of bavachin. The effect of pachymic acid on the activity of CYP2C9 was also estimated in rat liver microsomes with corresponding probe substrates. RESULTS: Pachymic acid influenced the pharmacokinetic profile of bavachin with the increased AUC (32.82 ± 4.61 vs. 19.43 ± 3.26 µg/L/h), the prolonged t1/2 (3.21 ± 0.65 vs. 2.32 ± 0.28 h), and the decreased CLz/F (307.25 ± 44.35 vs. 523.81 ± 88.67 L/h/kg) in vivo. The metabolic stability of bavachin was enhanced by pachymic acid and the transport of bavachin was inhibited by pachymic acid. Pachymic acid was found to inhibit the activity of CYP2C9 with the IC50 of 21.25 µM as well as the activity of P-gp. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The interaction between pachymic acid and bavachin results from the inhibition of CYP2C9 and P-gp. The dose of bavachin should be adjusted when combining with pachymic acid. The study design can be generalized to a broader study population with adjustment in the dose.

5.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 9(1): 150, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503586

RESUMO

Dystrophic neuronal processes harboring neuritic plaque (NP) tau pathology are found in association with Aß plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Microglia are also in proximity to these plaques and microglial gene variants are known risk factors in AD, including loss-of-function variants of TREM2. We have further investigated the role of Aß plaque-associated microglia in 5XFAD mice in which NP tau pathology forms after intracerebral injection of AD brain-derived pathologic tau (AD-tau), focusing on the consequences of reduced TREM2 expression and microglial depletion after treatment with the colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSFR1) inhibitor, PLX3397. Young 5XFAD mice treated with PLX3397 had a large reduction of brain microglia, including cortical plaque-associated microglia, with a significant reduction of Aß plaque burden in the cortex. A corresponding decrease in cortical APP-positive dystrophic processes and NP tau pathology were observed after intracerebral AD-tau injection in the PLX3397-treated 5XFAD mice. Consistent with prior reports, 5XFAD × TREM2-/- mice showed a significant reduction of plaque-associated microglial, whereas 5XFAD × TREM2+/- mice had significantly more plaque-associated microglia than 5XFAD × TREM2-/- mice. Nonetheless, AD-tau injected 5XFAD × TREM2+/- mice showed greatly increased AT8-positive NP tau relative to 5XFAD × TREM2+/+ mice. Expression profiling revealed that 5XFAD × TREM2+/- mice had a disease-associated microglial (DAM) gene expression profile in the brain that was generally intermediate between 5XFAD × TREM2+/+ and 5XFAD × TREM2-/- mice. Microarray analysis revealed significant differences in cortical and hippocampal gene expression between AD-tau injected 5XFAD × TREM2+/- and 5XFAD × TREM2-/- mice, including pathways linked to microglial function. These data suggest there is not a simple correlation between the extent of microglia plaque interaction and plaque-associated neuritic damage. Moreover, the differences in gene expression and microglial phenotype between TREM2+/- and TREM2-/- mice suggest that the former may better model the single copy TREM2 variants associated with AD risk.

6.
Nat Microbiol ; 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465900

RESUMO

Respiratory failure is associated with increased mortality in COVID-19 patients. There are no validated lower airway biomarkers to predict clinical outcome. We investigated whether bacterial respiratory infections were associated with poor clinical outcome of COVID-19 in a prospective, observational cohort of 589 critically ill adults, all of whom required mechanical ventilation. For a subset of 142 patients who underwent bronchoscopy, we quantified SARS-CoV-2 viral load, analysed the lower respiratory tract microbiome using metagenomics and metatranscriptomics and profiled the host immune response. Acquisition of a hospital-acquired respiratory pathogen was not associated with fatal outcome. Poor clinical outcome was associated with lower airway enrichment with an oral commensal (Mycoplasma salivarium). Increased SARS-CoV-2 abundance, low anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response and a distinct host transcriptome profile of the lower airways were most predictive of mortality. Our data provide evidence that secondary respiratory infections do not drive mortality in COVID-19 and clinical management strategies should prioritize reducing viral replication and maximizing host responses to SARS-CoV-2.

