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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150225, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798746

RESUMO

Forest thinning is a major forest management practice worldwide and may lead to profound alterations in the fluxes of soil greenhouse gases (GHGs). However, the global patterns and underlying mechanisms of soil GHG fluxes in response to forest thinning remain poorly understood. Here, we conducted a global meta-analysis of 106 studies to assess the effects of forest thinning on soil GHG fluxes and the underpinning mechanisms. The results showed that forest thinning significantly increased soil CO2 emission (mean lnRR: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.03-0.11), N2O emission (mean lnRR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.16-0.61) and decreased CH4 uptake (mean Hedges' d: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.32-1.64). Furthermore, the negative response of soil CH4 uptake was amplified by thinning intensity, and the positive response of soil N2O emission decreased with recovery time after thinning. The response of soil CO2 emission was mainly correlated with changes in fine root biomass and soil nitrogen content, and the response of soil CH4 uptake was related to the changes in soil moisture and litterfall. Moreover, the response of soil N2O emission was associated with changes in soil temperature and soil nitrate nitrogen content. Thinning also increased the total balance of the three greenhouse gas fluxes in combination, which decreased with recovery time. Our findings highlight that thinning significantly increases soil GHG emissions, which is crucial to understanding and predicting ecosystem-climate feedbacks in managed forests.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Ecossistema , Florestas , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Metano/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Solo
2.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 14: 720899, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776862

RESUMO

Background: Lower-grade glioma (LGG) is the most common histology identified in gliomas, a heterogeneous tumor that may develop into high-grade malignant glioma that seriously shortens patient survival time. Recent studies reported that glutamatergic synapses might play an essential role in the progress of gliomas. However, the role of glutamatergic synapse-related biomarkers in LGG has not been systemically researched yet. Methods: The mRNA expression data of glioma and normal brain tissue were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas database and Genotype-Tissue Expression, respectively, and the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas database was used as a validation set. Difference analysis was performed to evaluate the expression pattern of glutamatergic synapse-related genes (GSRGs) in LGG. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression was applied to construct the glutamatergic synapse-related risk signature (GSRS), and the risk score of each LGG sample was calculated based on the coefficients and expression value of selected GSRGs. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to investigate the prognostic value of risk score. Immunity profile and single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) were performed to explore the association between risk score and the characters of tumor microenvironment in LGG. Gene set variation analysis (GSVA) was performed to investigate the potential pathways related to GSRS. The HPA database and real-time PCR were used to identify the expression of hub genes identified in GSRS. Results: A total of 22 genes of 39 GSRGs were found differentially expressed among normal and LGG samples. Through the LASSO algorithm, 14-genes GSRS constructed were associated with the prognosis and clinicopathological features of patients with LGG. Furthermore, the risk score level was significantly positively correlated with the infiltrating level of immunosuppressive cells, including M2 macrophages and regulatory T cells. GSVA identified a series of cancer-related pathways related to GSRS, such as P13K-AKT and P53 pathways. Moreover, ATAD1, NLGN2, OXTR, and TNR, hub genes identified in GSRS, were considered as potential prognostic biomarkers in LGG. Conclusion: A 14-genes GSRS was constructed and verified in this study. We provided a novel insight into the role of GSRS in LGG through a series of bioinformatics methods.

3.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 734419, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777417

