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1.
Psychophysiology ; 59(1): e13944, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553377

RESUMO

Recent studies that used adult faces as the baseline have revealed that attentional bias toward infant faces is the strongest for neutral expressions than for happy and sad expressions. However, the time course of the strongest attentional bias toward infant neutral expressions is unclear. To clarify this time course, we combined a behavioral dot-probe task with electrophysiological event-related potentials (ERPs) to measure adults' responses to infant and adult faces with happy, neutral, and sad expressions derived from the same face. The results indicated that compared with the corresponding expressions in adult faces, attentional bias toward infant faces with various expressions resulted in different patterns during rapid and prolonged attention stages. In particular, first, neutral expressions in infant faces elicited greater behavioral attentional bias and P1 responses than happy and sad ones did. Second, sad expressions in infant faces elicited greater N170 responses than neutral and happy ones did; notably, sad expressions elicited greater N170 responses in the left hemisphere in women than in men. Third, late positive potential (LPP) responses were greater for infant faces than for adult faces under each expression condition. Thus, we propose a three-stage model of attentional allocation patterns that reveals the time course of attentional bias toward infant faces with various expressions. This model highlights the prominent role of neutral facial expressions in the attentional bias toward infant faces.

2.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850514

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to explore the safety and efficacy of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients over 90 years of age. METHODS: The study included 176 patients aged over 85 years who received their ERCP from February 2002 to January 2021. In the case group (super-elderly group), 44 patients were 90 years old or above. In the control group (younger group), there were 132 patients aged 85-89 years. The control group was matched according to patient gender and the same indications of ERCP at a 1:3 ratio. Logistic regression models were employed to evaluate all complications. RESULTS: The case group had higher acute physiology and chronic health evaluation scoring system (APACHE-II) scores and rate of hypoalbuminemia. APACHE-II scores (≥6 or 7) were significantly more common in the case group. The rates of technical success and complete success in the case group were 100% and 100% respectively, which were similar to the rates in the control group, namely a technical success rate of 98.5% and a complete success rate of 98.5%. The rate of complication in the case group was 9.1%, which was slightly lower than that of the control group (15.2%, P > 0.05). ERCP-related death occurred in one patient in the control group, who had malignant biliary obstruction and died from cholangitis. There was no significant difference in the incidence of complications such as pancreatitis, hemorrhage, and infection between the two groups. In the multivariate analysis, the independent risk factor was Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) for overall complication. CONCLUSIONS: ERCP can be performed safely and successfully in patients aged ≥90 years. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021; ••: ••-••.

3.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 764024, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34859075

RESUMO

The adrenal gland produces steroid hormones to play essential roles in regulating various physiological processes. Our previous studies showed that knockout of hepatic Surf4 (Surf4LKO) markedly reduced fasting plasma total cholesterol levels in adult mice, including low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Here, we found that plasma cholesterol levels were also dramatically reduced in 4-week-old young mice and non-fasted adult mice. Circulating lipoprotein cholesterol is an important source of the substrate for the production of adrenal steroid hormones. Therefore, we investigated whether adrenal steroid hormone production was affected in Surf4LKO mice. We observed that lacking hepatic Surf4 essentially eliminated lipid droplets and significantly reduced cholesterol levels in the adrenal gland; however, plasma levels of aldosterone and corticosterone were comparable in Surf4LKO and the control mice under basal and stress conditions. Further analysis revealed that mRNA levels of genes encoding enzymes important for hormone synthesis were not altered, whereas the expression of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase was significantly increased in the adrenal gland of Surf4LKO mice, indicating increased de novo cholesterol biosynthesis and enhanced LDLR and SR-BI-mediated lipoprotein cholesterol uptake. We also observed that the nuclear form of SREBP2 was increased in the adrenal gland of Surf4 LKO mice. Taken together, these findings indicate that the very low levels of circulating lipoprotein cholesterol in Surf4LKO mice cause a significant reduction in adrenal cholesterol levels but do not significantly affect adrenal steroid hormone production. Reduced adrenal cholesterol levels activate SREBP2 and thus increase the expression of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, which increases de novo cholesterol synthesis to compensate for the loss of circulating lipoprotein-derived cholesterol in the adrenal gland of Surf4LKO mice.

