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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14213, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578356

RESUMO

The yak, Bos grunniens, is the only large mammal in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and has been bred to provide meat, milk, and transportation. Previous studies indicate that the immune system contributes to the yak's adaptation to high-altitude environments. In order to further investigate changes in immune function during yak development, we compared the transcriptome profiles of gluteus and lung tissues among yaks at 6, 30, 60, and 90 months of age. Analyses of significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in lung tissues revealed that immune function was more activated at 6-months and less activated at 90-months than in the 30 and 60-month-old animals. DEG exploration in gluteal tissues revealed that immune functions were more highly activated at both 6 and 90-months, compared with 30 and 60-months. Immune system activation in the muscle and lung tissues of 30-month-old yaks may increase their resistance to infections, while decreased may be due to aging. Furthermore, the higher immune activation status in the gluteal tissues in 90-month-old yaks could be due to muscle injury and subsequent regeneration, which is supported by the fact that 5 unigenes related with muscle injury and 3 related to muscle regeneration displayed greater expression levels at 90-months than at 30 and 60-months. Overall, the present study highlights the important role of the immune system in yak development, which will facilitate future investigations.

2.
Cancer Med ; 8(14): 6195-6211, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a major public health concern in China. We report the end-of-study results of a phase II/III trial to assess the efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the AS04-human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine in Chinese women aged 18-25 years followed for up to 72 months after first vaccination. Results of approximately 57 months following first vaccination have been previously reported. METHODS: Healthy 18-25-year-old women (N = 6051) were randomized (1:1) to receive three doses of AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine or Al(OH)3 (control) at Months 0-1-6. Vaccine efficacy against HPV-16/18 infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), cross-protective vaccine efficacy against infections and lesions associated with nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types, immunogenicity, and safety were assessed. Efficacy was assessed in the according-to-protocol efficacy (ATP-E) cohort (vaccine N = 2888; control N = 2892), total vaccinated cohort for efficacy (TVC-E; vaccine N = 2987; control N = 2985) and TVC-naïve (vaccine N = 1660; control N = 1587). RESULTS: In initially HPV-16/18 seronegative/DNA-negative women, vaccine efficacy against HPV-16/18-associated CIN grade 2 or worse was 87.3% (95% CI: 5.5, 99.7) in the ATP-E, 88.7% (95% CI: 18.5, 99.7) in the TVC-E, and 100% (95% CI: 17.9, 100) in the TVC-naïve. Cross-protective efficacy against incident infection with HPV-31, HPV-33 and HPV-45 was 59.6% (95% CI: 39.4, 73.5), 42.7% (95% CI: 15.6, 61.6), and 54.8% (95% CI: 19.3, 75.6), respectively (ATP-E). At Month 72, >95% of initially seronegative women who received HPV vaccine in the ATP cohort for immunogenicity (N = 664) remained seropositive for anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies; anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 geometric mean titers were 678.1 EU/mL (95% CI: 552.9, 831.5) and 343.7 EU/mL (95% CI: 291.9, 404.8), respectively. Serious adverse events were infrequent (1.9% vaccine group [N = 3026]; 2.7% control group [N = 3025]). Three and zero women died in the control group and the vaccine group respectively. New onset autoimmune disease was reported in two women in the vaccine group and two in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale randomized clinical trial of HPV vaccination in China. High and sustained vaccine efficacy against HPV-16/18-associated infection and cervical lesions was demonstrated up to Month 72. The vaccine had an acceptable safety profile. Combined with screening, prophylactic HPV vaccination could potentially reduce the high burden of HPV infection and cervical cancer in China. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00779766.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7558, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101838