RESUMO

Clubroot disease, which is caused by the soil-borne pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae War (P. brassicae), is one of the oldest and most destructive diseases of Brassica and cruciferous crops in the world. Plant microRNAs [micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs)] play important regulatory roles in several developmental processes. Although the role of plant miRNAs in plant-microbe interaction has been extensively studied, there are only few reports on the specific functions of miRNAs in response to P. brassicae. This study investigated the roles of miRNAs and their targets during P. brassicae infection in a pair of Brassica napus near-isogenic lines (NILs), namely clubroot-resistant line 409R and clubroot-susceptible line 409S. Small RNA sequencing (sRNA-seq) and degradome-seq were performed on root samples of 409R and 409S with or without P. brassicae inoculation. sRNA-seq identified a total of 48 conserved and 72 novel miRNAs, among which 18 had a significant differential expression in the root of 409R, while only one miRNA was differentially expressed in the root of 409S after P. brassicae inoculation. The degradome-seq analysis identified 938 miRNA target transcripts, which are transcription factors, enzymes, and proteins involved in multiple biological processes and most significantly enriched in the plant hormone signal transduction pathway. Between 409R and 409S, we found eight different degradation pathways in response to P. brassicae infection, such as those related to fatty acids. By combining published transcriptome data, we identified a total of six antagonistic miRNA-target pairs in 409R that are responsive to P. brassicae infection and involved in pathways associated with root development, hypersensitive cell death, and chloroplast metabolic synthesis. Our results reveal that P. brassicae infection leads to great changes in miRNA pool and target transcripts. More interestingly, these changes are different between 409R and 409S. Clarification of the crosstalk between miRNAs and their targets may shed new light on the possible mechanisms underlying the pathogen resistance against P. brassicae.

4.
Opt Express ; 29(20): 31974-31992, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615278

RESUMO

Failure detection is an important part of failure management, and network operators encounter serious consequences when operating under failure conditions. Machine learning (ML) is widely applied in the failure management of optical networks, where neural networks (NNs) have particularly attracted considerable attention and become the most extensively applied algorithm among all MLs. However, the black-box nature of NN makes it difficult to interpret or analyze why and how NNs work during execution. In this paper, we propose a cause-aware failure detection scheme for optical transport network (OTN) boards, adopting the interpretable extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) algorithm. According to the feature importance ranking by XGBoost, the high-relevance features with the equipment failure are found. Then, SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) is applied to solve the inconsistency of feature attribution under three common global feature importance measurement parameters of XGBoost, and can obtain a consistent feature attribution by calculating the contribution (SHAP value) of each input feature to detection result of XGBoost. Based on the feature importance ranking of SHAP values, the features most related to two types of OTN board failures are confirmed, enabling the identification of failure causes. Moreover, we evaluate the failure detection performance for two types of OTN boards, in which the practical data are balanced and unbalanced respectively. Experimental results show that the F1 score of the two types of OTN boards based on the proposed scheme is higher than 98%, and the most relevant features of the two types of board failures are confirmed based on SHAP value, which are the average and maximum values of the environment temperature, respectively.

5.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 717601, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650972

RESUMO

The tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) has been recognized to be associated with sensitivity to immunotherapy and patient prognosis. Recent research demonstrates that assessing the TIME patterns on large-scale samples will expand insights into TIME and will provide guidance to formulate immunotherapy strategies for tumors. However, until now, thorough research has not yet been reported on the immune infiltration landscape of glioma. Herein, the CIBERSORT algorithm was used to unveil the TIME landscape of 1,975 glioma observations. Three TIME subtypes were established, and the TIMEscore was calculated by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO)-Cox analysis. The high TIMEscore was distinguished by an elevated tumor mutation burden (TMB) and activation of immune-related biological process, such as IL6-JAK-STAT3 signaling and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) response, which may demonstrate that the patients with high TIMEscore were more sensitive to immunotherapy. Multivariate analysis revealed that the TIMEscore could strongly and independently predict the prognosis of gliomas [Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) cohort: hazard ratio (HR): 2.134, p < 0.001; Gravendeel cohort: HR: 1.872, p < 0.001; Kamoun cohort: HR: 1.705, p < 0.001; The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort: HR: 2.033, p < 0.001; the combined cohort: HR: 1.626, p < 0.001], and survival advantage was evident among those who received chemotherapy. Finally, we validated the performance of the signature in human tissues from Wuhan University (WHU) dataset (HR: 15.090, p = 0.008). Our research suggested that the TIMEscore could be applied as an effective predictor for adjuvant therapy and prognosis assessment.