7.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482628

RESUMO

Not all apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 carriers who survive to advanced age develop Alzheimer's disease (AD); factors attenuating the risk of ε4 on AD may exist. Guided by the top ε4-attenuating signals from methylome-wide association analyses (N = 572, ε4+ and ε4-) of neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques, we conducted a meta-analysis for pathological AD within the ε4+ subgroups (N = 235) across four independent collections of brains. Cortical RNA-seq and microglial morphology measurements were used in functional analyses. Three out of the four significant CpG dinucleotides were captured by one principal component (PC1), which interacts with ε4 on AD, and is associated with expression of innate immune genes and activated microglia. In ε4 carriers, reduction in each unit of PC1 attenuated the odds of AD by 58% (odds ratio = 2.39, 95% confidence interval = [1.64,3.46], P = 7.08 × 10-6 ). An epigenomic factor associated with a reduced proportion of activated microglia (epigenomic factor of activated microglia, EFAM) appears to attenuate the risk of ε4 on AD.

8.
Cancer Biomark ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The disorder of LINC01207 has a significant regulatory effect on cancers, nevertheless its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not been illustrated. This study investigated the regulatory effect of LINC01207 on NSCLC and clarify its molecular mechanism. METHODS: Bioinformatics analysis was used to find the target lncRNA, miRNA and mRNA. LncBase and TargetScan databases predicted the relationship between LINC01207, miR-525-5p and ARHGAP11A. Dual-luciferase reporter gene assay and RNA binding protein immunoprecipitation assay were used to verify the binding relationship between genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization assay was used to localize the expression of LINC01207 in NSCLC tissue. qRT-PCR and Western blot assays were used to measure the expression of LINC01207, miR-525-5p and ARHGAP11A. CCK-8 assay, Transwell assay and flow cytometry assay were used to detect NSCLC cell abilities. Mouse xenograft models further determined the effect of LINC01207 on the growth of NSCLC in vivo. RESULTS: LINC01207 was up-regulated in NSCLC tissue and cells, which was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. LINC01207 knockdown could inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of cancer cells and induce cell apoptosis. In addition, silencing LINC01207 could suppress tumor growth in vivo. LINC01207 could sponge and inhibit the expression of miR-525-5p in NSCLC cells, and inhibiting LINC01207 and miR-525-5p simultaneously could reverse the effect of miR-525-5p on the progression of NSCLC cells. Further study on downstream target genes showed that miR-525-5p could restrain the expression of ARHGAP11A, and then affect the progression of NSCLC. LINC01207 acting as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) could regulate the expression of ARHGAP11A by competitively binding with miR-525-5p. CONCLUSION: LINC01207 regulates the progression of NSCLC by regulating the miR-525-5p/ARHGAP11A axis as a ceRNA and plays a carcinogenic role. In conclusion, our study elucidates the mechanism of LINC01207 regulating the progression of NSCLC, and provides a new idea for the diagnosis and treatment of NSCLC guided by lncRNA.

9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469152

RESUMO

The use of combinations of aroma compounds is common in many food and cosmetic applications. To investigate the binding behavior between high-amylose maize starch and binary aroma combinations of decanal and thymol, starch-aroma inclusion complexes (ICs) were prepared by a one-step or two-step method with different concentrations and orders of addition. The thymol molecule induced the starch chain to form a larger helical cavity and was more likely to form hydrogen bonds with solvents. The encapsulation efficiency and loading efficiency of starch-thymol ICs were always higher than those of starch-decanal ICs, independent of the aroma concentration and addition order in binary aroma ICs. However, starch-decanal ICs prepared in the presence of thymol encapsulated more decanal than in the absence of thymol. The V6I-type crystals formed by starch-decanal ICs and the V6III-type crystals formed by starch-thymol ICs were both present in binary aroma ICs, resulting in a less-ordered structure and lower thermal transition temperatures. In summary, the complexation between binary aroma compounds and starch exhibited both cooperative and competitive binding behaviors. The synergistic effects between decanal and thymol provide guidance in enhancing the aroma encapsulation in starch carriers.