4.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 764038, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782856

RESUMO

Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) promotes degradation of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and plays a central role in regulating plasma levels of LDL cholesterol levels, lipoprotein(a) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Additionally, PCSK9 promotes degradation of major histocompatibility protein class I and reduces intratumoral infiltration of cytotoxic T cells. Inhibition of PCSK9 increases expression of LDLR, thereby reducing plasma levels of lipoproteins and the risk of cardiovascular disease. PCSK9 inhibition also increases cell surface levels of major histocompatibility protein class I in cancer cells and suppresses tumor growth. Therefore, PCSK9 plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and cancer, the top two causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Monoclonal anti-PCSK9 antibody-based therapy is currently the only available treatment that can effectively reduce plasma LDL-C levels and suppress tumor growth. However, high expenses limit their widespread use. PCSK9 promotes lysosomal degradation of its substrates, but the detailed molecular mechanism by which PCSK9 promotes degradation of its substrates is not completely understood, impeding the development of more cost-effective alternative strategies to inhibit PCSK9. Here, we review our current understanding of PCSK9 and focus on the regulation of its expression and functions.

5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(45): 13398-13415, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729981

RESUMO

Although the regulation of Pi homeostasis by miR399 has been studied in various plant species, its underlying molecular mechanism in response to freezing stress is still poorly understood. In this work, we found that the expression of tae-miR399 and its target gene TaUBC24 in the tillering nodes of the strong cold-resistant winter wheat cultivar Dongnongdongmai1 (Dn1) was not only significantly altered after severe winters but also responsive to short-term freezing stress. TaUBC24 physically interacted with TaICE1. Enhanced freezing tolerance was observed for tae-miR399-overexpressing Arabidopsis lines. Under freezing stress, overexpression of tae-miR399 ultimately decreased the expression of AtUBC24, inhibiting the degradation of AtICE1, which increased the expression of genes involved in the CBF signaling pathway and starch metabolism and promoted the activities of antioxidant enzymes. These results will improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism through which the miR399-UBC24 module plays a cardinal role in regulating plant freezing stress tolerance through mediation of downstream pathways.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Congelamento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Transdução de Sinais , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
6.
3 Biotech ; 11(11): 470, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745821

RESUMO

Duck circovirus (DuCV) is widespread across the world and causes feather disorders in young ducks. It was identified as the causative pathogen of duck beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome and primary sclerosing cholangitis. In this study, we aimed to establish a TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay to detect DuCV. The primers and probe were designed based on the conserved region of the DuCV Rep gene. After optimizing the reaction conditions, the minimum virus detection limit of the designed PCR technique was 39.4 copies/µL, 100 times that of conventional PCR (cPCR). No cross-reaction with six other common duck viruses was observed. The intra- and inter-assay variations were less than 1%. The detection rate of DuCV-positive clinical samples using TaqMan-based real-time PCR was higher than that using SYBR Green-based real-time PCR and cPCR. Collectively, these results showed that the established TaqMan-based real-time PCR detected DuCV with high sensitivity and specificity, and significant repeatability, making it suitable for clinical use. Hence, it may be used as a novel tool for the diagnosis and epidemiological investigation of DuCV.

7.
Regen Ther ; 18: 391-400, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722835

RESUMO

Introduction: Osteoporosis, a common skeletal disorder mainly affecting postmenopausal women, is characterized by the imbalance between osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. Circ_0134944 has been recently found to be upregulated in postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) patients. However, its role in osteogenesis remains unknown. Here we aimed to explore the role of circ_0134944 in osteogenesis and reveal the underlying mechanism. Methods: qRT-PCR was used to determine the expression of circ_0134944, miR-127-5p, PDX1 and SPHK1 in the blood mononuclear cells (BMCs) of PMOP patients. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were used as the cellular model. Western blotting and qRT-PCR were used to determine the expression of osteogenesis-related genes (Runx2, OPN, OCN). ALP and Alizarin Red S staining were performed to evaluate osteogenic differentiation. The interactions between circ_0134944 and miR-127-5p, miR-127-5p and PDX1, PDX1 and SPHK1 were determined by dual-luciferase reporter and ChIP assay. Results: Circ_0134944, PDX1 and SPHK1 were upregulated while miR-127-5p was downregulated in PMOP patients. Enhanced expression of circ_0134944 suppressed osteogenesis, which was then reversed by miR-127-5p overexpression. The binding between circ_0134944 and miR-127-5p, PDX1 and miR-127-5p were confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, PDX1 was enriched in the promoter region of SPHK1, and SPHK1 overexpression prevented the promotion of osteogenesis induced by miR-127-5p overexpression. Conclusions: Taken together, these results demonstrate that circ_0134944 inhibit osteogenesis via miR-127-5p/PDX1/SPHK1 axis. Thus, the present study offered evidence that circ_0134944/miR-127-5p/PDX1/SPHK1 axis could be a potential therapeutic target for PMOP.