6.
Genome ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648728

RESUMO

The soybean can provide rich protein and fat and has great economic value worldwide. Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal to organisms. It can accumulate in plants and be transmitted to the human body via food chain. Cd is a serious threat to soybean development, especially to root growth. Some soybean cultivars present tolerant symptoms under Cd stress; however, the potential mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we optimized RNA-seq to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Cd-sensitive (KUAI) and Cd-tolerant (KAIYU) soybean roots and compared the DEGs between KAIYU and KUAI. A total of 1,506 and 1,870 DEGs were identified in the roots of KUAI and KAIYU, respectively. Through Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway and gene function analyses, we found that genes related to antioxidants and sequestration were responsible for Cd tolerance in KAIYU. In addition, overexpression of Glyma11g02661, which encodes a heavy metal transporting ATPase, significantly improved Cd tolerance in transgenic hairy roots. These results provide a preliminary understanding of the tolerance mechanisms in response to Cd stress in soybean root development and are of great importance in developing Cd-resistant soybean cultivars by using the identified DEGs through genetic modification.

7.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(8): 2685-2692, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664440

RESUMO

We examined carbon chemical composition and stability along soil depth (topsoil 0-5 cm, mid-soil 20-40 cm, and deep soil 60-100 cm) in a no-tillage (NT) agricultural system with various amount of corn stover as mulch for 8 years, including 0 (NT0), 33% (NT33), 67% (NT67) and 100% (NT100), in Northeast China, using mid-infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that, relative to NT0, the treatments of NT33 and NT100 increased polysaccharide content of the top layer and mid-layer soils, the former decreased topsoil carbon component diversity, while the latter maintained soil carbon stability of three soil layers. NT67 increased carbon stability at the deep layer soil. Our results demonstrated that if corn stover resources were sufficient, NT with 100% corn stover mulch could both be beneficial to carbon availability at 0-40 cm soil layer and stability of the whole soil profile. The nonlinear relationship between the amount of corn stover mulch and the mid-infrared spectral characteristics of the soil called for further research on the microbial-control mechanism over soil carbon cycling under different amounts of corn stover mulch.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Ecossistema , Análise Espectral , Zea mays
8.
Opt Express ; 29(15): 23113-23130, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614582

RESUMO

The extremely high number of services with large bandwidth requirements and the increasingly dynamic traffic patterns of cell sites pose major challenges to optical fronthaul networks, rendering them incapable of coping with the extensive, uneven, and real-time traffic that will be generated in the future. In this paper, we first present the design of an adaptive graph convolutional network with gated recurrent unit (AGCN-GRU) network to learn the temporal and spatial dependencies of traffic patterns of cell sites to provide accurate traffic predictions, in which the AGCN model can capture potential spatial relations according to the similarity of network traffic patterns in different areas. Then, we innovatively consider how to deal with the unpredicted burst traffic and propose an AI-assisted intent-based traffic grooming scheme to realise automatic and intelligent cell sites clustering and traffic grooming. Finally, a software-defined testbed for 5G optical fronthaul network was established, on which the proposed schemes were deployed and evaluated by considering traffic datasets of existing optical networks. The experimental results showed that the proposed scheme can optimize network resource allocation, increase the average efficient resource utilization and reduce the average delay and the rejection ratio.

