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1.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that sodium consumption alters the gut microbiota and host metabolome in murine models and small studies in humans. However, there is a lack of population-based studies that capture large variations in sodium consumption as well as potassium consumption. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of energy-adjusted dietary sodium (milligrams/kilocalorie), potassium, and sodium-to-potassium (Na/K) ratio with the microbiota and plasma metabolome in a well-characterized Chinese cohort with habitual excessive sodium and deficient potassium consumption. METHODS: We estimated dietary intakes from 3 consecutive validated 24-h recalls and household inventories. In 2833 adults (18-80 y old, 51.2% females), we analyzed microbial (genus-level 16S ribosomal RNA) between-person diversity, using distance-based redundancy analysis (dbRDA), and within-person diversity and taxa abundance using linear regression, accounting for geographic variation in both. In a subsample (n = 392), we analyzed the overall metabolome (dbRDA) and individual metabolites (linear regression). P values for specific taxa and metabolites were false discovery rate adjusted (q-value). RESULTS: Sodium, potassium, and Na/K ratio were associated with microbial between-person diversity (dbRDA P < 0.01) and several specific taxa with large geographic variation, including pathogenic Staphylococcus and Moraxellaceae, and SCFA-producing Phascolarctobacterium and Lachnospiraceae (q-value < 0.05). For example, sodium and Na/K ratio were positively associated with Staphylococcus and Moraxellaceae in Liaoning, whereas potassium was positively associated with 2 genera from Lachnospiraceae in Shanghai. Additionally, sodium, potassium, and Na/K ratio were associated with the overall metabolome (dbRDA P ≤ 0.01) and several individual metabolites, including butyrate/isobutyrate and gut-derived phenolics such as 1,2,3-benzenetriol sulfate, which was negatively associated with sodium in Guizhou (q-value < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that sodium and potassium consumption is associated with taxa and metabolites that have been implicated in cardiometabolic health, providing insights into the potential roles of gut microbiota and host metabolites in the pathogenesis of sodium- and potassium-associated diseases. More studies are needed to confirm our results.

2.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022948

RESUMO

Characterizing the spatial transmission pattern is critical for better surveillance and control of human influenza. Here, we propose a mutation network framework that utilizes network theory to study the transmission of human influenza H3N2. On the basis of the mutation network, the transmission analysis captured the circulation pattern from a global simulation of human influenza H3N2. Furthermore, this method was applied to explore, in detail, the transmission patterns within Europe, the United States, and China, revealing the regional spread of human influenza H3N2. The mutation network framework proposed here could facilitate the understanding, surveillance, and control of other infectious diseases.

3.
Med (N Y) ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043313

RESUMO

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerged respiratory infectious disease with kidney injury as a part of the clinical complications. However, the dynamic change of kidney function and its association with COVID-19 prognosis are largely unknown. Methods: In this multicenter retrospective cohort study, we analyzed clinical characteristics, medical history, laboratory tests, and treatment data of 12,413 COVID-19 patients. The patient cohort was stratified according to the severity of the outcome into three groups: non-severe, severe, and death. Findings: The prevalence of elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN), elevated serum creatinine (Scr), and decreased blood uric acid (BUA) at admission was 6.29%, 5.22%, 11.66%, respectively. The trajectories showed elevation of BUN level and Scr level, as well as a reduction of BUA level during 28 days after admission in death cases. Increased all-cause mortality risk was associated with elevated baseline levels of BUN and Scr, and decreased level of BUA. Conclusion: The dynamic changes of the three kidney function markers were associated with different severity and poor prognosis of COVID-19 patients. BUN showed close association and high potential for predicting adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients for severity stratification and triage.

4.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 85(8): 938-946, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045954

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and ß-Klotho (KLB) play an important role in preventing and treating overweight and obesity. However, it is unclear what conditions promote FGF21 and KLB expression in different tissues. Therefore, we studied expression of FGF21 and KLB with respect to two exercise regimes: moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) (two popular strategies in weight loss). Mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8 per group): MICT, HIIT, and sedentary lifestyle (SED). All mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to induce obesity. The exercise was performed on a motorized treadmill for another eight weeks and the diet continued in each group. We found that both MICT and HIIT had positive effects on the loss of HFD-induced body weight increase and serum FGF21 levels. HIIT promoted decrease of the body weight and serum triglyceride (TG) levels, while MICT was more effective at enhancing FGF21 and KLB expression in the liver, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and muscle at the mRNA and protein levels.

