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1.
Soft Matter ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734953

RESUMO

A typical biological environment is usually featured by crowding and heterogeneity, leading to complex reaction kinetics of the immersed macromolecules. In the present work, we adopt Langevin dynamics simulations to systematically investigate polymer looping kinetics in active heterogeneous media crowded with a mixture of mobile active particles and immobile obstacles. For comparison, a parallel study is also performed in the passive heterogeneous media. We explicitly analyze the change of looping time and looping probability with the variation of obstacle ratio, volume fraction and crowder size. We reveal the novel phenomena of inhibition-facilitation transition of the looping rate induced by heterogeneity, crowdedness and activity. In addition, our results demonstrate a very non-trivial crowder size effect on the looping kinetics. The underlying mechanism is rationalized by the interplay of polymer diffusion, conformational change and looping free-energy barrier. The competing effect arising from active particles and obstacles on structural and dynamical properties of the polymer yields a consistent scenario for our observations. Lastly, the non-exponential kinetics of the looping process is also analyzed. We find that both activity and crowding can strengthen the heterogeneity degree of the looping kinetics.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594458

RESUMO

Discussion can be an important and powerful tool in efforts to build a more diverse, equitable, and inclusive future for STEM (i.e., science, technology, engineering, and mathematics). However, facilitating discussions on difficult, complex, and often uncomfortable issues, like racism and sexism, can feel daunting. We outline a series of steps that can be used by educators to facilitate productive discussions that empower everyone to listen, contribute, learn, and ultimately act to transform STEM.

3.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 535, 2021 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors represented by Etanercept (a fusion protein containing soluble TNF receptor II (sTNFRII) and the Fc segment of human IgG1) play a pivotal role in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment. However, long-term use increases the risk of infection and tumors for their systemic inhibition of TNF-α, which disrupts the regular physiological function of this molecular. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-based delivery system provides new options for RA treatment with their "homing" and immune-regulation capacities, whereas inflammatory environment (especially TNF-α) is not conducive to MSCs' therapeutic effects by inducing apoptosis/autophagy. Here, we constructed a strain of sTNFRII-Fc-expressing MSCs (sTNFRII-MSC), aiming to offset the deficiency of those two interventions. METHODS: Constructed sTNFRII-Fc lentiviral vector was used to infect human umbilical cord-derived MSCs, and sTNFRII-MSC stable cell line was generated by monoclonal cultivation. In vitro and vivo characteristics of sTNFRII-MSC were assessed by coculture assay and an acute inflammatory model in NOD/SCID mice. The sTNFRII-MSC were transplanted into CIA model, pathological and immunological indicators were detected to evaluate the therapeutic effects of sTNFRII-MSC. The distribution of sTNFRII-MSC was determined by immunofluorescence assay. Apoptosis and autophagy were analyzed by flow cytometry, western blot and immunofluorescence. RESULTS: sTNFRII-Fc secreted by sTNFRII-MSC present biological activity both in vitro and vivo. sTNFRII-MSC transplantation effectively alleviates mice collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) via migrating to affected area, protecting articular cartilage destruction, modulating immune balance and sTNFRII-MSC showed prolonged internal retention via resisting apoptosis/autophagy induced by TNF-α. CONCLUSION: sTNFRII-Fc modification protects MSCs against apoptosis/autophagy induced by TNF-α, in addition to releasing sTNFRII-Fc neutralizing TNF-α to block relevant immune-inflammation cascade, and thus exert better therapeutic effects in alleviating inflammatory arthritis.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Animais , Apoptose , Autofagia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
4.
Transgenic Res ; 30(6): 781-797, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529208

RESUMO

Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2) was an initial rate-limiting enzyme of the kynurenine (Kyn) pathway in tryptophan (Trp) metabolism. We undertook this study to determine a comprehensive analysis of TDO2 expression in immune cells and assess the characterization of immune cell phenotype in TDO2 knockout mice. The expression of TDO2 in various tissues of DBA/1 mice was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry. Both flow cytometry and immunofluorescence were used to analyze the expression of TDO2 in immune cells. Furthermore, TDO2 knockout (KO) mice were generated by CRISPR/Cas9 technology to detect immune cell phenotype. TDO2 protein level in liver was tested by western blot. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to detect the level of Trp and Kyn. Flow cytometry was used to test the proportions of splenic lymphocyte subsets in wild-type (WT) and TDO2 KO mice. We found that TDO2 was expressed in various tissues and immune cells, and TDO2 staining was mainly observed in the cytoplasm of cells. There was no difference in the development of immune cells between TDO2 KO mice and WT mice, including T cells, B cells, memory B cells, plasma cells, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells. Interestingly, the reduced M1/M2 ratio was observed in the peritoneal macrophages of TDO2 KO mice. Taken together, these findings enriched the known expression profile of TDO2, especially its expression in immune cells. Our study suggested that TDO2-mediated Trp-Kyn metabolism pathway might be involved in the immune response.