10.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 8685-8691, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472875

RESUMO

The ferroic domain, in metal halide perovskites (MHPs) at a low symmetry phase, was reported to affect optoelectronic properties. Building the relationship between ferroic domains and optoelectronic properties of MHPs will be a non-trivial task for understanding the charge transport mechanism. Here, high-quality CsPbBr3 single-crystal films (SCFs) were successfully grown by a cast-capping method. Through the phase transition process by heating and cooling the sample, dense domains in CsPbBr3 SCFs were formed and observed by an in situ polarized optical microscope. These domains were identified as 90° rotation twins by electron backscattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Interestingly, the photocurrent response was dramatically enhanced after introducing ferroelastic domains. The highest responsivity, external quantum efficiency, and detectivity are 380 mA/W, 130%, and 12.9 × 1010 Jones, respectively, which are surprisingly 25.03, 25, and 7.8 times higher than those of the as-grown CsPbBr3 SCF, respectively, which may be attributed to the function of the domain wall of separating electrons and holes.

11.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 1945998211038318, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The extent of neck dissection in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients with lateral neck metastasis is controversial. This work aims to screen the patients suitable for superselective neck dissections including only levels III-IV. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: The study was conducted in a high-volume tertiary care setting. METHODS: A total of 134 consecutive previously untreated PTC patients with lateral neck metastases and subjected to 154 therapeutic lateral neck dissections (including levels II, III, IV, and VB) between June 2018 and March 2021 were enrolled. Fine-needle aspiration was performed preoperatively at each suspicious neck level. Clinical predictors were analyzed for occult lymph node metastases at levels II and VB. RESULTS: As a result, 44.8% and 5.8% of neck specimens exhibited metastatic lymph nodes at levels II and VB. In addition, univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the primary tumor in the ipsilateral thyroid upper lobe (P = .016, odds ratio = 3.528) and clinically multiple metastatic lymph nodes in level III-IV (P = .005, odds ratio = 6.414) were independent predictive factors for occult level II metastases. All 3 (1.9%) occult metastases at level VB were found in necks with preoperative multiple lymph node metastases. CONCLUSIONS: A superselective lateral neck dissection including levels III to IV may be considered in patients with PTC when the preoperative evaluation identifies a single lymph node metastasis located at levels III to IV and the primary tumor is not in the upper lobe of the ipsilateral thyroid.

12.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e2101262, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494382

RESUMO

Cancer vaccines, which activate the immune system against a target antigen, are attractive for prostate cancer, where multiple upregulated protein targets are identified. However, many clinical trials implementing peptides targeting these proteins have yielded suboptimal results. Using spherical nucleic acids (SNAs), we explore how precise architectural control of vaccine components can activate a robust antigen-specific immune response in comparison to clinical formulations of the same targets. The SNA vaccines incorporate peptides for human prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) or T-cell receptor γ alternate reading frame protein (TARP) into an optimized architecture, resulting in high rates of immune activation and cytolytic ability in humanized mice and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs). Specifically, administered SNAs elevate the production and secretion of cytokines and increase polyfunctional cytotoxic T cells and effector memory. Importantly, T cells raised from immunized mice potently kill targets, including clinically relevant cells expressing the whole PSMA protein. Treatment of hPBMCs increases costimulatory markers and cytolytically active T cells. This work demonstrates the importance of vaccine structure and its ability to reformulate and elevate clinical targets. Moreover, it encourages the field to reinvestigate ineffective peptide targets and repackage them into optimally structured vaccines to harness antigen potency and enhance clinical outcomes.