5.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Currently, the main challenge in tumour-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is the difficulty in locating culprit tumours for definitive diagnosis and surgical therapy. Herein, we retrospectively evaluate the efficiency of 68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT in the localisation and diagnosis of TIO, and compared with 18F-FDG. METHODS: Twenty-four consecutive patients with hypophosphataemic osteomalacia (HO) and suspicion of TIO who were referred to our centre for 68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT scanning were retrospectively reviewed. The images were evaluated qualitatively as well as semi-quantitatively, and imaging results were compared with the final diagnoses. RESULTS: Among the total of 21 patients who were included in the final analyses, 17 were diagnosed with TIO, while four were proven to have other causes of HO. 68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT produced positive results in 16 of the 17 patients with TIO, representing a sensitivity of 94.1%. Moreover, the 68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT results were negative in 3 of the 4 patients without TIO, representing a specificity of 75.0%. The overall accuracy of 68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT in locating the tumours responsible for TIO is 90.5%. In particular, 68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT detected the culprit tumours in 4 out of 10 patients with negative results on previous 18F-FDG PET/CT and showed a significantly higher T/M ratio of tumours than 18F-FDG PET/CT in the same patients (n = 10; 4.76 ± 3.08 vs 1.95 ± 1.33, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: 68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT is an accurate imaging modality in the localisation of tumours for TIO. It is superior to 18F-FDG PET/CT and may be useful in the differential diagnosis of HO. KEY POINTS: • TIO should be considered a possible cause for patients diagnosed with HO, which usually needs to be differentiated from other aetiologies. • 68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT is an accurate imaging modality in locating culprit tumours for TIO, superior to 18F-FDG PET/CT.

6.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 148(3): 1529, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003892

RESUMO

The performances of deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) modeling and transfer learning (TF) for thyroid tumor grading using ultrasound imaging were evaluated. This retrospective study included input patient data (ultrasound B-mode image sets) assigned to the training group (115 participants) or testing group (28 participants). DCNN (ResNet50) and TF (ResNet50, ResNet101, ResNet152, VGG16, Inception V3, and DenseNet201), which trains a convolutional neural network that has been pre-trained on ImageNet, were used for image classification based on thyroid tumor grade. Supervised training was performed by using the DCNN or TF model to minimize the difference between the output data and clinical grading. The performances of the DCNN and TF models were assessed in the testing dataset with receiver operating characteristic analyses. Results showed that TF based on Resnet50 and VGG16 had better performance than DCNN (ResNet50) in differentiating thyroid tumor with areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AUCs) curve more than 0.8. However, TF based on ResNet101, ResNet152, InceptionV3, and Densenet201 had equal or worse performances than DCNN (ResNet50) in grading thyroid tumor with AUCs less than 0.5. TF based on ResNet50 and VGG16 had a superior performance compared to DCNN (ResNet50) model for grading thyroid tumors based on ultrasound images.

7.
EBioMedicine ; 61: 103056, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcomas are rare heterogeneous tumours, derived from primitive mesenchymal stem cells, with more than 100 distinct subtypes. Radioresistance remains a major clinical challenge for sarcomas, demanding urgent for effective biomarkers of radiosensitivity. METHODS: The radiosensitive gene Kinesin family member 18B (KIF18B) was mined through bioinformatics with integrating of 15 Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. We used radiotherapy-sh-KIF18B combination to observe the anti-tumour effect in sarcoma cells and subcutaneous or orthotopic xenograft models. The KIF18B-sensitive drug T0901317 (T09) was further mined to act as radiosensitizer using the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer (GDSC) database. FINDINGS: KIF18B mRNA was significantly up-regulated in most of the subtypes of bone and soft tissue sarcoma. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that KIF18B high expression was an independent risk factor for prognosis in sarcoma patients with radiotherapy. Silencing KIF18B or using T09 significantly improved the radiosensitivity of sarcoma cells, delayed tumour growth in subcutaneous and orthotopic xenograft model, and elongated mice survival time. Furthermore, we predicted that T09 might bind to the structural region of KIF18B to exert radiosensitization. INTERPRETATION: These results indicated that sarcomas with low expression of KIF18B may benefit from radiotherapy. Moreover, the radiosensitivity of sarcomas with overexpressed KIF18B could be effectively improved by silencing KIF18B or using T09, which may provide promising strategies for radiotherapy treatment of sarcoma. FUNDINGS: A full list of funding can be found in the Funding Sources section.