RESUMO

The yak is a valuable species in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying its adaptation to high-altitude environments remain largely unknown. In the present study, comparative transcriptome sequencing was performed for lung and gluteus tissues from two species of low-altitude cattle (Sanjiang and Holstein cattle), Tibetan cattle (living at a moderate altitude), and yak (living at a high altitude) and the differentially expressed genes were validated using real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that CD36 antigen was up-regulated and CD59 antigen was down-regulated in yak in comparison to the other animals, which might promote the development of red blood cells and inhibit the development of lymphocytes in yak. In addition, thrombospondin type 1, coagulation factor 5/8, and fibronectin were all down-regulated, but serpin and alpha 2-macroglobulin (A2M) were up-regulated. These differences would inhibit blood coagulation, thus reducing the risk of pulmonary edema. The expression levels of the calcium-release, potassium, and transient receptor potential channels decreased in yak, minimizing membrane depolarization and the harmful effects of pulmonary edema. Eleven KEGG pathways associated with innate immunity were more activated in yak and Tibetan cattle than in other cattle strains, which should reduce their risk of infection and disease. These changes together might facilitate the adaptation of yak and Tibetan cattle to live in high-altitude habitats.

4.
Cancer Med ; 6(1): 12-25, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27998015

RESUMO

We previously reported the results of a phase II/III, double-blind, randomized controlled study in Chinese women (NCT00779766) showing a 94.2% (95% confidence interval: 62.7-99.9) HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine efficacy (VE) against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or higher (CIN1+) and/or 6-month (M) persistent infection (PI) with a mean follow-up of <2 years, and immunogenicity until 7 months post-dose 1. Here, we report efficacy and safety results from an event-triggered analysis with ~3 years longer follow-up, and immunogenicity until M24. Healthy 18-25-year-old women (N = 6051) were randomized (1:1) to receive three doses of HPV-16/18 vaccine or Al(OH)3 (control) at M0, 1, 6. VE against HPV-16/18-associated CIN2+, and cross-protective VE against infections with nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types, immunogenicity, and safety were assessed. In the according-to-protocol efficacy cohort, in initially seronegative/DNA-negative women (vaccine group: N = 2524; control group: N = 2535), VE against HPV-16/18-associated CIN2+ was 87.3% (5.3-99.7); VE against incident infection or against 6-month persistent infection associated with HPV-31/33/45 was 50.1% (34.3-62.3) or 52.6% (24.5-70.9), respectively. At least, 99.6% of HPV-16/18-vaccines remained seropositive for anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies; anti-HPV-16 and -18 geometric mean titers were 1271.1 EU/mL (1135.8-1422.6) and 710.0 EU/ml (628.6-801.9), respectively. Serious adverse events were infrequent (1.7% vaccine group [N = 3026]; 2.5% control group [N = 3026]). Of the 1595 reported pregnancies, nine had congenital anomalies (five live infants, three elective terminations, one stillbirth) that were unlikely vaccination-related (blinded data). VE against HPV-16/18-associated CIN2+ was demonstrated and evidence of cross-protective VE against oncogenic HPV types was shown. The vaccine was immunogenic and had an acceptable safety profile.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 18/imunologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , China , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int J Cancer ; 135(11): 2612-22, 2014 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24740596

RESUMO

This phase II/III, double-blind, randomized trial assessed the efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in young Chinese women (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT00779766). Women aged 18-25 years from Jiangsu province were randomized (1:1) to receive HPV vaccine (n = 3,026) or Al(OH)3 control (n = 3,025) at months 0, 1 and 6. The primary objective was vaccine efficacy (VE) against HPV-16/18 associated 6-month persistent infection (PI) and/or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1+. Secondary objectives were VE against virological and clinical endpoints associated with HPV-16/18 and with high-risk HPV types, immunogenicity and safety. Mean follow-up for the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy (ATP-E) was ∼15 months after the third dose. In the ATP-E (vaccine = 2,889; control = 2,894), for initially HPV DNA negative and seronegative subjects, HPV-16/18 related VE (95% CI) was 94.2% (62.7, 99.9) against 6-month PI and/or CIN1+ and 93.8% (60.2, 99.9) against cytological abnormalities. VE against HPV-16/18 associated CIN1+ and CIN2+ was 100% (-50.4, 100) and 100% (-140.2, 100), respectively (no cases in the vaccine group and 4 CIN1+ and 3 CIN2+ cases in the control group). At Month 7, at least 99.7% of initially seronegative vaccine recipients had seroconverted for HPV-16/18; geometric mean antibody titres (95% CI) were 6,996 (6,212 to 7,880) EU/mL for anti-HPV-16 and 3,309 (2,942 to 3,723) EU/mL for anti-HPV-18. Safety outcomes between groups were generally similar. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine is effective, immunogenic and has a clinically acceptable safety profile in young Chinese women. Prophylactic HPV vaccination has the potential to substantially reduce the burden of cervical cancer in China.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/prevenção & controle , Papillomavirus Humano 16/isolamento & purificação , Papillomavirus Humano 18/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapêutico , Displasia do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/imunologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , China , DNA Viral/genética , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Gradação de Tumores , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Resultado do Tratamento , Displasia do Colo do Útero/imunologia , Displasia do Colo do Útero/virologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Yi Chuan ; 35(2): 175-84, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23448930