9.
Cancer Med ; 10(22): 8100-8113, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the role and possible regulatory mechanisms of CYP2E1 in gliomas. METHODS: RNA-seq data and corresponding clinical information of glioma patients were collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas and Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas, and mRNA data of normal brain tissues were obtained by the Genotype-Tissue Expression project. The Wilcoxon test was performed to analyze the correlation between CYP2E1 expression and glioma subtypes. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression, receiver operating characteristic curves, and Kaplan-Meier plots were used to evaluate the prognostic value of CYP2E1 in glioma. Functional enrichment analyses and immune infiltration analyses were performed to investigate the potential function of CYP2E1 in gliomas. Moreover, we investigated the miRNA and epigenetic mechanisms that regulate CYP2E1 expression. Finally, network pharmacology and molecular docking experiments were used to predict drugs that target CYP2E1. RESULTS: The downregulation of CYP2E1 expression may predict a poor prognosis for glioma patients. CYP2E1 expression decreased with increasing WHO grade (II-IV), and its level was correlated with clinical features, including age, 1p19q codeletion status, and IDH state in glioma tissues. Furthermore, CYP2E1 was involved in lipid metabolism and ferroptosis and related to the tumor immune microenvironment due to its strong correlation with the levels of infiltrating monocytes and Tregs. Moreover, variation in the total methylation level and copy number of CYP2E1 was moderately correlated with its mRNA expression (p < 0.05). CYP2E1 was predicted to be targeted by hsa-miR-527, whose expression was negatively related to CYP2E1 mRNA expression (p < 0.05). In addition, effective compounds that target CYP2E1, including 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid, styrene, toluene, nicotine, m-xylene, p-xylene, and colchicine, were identified. CONCLUSION: The downregulation of CYP2E1, which affects lipid metabolism and the ferroptosis signaling pathway, promotes the progression of gliomas.

10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5673, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584089

RESUMO

Cloning quantitative trait locus (QTL) is time consuming and laborious, which hinders the understanding of natural variation and genetic diversity. Here, we introduce RapMap, a method for rapid multi-QTL mapping by employing F2 gradient populations (F2GPs) constructed by minor-phenotypic-difference accessions. The co-segregation standard of the single-locus genetic models ensures simultaneous integration of a three-in-one framework in RapMap i.e. detecting a real QTL, confirming its effect, and obtaining its near-isogenic line-like line (NIL-LL). We demonstrate the feasibility of RapMap by cloning eight rice grain-size genes using 15 F2GPs in three years. These genes explain a total of 75% of grain shape variation. Allele frequency analysis of these genes using a large germplasm collection reveals directional selection of the slender and long grains in indica rice domestication. In addition, major grain-size genes have been strongly selected during rice domestication. We think application of RapMap in crops will accelerate gene discovery and genomic breeding.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Grão Comestível/genética , Oryza/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Seleção Genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Domesticação , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Oryza/classificação , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Sementes/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 721980, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531887

RESUMO

Crosses that lead to heterosis have been widely used in the rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) industry. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)/restorer-of-fertility (Rf) systems represent one of the most useful tools for rapeseed production. Several CMS types and their restorer lines have been identified in rapeseed, but there are few studies on the mechanisms underlying fertility restoration. Here, we performed morphological observation, map-based cloning, and transcriptomic analysis of the F2 population developed by crossing the CMS line WNJ01A with its restorer line Hui01. Paraffin-embedded sections showed that the sporogenous cell stage was the critical pollen degeneration period, with major sporogenous cells displaying loose and irregular arrangement in sterile anthers. Most mitochondrial electron transport chain (mtETC) complex genes were upregulated in fertile compared to sterile buds. Using bulked segregant analysis (BSA)-seq to analyze mixed DNA pools from sterile and fertile F2 buds, respectively, we identified a 6.25 Mb candidate interval where Rfw is located. Using map-based cloning experiments combined with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone sequencing, the candidate interval was reduced to 99.75 kb and two pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) genes were found among 28 predicted genes in this interval. Transcriptome sequencing showed that there were 1679 DEGs (1023 upregulated and 656 downregulated) in fertile compared to sterile F2 buds. The upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were enriched in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) lysine degradation pathway and phenylalanine metabolism, and the downregulated DEGs were enriched in cutin, suberine, and wax biosynthesis. Furthermore, 44 DEGs were involved in pollen and anther development, such as tapetum, microspores, and pollen wall development. All of them were upregulated except a few such as POE1 genes (which encode Pollen Ole e I allergen and extensin family proteins). There were 261 specifically expressed DEGs (9 and 252 in sterile and fertile buds, respectively). Regarding the fertile bud-specific upregulated DEGs, the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway was enriched. The top four hub genes in the protein-protein interaction network (BnaA09g56400D, BnaA10g18210D, BnaA10g18220D, and BnaC09g41740D) encode RAD23d proteins, which deliver ubiquitinated substrates to the 26S proteasome. These findings provide evidence on the pathways regulated by Rfw and improve our understanding of fertility restoration.