8.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res ; 1868(1): 118857, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949647

RESUMO

Intracellular organelle cross-talk is a new and important research area. Under stress conditions, the coordinated action of the autophagy and endosomal systems in tumor cells is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and survival. The activation of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex is also involved in the regulation of stress and homeostasis in tumor cells. Here, we try to explore the effects of constitutively active IKKß subunits (CA-IKKß) on autophagy and endosomal system interactions. We confirm that CA-IKKß induces accumulation of autophagosomes and their fusion with MVBs to form amphisomes in cancer cells, and also drives the release of EVs containing autophagy components through an amphisome-dependent mechanism. We further demonstrate that CA-IKKß inhibits the expression of RAB7, thereby weakening the lysosomal-dependent degradation pathway. CA-IKKß also induces phosphorylation of SNAP23 at Ser95 instead of Ser110, which further promotes amphisome-plasma membrane fusion and sEV secretion. These results indicate that CA-IKKß drives the formation and transport of amphisomes, thereby regulating tumor cell homeostasis, which may illuminate a special survival mechanism in tumor cells under stress.

9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975408

RESUMO

A model food system was designed with dietary fiber and crude anthocyanins from purple eggplant peel to explore the degradation mechanism of anthocyanins during microwave and frying treatments. Our results found that delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside was either hydrolyzed into delphinidin or condensed with p-coumaric acid to form p-coumaroyl-delphinidin-3-O-glucoside. Delphinidin was cleaved into gallic acid and phloroglucinaldehyde, which might be further oxidized into pyrogallol and phloroglucinol, respectively. The total anthocyanin degradation followed the first-order kinetics in fried and microwaved solid matrix samples as well as microwaved liquid matrix samples. However, the total anthocyanin degradation followed the second-order kinetics in the heated liquid matrix samples at the frying temperature. The brown/polymeric color index, which negatively correlated with the anthocyanin content, increased faster in the liquid matrix samples than in the solid matrix samples. Compared with frying treatment, a higher rate of anthocyanin degradation in solution was observed under microwave treatment. However, anthocyanins were subject to much more damage under frying treatment than microwave treatment in a solid food system.

10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 7402657, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908909

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) characterized by occurrence in the rectum and sigmoid colon of young adults. However, the functional roles of transcription factors (TFs) and their regulating target genes and pathways are not fully known in ulcerative colitis (UC). In this study, we collected gene expression data to identify differentially expressed TFs (DETFs). We found that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were significantly enriched in the target genes of HOXA2, IKZF1, KLF2, XBP1, EGR2, ETV7, BACH2, CBFA2T3, HLF, and NFE2. TFs including BACH2, CBFA2T3, EGR2, ETV7, NFE2, and XBP1, and their target genes were significantly enriched in signaling by interleukins. BACH2 target genes were enriched in estrogen receptor- (ESR-) mediated signaling and nongenomic estrogen signaling. Furthermore, to clarify the functional roles of immune cells on the UC pathogenesis, we estimated the immune cell proportions in all the samples. The accumulated effector CD8 and reduced proportion of naïve CD4 might be responsible for the adaptive immune response in UC. The accumulation of plasma in UC might be associated with increased gut permeability. In summary, we present a systematic study of the TFs by analyzing the DETFs, their regulating target genes and pathways, and immune cells. These findings might improve our understanding of the TFs in the pathogenesis of UC.

11.
Proteomics ; : e1900334, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864883

RESUMO

The identification of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-binding peptides in mass spectrometry (MS)-based immunopeptideomics relies largely on database search engines developed for proteomics data analysis. However, because immunopeptidomics experiments do not involve enzymatic digestion at specific residues, an inflated search space leads to a high false positive rate and low sensitivity in peptide identification. In order to improve the sensitivity and reliability of peptide identification, a post-processing tool named DeepRescore is developed. DeepRescore combines peptide features derived from deep learning predictions, namely accurate retention timeand MS/MS spectra predictions, with previously used features to rescore peptide-spectrum matches. Using two public immunopeptidomics datasets, it is shown that rescoring by DeepRescore increases both the sensitivity and reliability of MHC-binding peptide and neoantigen identifications compared to existing methods. It is also shown that the performance improvement is, to a large extent, driven by the deep learning-derived features. DeepRescore is developed using NextFlow and Docker and is available at https://github.com/bzhanglab/DeepRescore.