5.
Inorg Chem ; 60(14): 10398-10414, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236171

RESUMO

A series of V-substituted α-MnO2 (KxMn8-yVyO16·nH2O, y = 0, 0.2, 0.34, 0.75) samples were successfully synthesized without crystalline or amorphous impurities, as evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed a morphological evolution from nanorods to nanoplatelets as V-substitution increased, while electron-energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) confirmed uniform distribution of vanadium within the materials. Rietveld refinement of synchrotron XRD showed an increase in bond lengths and a larger range of bond angles with increasing V-substitution. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of the as-prepared materials revealed the V valence to be >4+ and the Mn valence to decrease with increasing V content. Upon electrochemical lithiation, increasing amounts of V were found to preserve the Mn-Mnedge relationship at higher depths of discharge, indicating enhanced structural stability. Electrochemical testing showed the y = 0.75 V-substituted sample to deliver the highest capacity and capacity retention after 50 cycles. The experimental findings were consistent with the predictions of density functional theory (DFT), where the V centers impart structural stability to the manganese oxide framework upon lithiation. The enhanced electrochemistry of the y = 0.75 V-substituted sample is also attributed to its smaller crystallite size in the form of a nanoplatelet morphology, which promotes facile ion access via reduced Li-ion diffusion path lengths.

6.
Chemosphere ; 280: 130877, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162102

RESUMO

A mild and one-pot activation approach of activated carbon was found. The feasibility of boric acid as the activated reagent which was used for the adsorption of four tetracyclines antibiotics (TCs) in water. Boric acid activated carbon (BAC) from bioresource has a much higher removal efficiency than currently reported biochar. The maximum adsorption capacity of BAC is 173.9 mg/g for TCs. BAC is an ecofriendly, nontoxic, and low-cost absorbent from sawdust waste. BAC and TCs could keep coalescing at least 55 days on the surface without stable release. BAC was fully characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman, zeta potential, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis; the large surface area and rich pore structure were proved. The interaction between BAC and TCs are hydrogen bond interaction, π-π interaction, and electrostatic interaction. These interactions are also related to the surface charge of BAC and the TCs' species of ions in different pH. Furthermore, the adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm of BAC were studied thoroughly. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intra-particle diffusion, Elovich Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were fitted and the physical adsorption process was proved. After the study on adsorption thermodynamics, adsorption exhibits a spontaneous and favorable process.


Assuntos
Lignina , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Antibacterianos , Biomassa , Ácidos Bóricos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Tetraciclinas , Termodinâmica , Água
7.
J Food Sci ; 86(6): 2684-2699, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096062

RESUMO

Nowadays, consumers have an increasing demand for health products. In this study, an oral liquid was developed using a compound extract consisting of three herbal extracts (Dendrobium nobile Lindl., Lycium barbarum, and Puerariae lobatae Radix) because the compound extract (a combination of all three extracts) was superior to every single extract in promoting the phagocytic capacity of RAW264.7 macrophages and the proliferation ability of GES-1 cells. In this oral liquid, the dosage of the stabilizer and the sweetener was selected using a stability test and sensory quality evaluation. When 0.30% (m/v) xanthan gum and 0.20% (m/v) mogroside were added, the oral liquid had not only a good stability but also the highest sensory score for overall acceptability. The chemical composition analysis showed that the oral liquid had various functional ingredients including polysaccharides, phenols, alkaloids, and so forth. The immune-enhancing efficacy of the oral liquid was evaluated in BALB/c mice by measuring the levels of different immune indicators. The results indicated that the oral liquid obviously enhanced nonspecific and specific immunity. A rat model with ethanol-induced gastric ulcer was used to examine the protective effect of the oral liquid on the gastric mucosa and to explore the related mechanisms. The oral administration of the oral liquid for days significantly prevented the formation of gastric ulcer. This study provided an effective oral liquid that could enhance immunity and protect gastric mucosa.