12.
Front Genet ; 12: 701065, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527020

RESUMO

Background: Clinical benefits from standard therapies against glioblastoma (GBM) are limited in part due to the intrinsic radio- and chemo-resistance. As an essential part of tumor immunotherapy for adjunct, therapeutic tumor vaccines have been effective against multiple solid cancers, while their efficacy against GBM remains undefined. Therefore, this study aims to find the possible tumor antigens of GBM and identify the suitable population for cancer vaccination through immunophenotyping. Method: The genomic and responding clinical data of 169 GBM samples and five normal brain samples were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The mRNA_seq data of 940 normal brain tissue were downloaded from Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx). Potential GBM mRNA antigens were screened out by differential expression, copy number variant (CNV), and mutation analysis. K-M survival and Cox analysis were carried out to investigate the prognostic association of potential tumor antigens. Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER) was used to explore the association between the antigens and tumor immune infiltrating cells (TIICs). Immunophenotyping of 169 samples was performed through consensus clustering based on the abundance of 22 kinds of immune cells. The characteristics of the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) in each cluster were explored through single-sample gene set enrichment analysis based on 29 kinds of immune-related hallmarks and pathways. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed to cluster the genes related to immune subtypes. Finally, pathway enrichment analyses were performed to annotate the potential function of modules screened through WGCNA. Results: Two potential tumor antigens selected were significantly positively associated with the antigen-presenting immune cells (APCs) in GBM. Furthermore, the expression of antigens was verified at the protein level by Immunohistochemistry. Two robust immune subtypes, immune subtype 1 (IS1) and immune subtype 2 (IS2), representing immune status "immune inhibition" and "immune inflamed", respectively, had distinct clinical outcomes in GBM. Conclusion: ARPC1B and HK3 were potential mRNA antigens for developing GBM mRNA vaccination, and the patients in IS2 were considered the most suitable population for vaccination in GBM.

14.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(10): 888, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588429

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are known to act as key regulators in a variety of malignancies. However, the role of circRNAs in cervical cancer (CCa) remains largely unknown. Herein, we demonstrated that a circRNA derived from the TADA2A gene (hsa_circ_0043280) was significantly downregulated in CCa and that this reduction in expression was correlated with a poor prognosis. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that hsa_circ_0043280 functions as a tumor suppressor to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis in CCa. Mechanistically, hsa_circ_0043280 competitively sponges miR-203a-3p and prevents miR-203a-3p from reducing the levels of PAQR3. Collectively, our results demonstrate that hsa_circ_0043280 plays a pivotal role in the development and metastasis of CCa, thus suggesting that hsa_circ_0043280 has significant potential as a prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target for CCa.

15.
J Sep Sci ; 44(19): 3618-3625, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365723

RESUMO

Selective isolation of phosphoproteins is of great significance in biological applications. Herein, titanium dioxide-functionalized dendritic mesoporous silica nanoparticles are prepared via a post-grafting method for selective capture of phosphoproteins. The fabricated nanoparticles possess a unique central-radial pore structure with a surface area of 666.66 m2 /g and a pore size of 22.2 nm. The high-binding affinity of TiO2 with the phosphate groups facilitates the selective adsorption of phosphoproteins. Moreover, the open central-radial pore structure endows the dendritic mesoporous nanoparticles with better adsorption performance toward phosphoproteins with respect to the commercial titanium dioxide nanoparticles and titanium dioxide-functionalized conventional mesoporous silica nanoparticles by providing more accessible affinity sites. At pH 2, an adsorption capacity of 157.2 mg/g is derived for ß-casein. The feasibility of the as-prepared dendritic material in real biological sample assay is demonstrated by the selective isolation of phosphoproteins from defatted milk, as illustrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis assay.