8.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e2102038, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729950

RESUMO

Glutamine metabolism of tumor cells plays a crucial role in maintaining cell homeostasis and reducing oxidative damage. Herein, a valid strategy of inhibiting glutamine metabolism is proposed to amplify the oxidative damage of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to tumor cells. Specifically, the authors develop a drug co-delivery system (designated as CeV) based on chlorine e6 (Ce6) and V9302 via the self-assembly technology. In spite of the strong hydrophobicity of therapeutic agents, the assembled CeV holds a favorable dispersibility in water and an improved cellular uptake capability. Under light irradiation, the internalized CeV is capable of generating abundant reactive oxygen species (ROS) for PDT. More importantly, CeV can reduce the uptake of glutamine through V9302-mediated alanine-serine-cysteine transporter of type-2 (ASCT2) inhibition, leading to a reduced glutathione (GSH) production and an amplified oxidative stress. As a result, CeV has a robust PDT efficacy on tumor inhibition by the blockade of glutamine transport. Notably, CeV exhibits a superiority on tumor suppression over the single treatment as well as the combined administration of Ce6 and V9302, which indicates the advantage of CeV for synergistic treatment. It may serve as a novel nanoplatform for developing a drug co-delivery system to improve PDT efficiency by inhibiting cell metabolism.

9.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To verify the efficacy of Quxie Capsule in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). METHODS: It was a block randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Sixty patients with mCRC were randomized into 2 groups at a 1:1 ratio. The patients in the treatment group received conventional therapy including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted therapy and supportive care, and Chinese herbal medicine combined with Quxie Capsule (each capsule of 0.4 g was orally administered at 50 mg/kg, twice daily, day 1-20, in a 30-day course) for 3 months. The patients in the control group received conventional therapy and Chinese herbal medicine combined with placebo for 3 months. Main outcome measures were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Subgroup analysis was performed according to therapy lines, right or left-sided colon, targeted therapy and RAS gene status to determine the differences in PFS and OS between the two groups. Patients were followed up every 3 months until December 31st, 2018. RESULTS: Median follow-up time was 19.4 months. The median OS was 23.9 months in the treatment group [95% confidence interval (CI) 15.9-28.5] vs. 14.3 months in the control group (95% CI 11.3-21.4, P<;0.05). Hazard ratio (95% CI) was 0.55 (0.31-0.95, P=0.040). There were no significant differences between the two groups in PFS (P>0.05). In the subgroups of ⩾second-line therapy, non-targeted therapy, RAS gene wild type and left-sided colon, the treatment group showed a significant survival benefit compared with the control group (P<;0.05 or P<;0.01), respectively. CONCLUSION: Quxie Capsule can reduce the risk of death and prolong the OS of patients with mCRC. (Registration No. ChiCTR-IOR-16009733).

10.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 209(Pt 1): 112166, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739877

RESUMO

To reduce the negative impact of nanopesticide carriers of on the environment, a greener nanodelivery system is necessary. Nanogels are nontoxic and degradable carriers, however, the potential of nanogels for delivering pesticides has not been proven. In this study, poly(vinyl alcohol)-valine, an ecofriendly polymer, was synthesized and used to fabricate emamectin benzoate nanogel suspension (EB NS). The nanoformulation showed favorable stability at low temperature, high temperature or one year storage, and in water with different hardnesses. The retention of the EB NS solution on leaves was higher than that of an EB emulsifiable concentrate (EC) by approximately 9% at a concentration of 10 mg L-1. The half-life of EB nanogels under Ultra Violet irradiation was prolonged by 3.3-fold. Moreover, the bioactivity of the EB NS against Plutella xylostella was higher than that of the EB EC. These advantages resulted in a relatively long duration of pest control. The response of nanogels to laccase, a digestive enzyme in the digestive tract of lepidopteran pests, enables pesticide release on demand. Nanogels have the advantages of being ecofriendly carriers, exhibiting higher utilization, and prolonged pest control periods, and they have a brilliant future in pesticide delivery.