Assuntos
Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycium/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/toxicidade , Etanol/toxicidade , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente
8.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(21): 12171-12190, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008649

RESUMO

Intra-chain looping in complex environments is significant in advancing our understanding of biological processes in life. We adopt Langevin dynamics simulations to perform a comparative study of polymer looping kinetics in passive and active environments. From the analysis of looping quantities, including looping-unlooping times and looping probabilities, we unraveled the intriguing effects of active crowder size, activity and crowding. Firstly, we figured out the phase diagram involving a novel facilitation-inhibition transition in the parameter space of active crowder size and active force, and the two-fold roles of activity are clarified. In particular, we find that active particles of a size comparable to the polymer monomer are most favorable for facilitated looping, while those with a similar size to the polymer gyration radius impede the looping most seriously. Secondly, the underlying looping mechanisms in different active crowder size regimes are rationalized by the interplay among diffusion, polymer conformational change and the free-energy barrier. For small active crowders, activity significantly promotes end-to-end distance diffusion, which dominantly facilitates both looping and unlooping processes. In the case of moderate active crowders, the polymer chain suffers from prominent swelling, and thus inevitable inhibited looping will occur. For large active crowders, activity induces a counterintuitive non-cage effect on the looping kinetics, through yielding a higher effective temperature and larger unlooping free-energy barrier. This is in sharp contrast to the caging phenomena observed in passive media. Lastly, the volume-fraction dependence of the looping quantities in an active bath demonstrates dramatic discrepancies from that in a passive bath, which highlights the contrasting effects of activity and crowding.

9.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 21(1): 82, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902557

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) has obvious clinical value in the diagnosis of diabetes, but the conclusions on the diagnostic value of diabetic retinopathy (DR) are not consistent. This study aims to comprehensively evaluate the accuracy of glycosylated hemoglobin in the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy through the meta-analysis of diagnostic tests. METHODS: Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Wanfang Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) were searched until November, 2020. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) tool was used to assess the quality of the included studies. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (+LR), negative likelihood ratio (-LR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were calculated by Stata 15.0 software. RESULTS: After screening, 18 high-quality papers were included. The results of meta-analysis showed that the combined DOR = 18.19 (95% CI: 10.99-30.11), the sensitivity= 0.81 (95% CI): 0.75 ~ 0.87), specificity = 0.81 (95%CI: 0.72 ~ 0.87), +LR = 4.2 (95%CI: 2.95 ~ 6.00), -LR = 0.23 (95%CI: 0.17 ~ 0.31), and the area under the Summary ROC curve was 0.88 (95%CI: 0.85 ~ 0.90). CONCLUSION: The overall accuracy of HbA1cC forin diagnosing diabetic retinopathy is good. As it is more stable than blood sugar and is not affected by meals, it may be a suitable indicator for diabetic retinopathy.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(12): e25032, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study explored the therapeutic value of standard trauma craniectomy (STC) for the treatment of traumatic multiple intracranial hematoma. METHODS: Clinical data of traumatic multiple intracranial hematoma patients who underwent surgical treatment in 2014 and 2015 were collected. The STC group and a control group according to the surgical mode, 48 and 30 cases were randomly selected from each group, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed on the change in the Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score from before the operation to 1 day, 1 week and 1 month postoperatively through repeated analysis of variance and Wilcoxon rank-sum analysis. RESULTS: Significant differences in the GCS were observed at different time points for the two operative modes (P < .01), and an interaction was observed between time and treatment groups (P < .05). The rates of change of the GCS score for the two surgical modes were most obviously different at 3 days and 1 week postoperatively (P ≤ .001, P < .01). No statistically significant differences were observed in the rates of change of the GCS at 1 month postoperatively (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to conventional craniotomy, STC has obvious effects on the recovery after disturbance of consciousness at 1 week postoperatively but does not result in a significant improvement in recovery at 1 month postoperatively.


Assuntos
Craniectomia Descompressiva , Hemorragia Intracraniana Traumática/complicações , Hemorragia Intracraniana Traumática/cirurgia , Inconsciência/terapia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Resultado do Tratamento , Inconsciência/etiologia
11.
J Diabetes Res ; 2021: 5340453, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33575359