16.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 352, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As an important part of tumor immunotherapy for adjunct, therapeutic tumor vaccines have been effective against multiple solid cancers, while their efficacy against lower grade glioma (LGG) remains undefined. Immunophenotyping of tumors is an essential tool to evaluate the immune function of patients with immunodeficiency or autoimmunity. Therefore, this study aims to find the potential tumor antigen of LGG and identify the suitable population for cancer vaccination based on the immune landscape. METHOD: The genomic and clinical data of 529 patients with LGG were obtained from TCGA, the mRNA_seq data of normal brain tissue were downloaded from GTEx. Differential expression gene and mutation analysis were performed to screen out potential antigens, K-M curves were carried out to investigate the correlation between the level of potential antigens and OS and DFS of patients. TIMER dataset was used to explore the correlation between genes and immune infiltrating cells. Immunophenotyping of 529 tumor samples was based on the single-sample gene sets enrichment analysis. Cibersort and Estimate algorithm were used to explore the tumor immune microenvironment characteristics in each immune subtype. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) clustered immune-related genes and screened the hub genes, and pathway enrichment analyses were performed on the hub modules related to immune subtype in the WGCNA. RESULTS: Selecting for the mutated, up-regulated, prognosis- and immune-related genes, four potential tumor antigens were identified in LGG. They were also significantly positively associated with the antigen-presenting immune cells (APCs). Three robust immune subtypes, IS1, IS2 and IS3, represented immune status "desert", "immune inhibition", and "inflamed" respectively, which might serve as a predictive parameter. Subsequently, clinicopathological features, including the codeletion status of 1p19q, IDH mutation status, tumor mutation burden, tumor stemness, etc., were significantly different among subtypes. CONCLUSION: FCGBP, FLNC, TLR7, and CSF2RA were potential antigens for developing cancer vaccination, and the patients in IS3 were considered the most suitable for vaccination in LGG.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioma , Vacinas , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Glioma/genética , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Microambiente Tumoral
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since anthocyanin has good coloration and antioxidant properties, many studies have focused on exploring the stability and antioxidant activity of anthocyanin. The objective of this work was to study effects of pH and temperature on the bioactivity of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) and density functional theory (DFT) were used to explain the mechanism of structural transformation of C3G affecting their bioactivity at the molecular level. RESULTS: During the heating process at pH 2.2 to 7.0,the flavylium cation content of C3G decreased from 92.71% to 51.64% and the chalcone content increased from 7.29% to 30.61%. The quinoidal base and first discovery of the degradation product of the C3G, 1-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-2-(3, 4,5-trihydroxy-6-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxy)-ethanone, were only detected in heated samples at pH 7.0. DFT revealed the antioxidant mechanism was mediated by sequential proton loss electron transfer and the antioxidant activity of C3G in pH 5.0 and 7.0 environments was higher than that in the pH 2.2 environment. CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed the thermal degradation products of C3G included catechin, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4,6-trihydroxy-benzaldehyde and 1-(3,4-Dihydroxy-phenyl)-2-(3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxy)-ethanone. C3G had higher antioxidant activity in weakly acidic to near-neutral environments and the reactive sites were most likely at the 4'-OH and 5-OH sites. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

18.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 708279, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409080

RESUMO

SCN10A/NaV1.8 may be associated with a lower risk of ventricular fibrillation in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but if and by which mechanism NaV1.8 impacts on ventricular electrophysiology is still a matter of debate. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the contribution of NaV1.8 in ganglionated plexi (GP) to ventricular arrhythmias in the AMI model. Twenty beagles were randomized to either the A-803467 group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 10). NaV1.8 blocker (A-803467, 1 µmol/0.5 mL per GP) or DMSO (0.5 mL per GP) was injected into four major GPs. Ventricular effective refractory period, APD90, ventricular fibrillation threshold, and the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias were measured 1 h after left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion. A-803467 significantly shortened ventricular effective refractory period, APD90, and ventricular fibrillation threshold compared to control. In the A-803467 group, the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias was significantly higher compared to control. A-803467 suppressed the slowing of heart rate response to high-frequency electrical stimulation of the anterior right GP, suggesting that A-803467 could inhibit GP activity. SCN10A/NaV1.8 was readily detected in GPs, but was not validated in ventricles by quantitative RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. While SCN10A/NaV1.8 is detectible in canine GPs but not in ventricles, blockade of NaV1.8 in GP increases the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias in AMI hearts. Our study shows for the first time an influence of SCN10A/NaV1.8 on the regulation of ventricular arrhythmogenesis via modulating GP activity in the AMI model.