12.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-8, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924898

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure the associations of sociodemographic and behavioural factors with fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in China. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: A 2015 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. PARTICIPANTS: Totally, 11 910 adults aged 18 to 64 years. RESULTS: Adjusted log binomial regression analyses showed that adults with higher income levels had higher fruit intake than those with low income levels (medium income group, risk ratio (RR): 1·28; 95 % CI: 1·16, 1·41; high income group, RR: 1·58; 95 % CI: 1·43, 1·74). Current smokers had lower fruit intake than non-smokers (RR: 0·86; 95 % CI: 0·77, 0·96). Adults living in southern China had higher vegetable intake (RR: 1·88; 95 % CI: 1·76, 2·01) but lower fruit intake (RR: 0·85; 95 % CI: 0·79, 0·91) than adults in northern China. With increasing age, adults had higher fruit intake (50-64 years, RR: 1·20; 95 % CI: 1·09, 1·33; reference category 18-34 years) and higher vegetable intake (35-49 years, RR: 1·13; 95 % CI: 1·05, 1·22; 50-64 years, RR: 1·22; 95 % CI: 1·13, 1·31). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identify a range of sociodemographic and behavioural factors associated with fruit and vegetable consumption among Chinese adults. They also point to the need for public health nutrition interventions for socially disadvantaged populations in China.

14.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(4): 562-566, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895136

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of Kaiser score for breast lesions presenting as non-mass enhancement. METHODS: We collected data from patients with breast lesions presenting as non-mass enhancement on preoperative DCE-MRI between January, 2014 and June, 2019. All the cases were confirmed by surgical pathology or puncture biopsy. With pathology results as the gold standard, we evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of Kaiser score and MRI BI-RADS classification and the consistency between the diagnostic results by the two methods and the pathological results. RESULTS: A total of 90 lesions were detected in 88 patients, including 28 benign lesions (31.1%) and 62 malignant lesions (68.9%). For diagnosis of the lesions, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of Kaiser Score were 100%, 75%, 89.9%, 100% and 92%, as compared with 93.5%, 46.4%, 79.5%, 76.5% and 78.9% of MRI BI-RADS, respectively. The diagnostic specificity of Kaiser score was significantly higher than that of BI-RADS classification (P=0.021). CONCLUSIONS: The Kaiser score system provides a diagnostic strategy for BI-RADS classification of breast lesions with non-mass enhancement and has a better diagnostic efficacy than BI-RADS classification alone. The use of Kaiser score can significantly improve the diagnostic specificity of such breast lesions for inexperienced radiologists.


Assuntos
Doenças Mamárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
15.
BMC Surg ; 20(1): 202, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In China, diverticulitis is more often located in the right colon, mainly in the cecum and ascending colon. Here we study the characteristics of acute colonic diverticulitis and compare various treatments for acute right-sided colonic diverticulitis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 123 patients with acute colonic diverticulitis treated in our hospital from April 2013 to April 2020, including 114 cases of right-sided colonic diverticulitis, was performed. The characteristics of acute colonic diverticulitis were analyzed, and the therapeutic effects of different treatments for acute right-sided colonic diverticulitis were compared. RESULTS: 111 cases of caecal and ascending colonic diverticulitis were identified (90.2% of cases, male to female ratio 2.26:1, average age 39.6 ± 14.4 years, surgery ratio 24.3%, mean hospital stay 7.4 ± 4.3 days, recurrence rate 3.6%). Three cases of transverse colonic diverticulitis and three cases of descending colonic diverticulitis were found. Six cases of Sigmoid diverticulitis (4.9% of cases, male to female ratio 1:1, average age 67.7 ± 4.5 years, surgery ratio 33.3%, mean hospital stay 11.7 ± 5.5 days, recurrence rate 0%) were found. 13 patients underwent right-sided colonic diverticulitis resection and repair, while zero patients underwent colectomy. Abdominal drainage was performed in 15 patients with right-sided colonic diverticulitis. There was no significant difference in the length of hospital stay among the three treatments for right-sided colonic diverticulitis (P = 0.05). There was no significant difference in the recurrence rate among the three treatments of right-sided colonic diverticulitis (P = 0.358). While the recurrence rate of right-sided colonic diverticulitis was only 3.5%, relapse usually occurred within the first year following treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In our patients, right-sided colonic diverticulitis is more common in young and middle-aged patients than in elderly patients and we see a higher incidence in males. Acute right-sided complex diverticulitis is rare. While non-surgical treatment is preferred for acute right-sided uncomplicated diverticulitis, no significant difference in outcome was observed between the three different treatments we compared. Resection and repair of diverticulum or abdominal drainage can also be used to treat patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis.