13.
Acta Biomater ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506976

RESUMO

Tumor vaccines that induce effective and sustained antitumor immunity are highly promising for cancer therapy. However, the antitumor potential of these vaccines is weakened due to the immunosuppressive characteristics of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most abundant stromal cells within the TME; they play an important role in tumor growth, metastasis, immunosuppression, and drug resistance. Fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP) is overexpressed in CAFs in more than 90% of human tumor tissues. Further, FAP+CAFs are an ideal interstitial target for the immunotherapy of solid tumors. Exosomes derived from tumor cells contain many tumor antigens, which can be used as the basis of tumor vaccines that elicit strong antitumor immunity. Almost all exosome-based cancer vaccines have been designed and developed for tumor parenchymal cells. Moreover, the exosome production is very low and the purification is very difficult, limiting their clinical application as tumor vaccines. In this study, we developed FAP gene-engineered tumor cell-derived exosome-like nanovesicles (eNVs-FAP) as a tumor vaccine that can be prepared easily and in large quantities. The eNVs-FAP vaccine inhibited tumor growth by inducing strong and specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immune responses against tumor cells and FAP+CAFs and reprogramming the immunosuppressive TME in the colon, melanoma, lung, and breast cancer models. Moreover, eNVs-FAP vaccine-activated cellular immune responses could promote tumor ferroptosis by releasing interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) from CTLs and depleting FAP+CAFs. Thus, eNVs-FAP is a candidate tumor vaccine targeting both the tumor parenchyma and the stroma. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Nanovaccines can activate immune cells and promote an antitumor immune response. In this study, we developed the fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP) gene-engineered tumor cell-derived exosome-like vesicle vaccines (eNVs-FAP). A large number of eNVs-FAP were obtained by continuously squeezing FAP gene-engineered tumor cells. eNVs-FAP showed excellent antitumor effects in a variety of tumor-bearing mouse models. The mechanistic analysis showed that eNVs-FAP promoted the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), increased the infiltration of effector T cells into target tumor cells and FAP-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts (FAP+CAFs), and reduced the proportion of immunosuppressive cells, including M2-like tumor-associated macrophages (M2-TAMs), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and regulatory T cells (Tregs), in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Moreover, the clearance of FAP+CAFs helped enhance interferon-gamma-induced tumor cell ferroptosis.

14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(36): 10638-10647, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460265

RESUMO

Dietary fiber has been considered a key element in shaping the beneficial host-microbe symbiosis. In the present study, we identified Rosa roxburghii Tratt fruits as a promising dietary fiber source. The physicochemical properties and in vitro fermentability by human fecal microbes of R. roxburghii pomace water insoluble dietary fiber (RIDF) obtained from ultrasonic extraction and ultrahigh pressure (90 MPa)-treated RIDF (RIDF-90) were compared to those of R. roxburghii Tratt pomace (R). Ultrahigh pressure modification significantly increased the water holding, oil holding, and swelling capacity of RIDF-90 in comparison to R and RIDF. RIDF-90 displayed the slowest fermentation rate yet yielded the highest butyrate production. The superior butyrogenic properties of both RIDF-90 and, in part, RIDF were reflected by increased Coprococcus and Ruminococcus levels, demonstrating that ultrasonic extraction and/or further ultrahigh pressure treatment of insoluble fibers promotes the prebiotic value of R. roxburghii Tratt.

15.
Ground Water ; 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388266

RESUMO

Numerous continuous conduits exist in rock masses. These conduits affect the specific discharge distribution of the bulk rock mass. In this study, a modified theoretical model is presented to explore the specific discharge distribution in bedrock with an axisymmetric infilled conduit. The movement of fluid in the free region abides by the Navier-Stokes equation, and the seepage flow in the filling and rock regions complies with the Brinkman-extended Darcy equation. The analytical solution for the specific discharge distribution is derived by requiring flow continuity at the domain interface. This solution can be reduced to Darcy's law and Poiseuille's law. Sensitivity analysis shows that both the relative aperture of the free region and the permeability of the filling or rock regions positively influence the specific discharge. The specific discharge distribution curves seem to have an intersection for different porosity values. Moreover, the width of the transition layer where the porous media flow differs from traditional Darcy's flow is positively correlated with the permeability. However, the width is not directly correlated with the relative aperture and the porosity.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 790: 148155, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380252