12.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34835902

RESUMO

Tin dioxide (SnO2)-based materials, as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), have been attracting growing research attention due to the high theoretical specific capacity. However, the complex synthesis process of chemical methods and the pollution of chemical reagents limit its commercialization. The new material synthesis method is of great significance for expanding the application of SnO2-based materials. In this study, the SnO2/carbon nanotube nanonests (SnO2/CNT NNs) composites are synthesized in one step by direct current (DC) arc-discharge plasma; compared with conventional methods, the plasma synthesis achieves a uniform load of SnO2 nanoparticles on the surfaces of CNTs while constructing the CNTs conductive network. The SnO2/CNT NNs composites are applied in LIBs, it can be found that the nanonest-like CNT conductive structure provides adequate room for the volume expansion and also helps to transfer the electrons. Electrochemical measurements suggests that the SnO2/CNT NNscomposites achieve high capacity, and still have high electrochemical stability and coulombic efficiency under high current density, which proves the reliability of the synthesis method. This method is expected to be industrialized and also provides new ideas for the preparation of other nanocomposites.

13.
Mater Horiz ; 8(2): 619-629, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821279

RESUMO

Biological neurons exhibit dynamic excitation behavior in the form of stochastic firing, rather than stiffly giving out spikes upon reaching a fixed threshold voltage, which empowers the brain to perform probabilistic inference in the face of uncertainty. However, owing to the complexity of the stochastic firing process in biological neurons, the challenge of fabricating and applying stochastic neurons with bio-realistic dynamics to probabilistic scenarios remains to be fully addressed. In this work, a novel CuS/GeSe conductive-bridge threshold switching memristor is fabricated and singled out to realize electronic stochastic neurons, which is ascribed to the similarity between the stochastic switching behavior observed in the device and that of biological ion channels. The corresponding electric circuit of a stochastic neuron is then constructed and the probabilistic firing capacity of the neuron is utilized to implement Bayesian inference in a spiking neural network (SNN). The application prospects are demonstrated on the example of a tumor diagnosis task, where common fatal diagnostic errors of a conventional artificial neural network are successfully circumvented. Moreover, in comparison to deterministic neuron-based SNNs, the stochastic neurons enable SNNs to deliver an estimate of the uncertainty in their predictions, and the fidelity of the judgement is drastically improved by 81.2%.

14.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(42): 8793-8800, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632477

RESUMO

The development of a rapid and intuitive method for the detection of a specific small molecule biomarker is important for understanding the pathogenesis of relevant diseases. Described here is the design and evaluation of an HClO-specific triggered self-immolative fluorescent sensor (RESClO) based on the structure of an N-protected Resorufin dye. Due to the interrupted π-conjugated structure of the Resorufin dye, the free sensor showed very weak absorption and fluorescence. It can quickly complete the response to HClO (within 10 s) with high selectivity and sensitivity (LOD = 16.8 nM) in aqueous solution. The sensor can be made into test strips to quickly detect HClO in the environment by obvious changes in color and fluorescence. It was successfully used for bioimaging of exogenous and endogenous HClO in cells and zebra fish. More importantly, it can also be used for visual imaging of mouse arthritis models. Thus, sensor RESClO can provide a simple and promising visual analytical tool for the detection of HClO in the environment and the early diagnosis of HClO-mediated related diseases.

15.
Neurol Sci ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder whose main symptoms are muscle weakness and fatigue. Irisin is a novel skeletal muscle-derived myokine participating in several physiological and pathological processes. The initial objective of the project was to explore serum levels of irisin in patients with MG, as well as its correlation with disease severity. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated serum levels of irisin in 77 MG patients and 57 healthy controls (HCs) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Further, clinical parameters were measured properly. RESULTS: Serum irisin levels were significantly elevated in MG patients compared with HCs (p < 0.001). Furthermore, serum irisin levels were associated with the myasthenia gravis activities of daily living score in ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) patients (r = 0.476, p = 0.004), but there was no relationship to be considered of any relevant value in generalized myasthenia gravis (GMG) patients. Acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive MG patients had higher serum irisin levels compared with HCs. Thymoma, endotracheal intubation, or intensive care unit treatments subsequently were not found to have effect on serum levels of irisin, but tendencies of increase were observed in negative ones. CONCLUSIONS: Serum irisin levels were elevated in patients with MG, suggesting its possible involvement in MG. And irisin is expected to be a signal to evaluate the activities of daily living of OMG patients, while its effect needs further study.