RESUMO

To assess the genetic diversity and relationship of the Tibetan yak breeds. The genetic diversity and phylogenies of a total of 480 individual from 11 Tibetan yak groups were analyzed using PCR and multiplex gel electrophoresis of silver staining technology with eight pairs of microsatellite markers.The result showed that these markers were highly polymorphic loci with rich genetic diversity in the Tibetan yak populations.The average polymorphic information content (PIC) in 11 groups of yak were higher than 0.5. The highest HEL13 was 0.8496, and the lowest TGLA57 was 0.7349. Among them, the PICof Dingqing yak was minimum (0.7505), indicating that the group is relatively pure.Sangri Yak had the highest PIC value (0.7949) indicating greater genetic variationwithinthe groups. Among the 11 groups examined, the order of heterozygosity size wasSangri(0.8193)>Jiangda(0.8190)>Sangsang(0.8157)>Baqing(0.8150)>Kangbu(0.8123)> Jiali(0.8087)>Gongbujiangda(0.8054)>Sibu(0.8041)>Leiwuqi(0.8033)>Pali(0.8031)>Dingqing(0.7831). The groups from eastern Tibet had grater genetic diversity than those from Western Tibet, which indicate that Tibet may be one of the cradles of the yak.According to the genetic distance, the cluster relationship constructed with UPGMA and NJ methods showed that 11 yak groups in Tibet could be divided into three forms. In summary,Tibet yak has abundant genetic diversity and the selected microsatellite markers can be used to evaluategenetic diversity of Tibetan yak.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , DNA Mitocondrial , Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Alelos , Animais , Bovinos/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Frequência do Gene , Loci Gênicos , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Filogenia , Tibet
7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 30(5): 1442-8, 2009 May 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19558116

RESUMO

Taking the effluent of the UASB-shortcut nitrification technique of typical high concentration poultry wastewater as the object, it is discussed that the ANAMMOX is applicable as a treatment of denitrification. Firstly, it successfully starts ANAMMOX reactor by the denitrifying activated sludge, on this basis, finding the optimal ammonia loading is about 0.2 kg/(m3 x d) and the HRT of system is 2 d. Moreover, after studyingon the operating conditions, the optimum is that pH is about 7.50; temperature is 30 degrees C without adding organic carbon. Under optimum conditions, the removal efficiencies of ammonia and nitrite nitrogen could be above 85% and 95%, the system is running well and has reproducibility. Finally, it reaches that the reaction rates of ammonia and nitrite nitrogen are 0.0126 d(-1) and 0.0131 d(-1) through dynamic analysis. So it can make the theory basis for spreading and application of after/continuous process, neural network simulation and "UASB + SBR shortcut nitrification + ANAMMOX + land treating system" newly combined process.


Assuntos
Bactérias Anaeróbias/metabolismo , Nitritos/metabolismo , Aves Domésticas , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/metabolismo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Animais , Reatores Biológicos , Esterco , Nitrogênio/análise , Oxirredução , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
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