RESUMO

Passive restoration (without any intervention) has been proposed as an effective strategy for grassland restoration in abandoned croplands. However, whether the vegetation in abandoned croplands can change towards the desired state and the time needed to reach a relative stable state are context-dependent. We investigated three abandoned croplands with different recovery times (5, 15 and 20 years) and one natural grassland in each of two different types of steppe (desert steppe and typical steppe) in the agro-pastoral ecotone of northern China to assess the restoration potential of grassland on abandoned croplands. Above- and below-ground biomass as well as species biodiversity increased gradually with increasing recovery time. After 20 years of restoration there was no significant difference between abandoned cropland and natural steppe in the typical steppe site, but above- and below-ground biomass and species biodiversity were still lower in abandoned cropland in the desert steppe site. At the beginning of restoration, the communities were dominated mainly by annual species, especially in the desert steppe. As recovery time increased, the biomass and richness of perennial graminoids and forbs increased significantly and replaced annual species as the dominant species. In both desert steppe and typical steppes, species similarity between restored and natural steppe increased over time, suggesting that previously cultivated grassland recovered towards the desired state. Our results indicate that 20 years was sufficient time for the restoration of croplands in the typical steppe, but more time may be needed in the desert steppe.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Pradaria , China , Produtos Agrícolas , Ecossistema , Solo
17.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 134, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies globally. Despite aggressive and multimodal treatment regimens, the overall survival of HCC patients remains poor. MAIN: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) with covalently closed structures and tissue- or organ-specific expression patterns in eukaryotes. They are highly stable and have important biological functions, including acting as microRNA sponges, protein scaffolds, transcription regulators, translation templates and interacting with RNA-binding protein. Recent advances have indicated that circRNAs present abnormal expression in HCC tissues and that their dysregulation contributes to HCC initiation and progression. Furthermore, researchers have revealed that some circRNAs might serve as diagnostic biomarkers or drug targets in clinical settings. In this review, we systematically evaluate the characteristics, biogenesis, mechanisms and functions of circRNAs in HCC and further discuss the current shortcomings and potential directions of prospective studies on liver cancer-related circRNAs. CONCLUSION: CircRNAs are a novel class of ncRNAs that play a significant role in HCC initiation and progression, but their internal mechanisms and clinical applications need further investigation.

19.
Trends Plant Sci ; 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417080

RESUMO

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) family members are highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinases in eukaryotes. Unlike animals, plants have evolved with multiple homologs of GSK3s involved in a diverse array of biological processes. Emerging evidence suggests that GSK3s act as signaling hubs for integrating perception and transduction of diverse signals required for plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic cues. Here we review recent advances in understanding the molecular interactions between GSK3s and an expanding spectrum of their upstream regulators and downstream substrates in plants. We further discuss how GSK3s act as key signaling nodes of multilayer regulation of plant development and stress response through either being regulated at the post-translational level or regulating their substrates via phosphorylation.

20.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 329, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mediastinal lymph node metastases (MLNM) are not rare in thyroid cancer, but their treatment has not been extensively studied. This study aimed to explore the preliminary application of video mediastinoscopy-assisted superior mediastinal dissection in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid carcinoma with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical pathologic data and short-term outcomes of thyroid cancer patients with suspicious MLNM treated with video mediastinoscopy-assisted mediastinal dissection at our institution from 2017 to 2020. RESULTS: Nineteen patients were included: 14 with medullary thyroid carcinoma and five with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Superior mediastinal nodes were positive in nine (64.3%) patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma and in four (80.0%) patients with papillary carcinoma. No fatal bleeding occurred. There were three cases of temporary recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) palsy postoperatively, one of which was bilateral. Four patients had temporary hypocalcemia requiring supplementation, one had a chyle fistula, and one developed wound infection after the procedure. Postoperative serum molecular markers decreased in all patients. One patient died of cancer while the other 18 patients remained disease-free, with a median follow-up of 33 months. CONCLUSION: Video mediastinoscopy-assisted superior mediastinal dissection can be performed relatively safely in patients with suspicious MLNM. This diagnostic and therapeutic approach may help control locoregional recurrences.


Assuntos
Linfadenopatia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Dissecação , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Linfonodos/patologia , Mediastinoscopia , Esvaziamento Cervical , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia
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