16.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 532(2): 292-299, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868075

RESUMO

Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCγ1) is involved in regulating cell metabolism. However, little is known how PLCγ1 directs BMSC differentiation. Here, we investigated the role of PLCγ1 in rat BMSC differentiation into osteoblasts and chondrocytes. The results of Alizarin red and Alcian blue staining showed that PLCγ1 inhibitor U73122 significantly enhanced the mineralization capacity and proteoglycan deposition of BMSCs. The results of qPCR technique and Western blot analysis showed that long-term treatment of U73122 enhanced COL1A1 and OPG mRNA levels and Collagen 1A1, BMP2, and p-Smad1/5/9 protein levels and that short-term treatment of U73122 enhanced COL2A1 and SOX9 mRNA levels and Collagen 2, SOX9, Aggrecan, TGF-ß3, and p-Smad2/3 protein levels. Decreased p-mTOR and p-P38 contributed to enhanced osteogenic potentials of BMSCs and increased p-P38 contributed to enhanced chondrogenic potentials of BMSCs. The scaffold transplantation with U73122+BMSC was more efficacious than BMSC alone for osteochondral defect repair in a rat model. Therefore, suppressing PLCγ1 could improve the capacity to effectively use BMSCs for cell therapy of osteochondral defect.

17.
Metabolomics ; 16(10): 103, 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951074

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Urbanization is associated with major changes in environmental and lifestyle exposures that may influence metabolic signatures. OBJECTIVES: We investigated cross-sectional urban and rural differences in plasma metabolome analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry platform in 500 Chinese adults aged 25-68 years from two neighboring southern Chinese provinces. METHODS: We first examined the overall metabolome differences by urban and rural residential location, using Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) and random forest classification. We then tested the association between urbanization status and individual metabolites using a linear regression adjusting for age, sex, and province and conducted pathway analysis (Fisher's exact test) to identify metabolic pathways differed by urbanization status. RESULTS: We observed distinct overall metabolome by urbanization status in OPLS-DA and random forest classification. Using linear regression, out of a total of 1108 unique metabolite features identified in this sample, we found that 266 metabolites were differed by urbanization status (positive false discovery rate-adjusted p-value, q-value < 0.05). For example, the following metabolites were positively associated with urbanization status: caffeine metabolites from xanthine metabolism, hazardous pollutants like 4-hydroxychlorothalonil and perfluorooctanesulfonate, and metabolites implicated in cardiometabolic diseases, such as branched-chain amino acids. In pathway analysis, we found that xanthine metabolism pathways differed by urbanization status (q-value = 1.64E-04). CONCLUSION: We detected profound differences in host metabolites by urbanization status. Urban residents were characterized by metabolites signaling caffeine metabolism and toxic pollutants and metabolites on known pathways to cardiometabolic disease risks, compared to their rural counterparts. Our findings highlight the importance of considering urbanization in metabolomics analysis.

18.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impaired cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs). The pathogenesis of CVR in the development of WMH-related cognitive impairment (CI) remains poorly understood. PURPOSE: To detect the CVR status in WMH subjects with/without CI by using a resting-state blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) approach and to explore the mediating relationships among CVR, WMH, and cognitive level. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. SUBJECTS: Subjects with moderate to severe WMH (with CI [WMH-CI], n = 68; without CI [WMH-no-CI, n = 63) as well as normal controls (NCs, n = 87). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3.0T with gradient-recalled echoplanar imaging and 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery. ASSESSMENT: The CVR, WMH volume, and cognitive level were assessed. The CVR map was derived using BOLD signal obtained from resting-state functional MRI data. STATISTICAL TESTS: CVR maps were compared among the three groups. Partial correlation analyses were performed to correlate impaired CVR with WMH volume and cognitive test scores. Mediation analysis was conducted to determine whether WMH acted as a mediating factor between CVR and cognitive function. RESULTS: Compared with the NC group, both WMH groups showed reduced CVR in the left hemisphere (P < 0.05). The WMH-CI group showed further decreased CVR in the left frontal area, when compared with the WMH-no-CI group (P < 0.05). In the WMH-CI group, the lower CVR in left frontal area was a strong indicator of poor performance on general cognition (r = 0.311), executive function (r = 0.362), and information processing speed (r = 0.399) (all P < 0.05). Periventricular WMH (PWMH) volume mediated these correlations, the ß and 95% bootstrap confidence intervals were (0.5097, [0.1498,1.1385]), (-0.4081, [-1.0256,-0.1363]), and (-0.5576, [-1.4666,-0.1538]), respectively. DATA CONCLUSION: WMH-CI subjects showed a greater reduction of CVR derived from a resting-state BOLD approach in the left frontal area than WMH-no-CI subjects. Cognition was highly dependent on the integrity of cerebrovascular reactivity and mediated by PWMH burden. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 2.