16.
BMC Urol ; 21(1): 145, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary bladder lymphangioma is a rare and benign lesion that is often causes symptoms related to irritation and urinary tract obstruction. Because a lymphangioma may resemble a true neoplasm of the urinary bladder clinically, the lesion must be removed for accurate histologic diagnosis and to rule out malignancy. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 40-year-old female who was evaluated for painless gross hematuria. Clinical and diagnostic work up revealed a sharply defined mass involving the wall and bulging into the cavity on the dome of the bladder. Partial cystectomy was performed and histologic findings were compatible with cavernous lymphangioma. The symptom of hematuria relieved after the procedure and the patient was in good status without evidence of recurrence by cystoscopy at follow-up 6 months later. CONCLUSIONS: Lymphangioma of the urinary bladder is treated with surgical excision and seems to have no recurrence once completely resected, but long-time follow-up may be needed.

17.
Am J Transl Res ; 13(9): 10712-10720, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical efficacy of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for treating malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) and to assess the impact of this approach on patient prognosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 44 patients with MPM was performed. The control group (CNG, N = 23) was treated with CRS combined with postoperative intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy, while the observation group (OG, N = 21) was treated with CRS combined with HIPEC. The treatment efficacy, volume of blood loss, operation time, postoperative length of stay, and 3-year survival rate (SR) were compared, and the factors affecting the prognosis of MPM patients were analyzed by multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The OG showed decreased volume of blood loss and operation time, while also showing increased overall treatment efficacy compared with the CNG. The SR in the OG was 65.22% compared with a rate of 33.33% in the CNG, and the 3-year SR in the OG was significantly higher than that in the CNG. Multivariate analysis revealed that tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score, and treatment modality were independent risk factors for the prognosis of MPM patients. CONCLUSION: CRS combined with HIPEC for MPM has a favorable treatment efficacy and prolongs the survival of MPM patients. Additionally, TNM stage, ECOG score, and treatment modality are independent risk factors for the prognosis of MPM patients.

18.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687315

RESUMO

While hybridization plays a large role in speciation, some unknown fraction of hybrid individuals never reproduces, instead remaining as genetic dead-ends. We investigated a morphologically distinct and culturally important Chinese walnut, Juglans hopeiensis, suspected to have arisen from hybridization of Persian walnut (J. regia) with Asian butternuts (J. cathayensis, J. mandshurica and hybrids between J. cathayensis and J. mandshurica). Based on 151 whole-genome sequences of the relevant taxa, we discovered that all J. hopeiensis individuals are first-generation hybrids, with the time for the onset of gene flow estimated as 370,000 years, implying both strong postzygotic barriers and the presence of J. regia in China by that time. Six inversion regions enriched for genes associated with pollen germination and pollen tube growth may be involved in the postzygotic barriers that prevent sexual reproduction in the hybrids. Despite its long-recurrent origination and distinct traits, J. hopeiensis does not appear on the way to speciation.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(15): 150502, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678028

RESUMO

The entanglement produced by a bilinear Hamiltonian in continuous variables has been thoroughly studied and widely used. In contrast, the physics of entanglement resulting from nonlinear interaction described by partially degenerate high-order Hamiltonians remains unclear. Here, we derive a hierarchy of sufficient and necessary conditions for the positive-partial-transposition separability of bipartite nonlinear quantum states. The proposed criteria detect the nonpositive-partial-transposition inseparability of higher-order moments of states, which provides a systematic framework for the characterization of this kind of entanglement. Through numerical simulation of cubic and quartic Hamiltonians, we demonstrate the existence and competition of a hierarchy of entanglement witnesses, revealing the mechanism underlying such entanglement. Our results may provide a new direction in continuous variable quantum information processing.

20.
ISA Trans ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689961

RESUMO

This study considers the coordinated control for quasilinear multiagent systems (QMASs). An output feedback predictive control (OFPC) strategy is given to implement both coordination and simultaneous stability and output consensus (SSOC). In the OFPC strategy, a cost function aiming at coordination relationship is minimized by predictive control thus coordination among QMASs is implemented. Further discussion derives a criterion to maintain the closed-loop QMASs realize the SSOC. Finally, two examples are proposed to richly illustrate the availability of the OPFC strategy.

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