RESUMO

Aims: Epidemiological data on diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Chinese population is still rather scarce, and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy are inconsistent because of study designs, grading standards, and population samples. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based retrospective study included 1052 type 2 diabetes patients. Diabetic retinopathy was diagnosed by nonmydriatic fundus photography and/or fundus examination apparatus. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the risk of diabetic retinopathy. Results: A total of 352 (33.5% prevalence) subjects were diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy based on our population. The patients in the DR group not only had significantly higher hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), urinary microalbumin-creatinine ratio (ACR), and systolic blood pressure but also had higher follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels compared to those in the non-DR group. Moreover, we confirmed that diabetes duration and HbA1c are strongly associated with DR risk. We also found that serum LH was an independent risk factor in male diabetic retinopathy patients (OR = 1.086, 95% CI 1.024-1.152), and the levels of LH were significantly associated with diabetic retinopathy prevalence (P = 0.018). Conclusions: Our study strengthens the argument that diabetes duration and HbA1c are risk factors for patients with DR. Additionally; we firstly confirmed that serum LH was an independent risk factor in male diabetic retinopathy patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/sangue , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Am J Med Sci ; 361(1): 63-68, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Specific factors correlated with hypothyroidism in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients remain unclear. Therefore, we aim to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in Chinese patients with SLE and the relationship between clinical hypothyroidism and SLE. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study of the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in 672 patients with SLE and 605 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Demographic, clinical, and biochemical data were compared between 58 patients with SLE with hypothyroidism and 197 patients with SLE with euthyroidism. Multivariate analysis was performed using binomial logistic regression analysis. Spearman's rank correlation was used to identify an association between thyroid function and disease activity. RESULTS: The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was significantly higher in patients with SLE than in controls (70.7% vs 19.7%). SLE was associated with higher rates of hypothyroidism (9.6%, P ≤ 0.001) and euthyroid sick syndrome (49.6%, P ≤ 0.001) compared with control subjects. Further analyses showed that hypothyroidism in patients with SLE was associated with high blood pressure, renal disorder, high serum creatinine, high uric acid, hyperlipidaemia, low C3 and C4, positive anti-dsDNA antibodies, and high SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) score. In multiple logistic regression models, albumin, platelet count, serum creatinine, and anti-dsDNA antibodies were associated with hypothyroidism. Finally, free tri-iodothyronine was significantly negatively correlated with SLEDAI score. CONCLUSIONS: Hypothyroidism was more prevalent in patients with SLE. There was a relationship between hypothyroidism with renal disorder and lupus activity. Albumin, platelet count, serum creatinine, and anti-dsDNA antibodies were correlated with hypothyroidism.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Masculino , Prevalência
13.
J Clin Apher ; 36(1): 20-27, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pemphigus is a group of rare and severe autoimmune blistering disease mediated by pathogenic autoantibodies against desmogleins. Plasmapheresis can directly remove autoantibodies from circulation, which has been applied to the treatment of pemphigus as an adjuvant therapy. But the results of the researches are controversial. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) combined with immunosuppressive treatment for patients with severe pemphigus in our single center. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 17 patients with severe pemphigus who were unresponsive to high-dose corticosteroid and received DFPP treatment between January 2010 and January 2020. The information on demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory data, treatment regimens, and clinical outcomes were collected. RESULTS: All the patients were diagnosed as severe pemphigus and had a period of at least 1 week of high-dose prednisone (1-1.5 mg/kg/day), but they were unresponsive to corticosteroid and immunosuppressants treatment. They received DFPP treatment as an adjuvant therapy. After DFPP treatment, the titers of desmogleins antibodies significantly decreased (P < .001), Nikolsky's sign became negative and no new blisters appeared. The dosage of corticosteroid could begin to taper down rapidly in 9 ± 4 days. On discharge, the dosage of prednisone decreased significantly (51 ± 3 mg/day, P < .001). No major adverse events happened that could lead to the termination of DFPP treatment. CONCLUSION: Double filtration plasmapheresis combined with immunosuppressive treatment is an effective and safe therapeutic regimen for severe pemphigus. DFPP can also contribute to the dosage reduction of steroid to avoid more drug-related side effect.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 757: 143810, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279197

RESUMO

A non-metallic and low-cost novel phosphorus and boron co-doping graphite carbon nitride (PB-g-C3N4) photocatalyst was prepared by a facile thermal copolymerization of urea with B2O3 and (NH4)2·HPO4. The novel PB-g-C3N4 exhibited excellent optical and electrical properties and the photocatalytic elimination efficiency for atrazine (AT, can make feminization of male frogs in the wild, and even induce reproductive cancers in humans.) has been greatly improved compared with the pristine g-C3N4. The results of characterization techniques indicate that the introduced B and P atoms most probably to substitute for sp2-hybridized C atoms in triazine rings. O2- and h+ are the dominant active species to induce the elimination of AT demonstrated by the radical-trapping experiments. And a possible elimination pathway is proposed according to the detected main intermediates. In addition, PB-g-C3N4 was applied to the simultaneous photocatalytic elimination of 9 triazine herbicides, and the effects of different initial concentrations, pH, fulvic acid (FA) and ion species on their elimination effects were studied. And it was proved that the photocatalytic performance of PB-g-C3N4 did not significant decrease after 4 times of reuse.