19.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; 46(10): 1684-1694, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996345

RESUMO

Panax quinquefolium saponin (PQS) composed of 45% pseudo-ginsenoside F11 (PF11), is a natural mixture of sterol compounds obtained from the American ginseng plant, having numerous promising benefits for health. However, low solubility and permeability limit the development of PQS as a therapeutic agent for oral administration. In this study, PQS liposomes (PQS-Lips) were prepared by thin layer hydration, an in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) model was used to verify the improvement of membrane permeability of PQS-Lips. PQS-Lips had a high encapsulation efficiency (EE) of 65%∼70%, a particle size about 100.0 nm, and a zeta potential of -60 mV with regular spherical surface. FTIR and DSC showed the PQS in liposomes were amorphous, indicating that hydrogen bonds formed between one or several hydroxyl groups in PQS and C-O group at the phospholipid polar terminal. In addition, PQS-Lips showed sustained release in vitro than PQS at pH 1.2 and pH 6.8, and PQS-Lips had good stability in simulated gastric and intestinal fluid. Then, the absorption rate (K a) and effective permeability coefficient (P eff) of PQS-Lips in the whole small intestine were significantly higher than those in PQS solution (PQS-Sol), which proved that the PQS-Lips could significantly increase the membrane permeability of PQS and promote its absorption in the small intestine. From the experimental results, it could be known that liposome technology could effectively improve the absorption of PQS in the small intestine.

20.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are rising among Chinese reproductive-age women, while some studies have focused on the relationship between sedentary behavior and obesity in certain populations, none has focused on Chinese reproductive-age women specifically. This study examined secular trends in leisure time sedentary behaviors (watching television time, computer time and reading time, and the total sedentary time) among Chinese reproductive-age women and the association of those behaviors with five weight indicators-body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity status. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted with Chinese reproductive-age women aged 15-49 who had participated in two or more rounds of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), and completed the questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The exposure variables were the average weekly time spent on three leisure time sedentary behaviors (watching television, using computer, and reading) and the total sedentary time (the sum of the above three sedentary time and video game time). Mixed-effect linear models were produced to explore the secular trends of the mean hours of these sedentary behaviors and the total sedentary time after adjusting covariates. Models were also produced to study the effects of these types of sedentary behavior levels on BMI and WC. Mixed-effect logistic regression models were produced to study the effects of the sedentary behavior levels on overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity status. RESULTS: The total sedentary time among the reproductive-age women increased over time across most of age, region, educational levels, and income groups from 2004 to 2015. Television hours fluctuated, it increased and then declined over time across most of age, region, and income groups. Computer hours continually increased over time across all age, region, educational level, and income groups. Reading hours gradually decreased over time across most of age, region, educational level, and income groups. Those with a moderate level of television time (14 to <35 h/week) had 1.08 cm larger WCs and were 1.31 times more likely to have abdominal obesity than those with a low level of television time (<14 h/week). Those with a high level of television time (≥35 h/week) had 1.74 cm larger WCs, 0.66 kg/m2 larger BMIs, were 1.50 times more likely to be overweight and were 1.47 times more likely to have abdominal obesity than those with a low level of television time (<14 h/week). Greater computer, reading time, and total sedentary time were not associated with WC, BMI, overweight, obesity, or abdominal obesity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings showed that among Chinese reproductive-age women ages 15-49, secular trends of computer time increased rapidly, reading time decreased gradually and television time fluctuated but showed not much difference from 2004 to 2015. The sharp increase in computer time far outweighed the decline in reading time. As a result, the overall sedentary behavior time of Chinese reproductive-age women gradually increased. These findings provided strong evidence that greater television time was significantly associated with higher BMI, WC, and higher risks of overweight, abdominal obesity among Chinese reproductive-age women. Computer, reading, and the total sedentary time were not associated with those weight indicators.

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