19.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(16): 1977-1982, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a common childhood disease that seriously affects the patient's physical and mental health. This study aimed to investigate whether pre-treatment baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS) values were associated with symptom improvement after metoprolol therapy for children and adolescents with POTS. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated 51 children and adolescents with POTS who received metoprolol therapy at the Peking University First Hospital between November 2010 and July 2019. All patients had completed a standing test or basic head-up tilt test and cardiac echocardiography before treatment. Treatment response was evaluated 3 months after starting metoprolol therapy. The pre-treatment baseline LVEF and LVFS values were evaluated for correlations with decreases in the symptom score after treatment (ΔSS). Multivariable analysis was performed using factors with a P value of <0.100 in the univariate analyses and the demographic characteristics. RESULTS: A comparison of responders and non-responders revealed no significant differences in demographic, hemodynamic characteristics, and urine specific gravity (all P > 0.050). However, responders had significantly higher baseline LVEF (71.09% ±â€Š4.44% vs. 67.17% ±â€Š4.88%, t = -2.789, P = 0.008) and LVFS values (40.00 [38.00, 42.00]% vs. 36.79% ±â€Š4.11%, Z = -2.542, P = 0.010) than the non-responders. The baseline LVEF and LVFS were positively correlated with ΔSS (r = 0.378, P = 0.006; r = 0.363, P = 0.009), respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that LVEF was independently associated with the response to metoprolol therapy in children and adolescents with POTS (odds ratio: 1.201, 95% confidence interval: 1.039-1.387, P = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-treatment baseline LVEF was associated with symptom improvement after metoprolol treatment for children and adolescents with POTS.


Assuntos
Metoprolol , Síndrome da Taquicardia Postural Ortostática , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Metoprolol/uso terapêutico , Síndrome da Taquicardia Postural Ortostática/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
20.
Ecol Evol ; 11(16): 11362-11372, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429925

RESUMO

ß-Diversity, which describes the extent of change in species composition in a given region, has become a core issue in ecology in recent years. However, it is hard to understand the underlying mechanisms of ß-diversity by using indices that yield identical values under species replacement and nestedness pattern. Partitioning ß-diversity into turnover (caused by species replacement among plots) and nestedness components (caused by species loss or gain among plots) may provide improved understanding of the variation in species composition. Here, we collected presence-absence data of 456 one-tenth ha circular plots in the temperate forests of Northeastern China spanning a latitudinal range of 12° (41-53°N). We decomposed ß-diversity to assess the relative contribution of the turnover and nestedness components across latitudinal gradients. We used regression analysis to assess the relationship between spatial distance and ß-diversity. We applied variation partitioning to evaluate the importance of the measured environmental and spatial variables in explaining ß-diversity. We used the Tukey honest significant difference test to test the differences of ß-diversity along latitudinal gradients. Pearson correlations (r) and significance (p-value) were computed using the Mantel tests to verify the relationship between distance and ß-diversity. The ANOVA test was used to verify whether the variation of ß-diversity explained by the environment and distance was significant. Our results showed that (1) ß-diversity and the turnover component were higher at low latitudes (zones A and B) than at high latitudes (zones C and D), while there was no relationship between the nestedness component and latitude. (2) The turnover component was dominant. (3) The spatial distance explained more variation of ß-diversity than the measured environmental factors. Therefore, we conclude that ß-diversity is mainly a product of species turnover in our temperate forests, suggesting that different localities harbor different species. We find that decomposing ß-diversity into the turnover and nestedness components is a useful approach to explore the variation of community composition and their causes.

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