15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2214: 241-252, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944914

RESUMO

ChIP-seq is a powerful technique that allows the detection of chromatin localization for proteins and epigenetic modifications. However, conventional ChIP-seq usually requires millions of cells. This becomes a daunting task for applications in which only limited experimental materials are available. For example, during mammalian embryo development, the epigenomes undergo drastic reprogramming which endows a fertilized egg with the potential to develop into the whole body. Low-input ChIP-seq methods would be instrumental to help decipher molecular mechanisms underlying such epigenetic reprogramming. Here we describe an optimized ChIP-seq method-STAR (Small-scale TELP-Assisted Rapid) ChIP-seq-that allows the detection of histone modifications using only a few hundred cells. This method is proven to be robust in epigenomic profiling in both embryos and cultured cells.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação/métodos , Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Código das Histonas , Animais , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Epigenômica/métodos , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(1): 28-35, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356212

RESUMO

Unadorned carbon nitride was synthesized via different nitrogen-rich precursors by thermal polymerization and applied to multifungicides for simultaneous photodegradation in the present study. Urea-derived carbon nitride (UCN) was verified to be most efficient in fungicide removal. The influences of catalyst dosage and pH were studied during the photodegradation process. Hydroxyl radical (•OH) and holes (h+) are the active species during photodegradation of each of the eight fungicides within an aqueous environment. The primary photodegradation products and pathways of all eight fungicides were systematically identified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. In addition, the UCN catalyst was also applied to potted plants. The experimental results revealed that UCN could reduce fungicide residues in plants grown within a contaminated matrix. This study shows promising applications of the UCN catalyst in alleviating the hazards of pesticide residue.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/química , Nitrilas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Catálise/efeitos da radiação , Cinética , Luz , Fotólise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(45): 26200-26215, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200756

RESUMO

Iron based materials hold promise as next generation battery electrode materials for Li ion batteries due to their earth abundance, low cost, and low environmental impact. The iron oxide, magnetite Fe3O4, adopts the spinel (AB2O4) structure. Other 2+ cation transition metal centers can also occupy both tetrahedral and/or octahedral sites in the spinel structure including MgFe2O4, a partially inverse spinel, and ZnFe2O4, a normal spinel. Though structurally similar to Fe3O4 in the pristine state, previous studies suggest significant differences in structural evolution depending on the 2+ cation in the structure. This investigation involves X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction affirmed by density functional theory (DFT) to elucidate the role of the 2+ cation on the structural evolution and phase transformations during (de)lithiation of the spinel ferrites Fe3O4, MgFe2O4, and ZnFe2O4. The cation in the inverse, normal and partially inverse spinel structures located in the tetrahedral (8a) site migrates to the previously unoccupied octahedral 16c site by 2 electron equivalents of lithiation, resulting in a disordered [A]16c[B2]16dO4 structure. DFT calculations support the experimental results, predicting full displacement of the 8a cation to the 16c site at 2 electron equivalents. Substitution of the 2+ cation results in segregation of oxidized phases in the charged state. This report provides significant structural insight into the (de)lithiation mechanisms for an intriguing class of iron oxide materials.

18.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(8): 839-44, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869592

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of acupoint injection and intramuscular injection with mouse nerve growth factor (mNGF) on gross motor function development of children with cerebral palsy (CP), and explore the treatment mechanism. METHODS: A total of 63 children with CP were randomly divided into an observation group (32 cases, 4 cases dropped off ) and a control group (31 cases, 3 cases dropped off). Based on the routine rehabilitation therapy, the control group received intramuscular injection of mNGF(18 µg/2 mL), and the observation group received acupoint injection of mNGF at Xinshu (BL 15), Ganshu (BL 18), Pishu (BL 20), Shenshu (BL 23), Sanjiaoshu (BL 22), Shenting (GV 24), Baihui (GV 20), Fengfu (GV 16), Dazhui (GV 14), etc. Of them, 5-6 acupoints alternately were selected each time, and each acupoint was given 0.3-0.5 mL, totally 18 µg/2 mL. Both treatment were carried out once every other day for six months. Before and after treatment, the children's development of brain function was assessed using gross motor function classification system (GMFCS). Before treatment (T0), after 2 (T2), 4 (T4) and 6 (T6) months of treatment, the motor function was evaluated by gross motor function measure (GMFM-88). The systolic peak velocity (Vs), mean velocity (Vm) and vascular resistance index (RI) of anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) were measured, and the level of N-acetyl aspartate acid (NAA), choline (Cho), lactate (Lac) and creatine (Cr) from the basal ganglia, thalamus and periventricular white mater were detected by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) technology with MAGNETOM Skyra3.0T magnetic resonance imaging system before and after treatment. RESULTS: Compared with before treatment, the GMFCS classification of the observation group after treatment was significantly improved (P<0.05); after treatment, the difference of GMFCS classification between the two groups was not significant (P>0.05), however, the observation group had a 3.142 times of feasibility for good gross motor function development by more than level 1 compared to the control group (P<0.05). After 2, 4, and 6 months of treatment, the GMFM-88 scores of the two groups showed an upward trend (P<0.01), and the increase of the observation group was greater than that of the control group (P<0.05). Compared with before treatment, in the ACA and MCA, the Vs and Vm increased, RI decreased in both groups after treatment (P<0.01), and in the brain, NAA/Cr increased, Cho/Cr and Lac/Cr decreased (P<0.01), and after treatment, the Vs, Vm of ACA and MCA and NAA/Cr of brain in the observation group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05), and the RI of ACA and MCA and Cho/Cr and Lac/Cr of brain in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The mNGF acupoint injection has a better effect on the gross motor function in the children with cerebral palsy compared with the intramuscular injection, and the mechanism may be associated with exhibiting the double effects of acupoint effect and the targeting therapy of drug, which can effectively improve the cerebral hemodynamics and the metabolism of cerebral nervous substances.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Paralisia Cerebral , Fator de Crescimento Neural , Pontos de Acupuntura , Animais , Paralisia Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Fator de Crescimento Neural/administração & dosagem
19.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1607, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32793235

RESUMO

Objectives: The clinical outcome of bullous pemphigoid appears worse in patients with infectious complications, and assessment of the prevalence and risk factors of infectious complications could be necessary to plan preventative strategies and to instruct the treatment plans. We sought to determine the risk factors of infection and compare associated factors in inpatients and outpatients with different system infections. Design: This is a single-centered retrospective study on the medical records of 252 patients from 2010 to 2018 at the dermatology department, Peking Union Medical College. Medical profiles of medical history, diagnosis, infectious complications, and treatment plans were analyzed. The associated factors were compared between the subgroups, including inpatients and outpatients, different body sites of infection. Results: Of the total 252 patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP), 81 patients (81/252, 32.1%) had infectious complications. Forty-eight patients died from pulmonary infections (11/48, 22.9%), cardiovascular diseases (6/48, 12.5%), and other diseases. Infections were most frequently found in skin/mucosa (44/252, 17.5%), respiratory system (32/252, 12.7%), and blood (10/252, 4.0%). On multivariate analysis, risk factors of infections in BP were maximal control dose of corticosteroids (OR 2.539, 95% CI 1.456-4.430, p = 0.001), low serum albumin level (OR 2.557, 95% CI 1.283, 5.092, p = 0.007), hospitalization (OR 4.025, 95% CI 2.289, 7.079, p < 0.001), comorbidities including respiratory disease (OR 4.060, 95% CI, 1.861, 8.858, p < 0.001), eye disease (OR 4.431, 95% CI 1.864, 10.532, p < 0.001), and diabetes (OR 2.667, 95% CI 1.437, 4.949, p = 0.002). The rate of infection was significantly higher in inpatients compared to that in outpatients (54.0 vs. 20.6%, p < 0.001), with diverse risk factors. Mucocutaneous infections were associated with a maximal control dose of corticosteroid and other dermatoses. Respiratory infections were related to respiratory disease and old age, and hematologic infection was associated with low serum hemoglobin levels and mucosal involvement of BP. Both of them were associated with mucosal involvement of BP and high titer anti-BP180 antibody. Conclusions: Infectious complications of bullous pemphigoid are common and are associated with mucosal involvement of BP, more comorbidities, the higher dose of corticosteroids, and the lower level of serum albumin.


Assuntos
Infecções/etiologia , Penfigoide Bolhoso/complicações , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções/diagnóstico , Infecções/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções/microbiologia , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Penfigoide Bolhoso/diagnóstico , Penfigoide Bolhoso/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo
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