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1.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; : 1747021820981862, 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283640

RESUMO

The effect of the babyface schema includes three typical responses, namely, the preference response, viewing motivation, and attention bias towards infant faces. It has been theorized that these responses are primarily influenced by infants' facial structures. However, recent studies have revealed the moderating role of facial expression, suggesting that the strongest effect of the babyface schema may be related to the neutral facial expression; this hypothesis remains to be tested. In this study, the moderating role of facial expression was assessed in three successive experiments (total N = 402). We used a series of images of the same face with multiple expression-standardized images of infants and adults to control for facial structure. The results indicated that the effect sizes of the babyface schema (i.e., response differences between infants and adults) were different for multiple expressions of the same face. Specifically, the effect sizes of neutral faces were significantly greater than those of happy and sad faces according to the preference response (experiment 1, N = 90), viewing motivation (experiment 2, N = 214), and attentional bias (experiment 3, N = 98). These results empirically confirm that neutral infant facial expressions elicit the strongest effect of the babyface schema under the condition of using adult faces as a comparison baseline and matching multiple expressions of the same face.

2.
J Virol ; 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361430

RESUMO

Tumor progression locus 2 (TPL2) is a serine/threonine kinase that belongs to the mitogen-activated protein 3 kinase (MAP3K) family, and it plays an important role in pathogen infection. The trimer complex of TPL2, p105, and ABIN2 is essential for maintenance of TPL2 steady-state levels and host cell response to pathogens. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a positive-strand RNA virus of the family Picornaviridae that encodes proteins capable of antagonizing host immune responses to achieve infection. The VP1 protein of FMDV is a multifunctional protein that can bind host cells and induce an immune response as well as cell apoptosis. However, the role and mechanisms of TPL2 in FMDV infection remain unknown. Here, we determined that FMDV infection could inhibit TPL2, p105, and ABIN2 at the transcription and protein levels, while VP1 could only inhibit TPL2, p105 and ABIN2 at protein level. TPL2 inhibited the replication of FMDV in vivo and in vitro, the 268 to 283 amino-acid region in the TPL2 kinase domain was essential for interaction with VP1. Moreover, VP1 promoted K48-linked polyubiquitination of TPL2 and degraded TPL2 by the proteasome pathway. However, VP1-induced degradation of p105 and ABIN2 was independent of proteasome, autophagy, lysosome, and caspase-dependent pathways. Further studies showed that VP1 destroyed the stability of the TPL2-p105-ABIN2 complex. Taken together, these results revealed that VP1 antagonized TPL2-meditated antivirus activity by degrading TPL2 and destroying its complex. These findings may contribute to understand FMDV-host interactions and improve development of a novel vaccine to prevent FMDV infection.Importance Virus-host interactions are critical for virus infection. This study was the first to demonstrate the antiviral effect of host TPL2 during FMDV replication by increasing production of interferons and antiviral cytokines. Both FMDV and VP1 protein can reduce host TPL2, ABIN2 and p105 to destroy TPL2-p105-ABIN2 trimer complex. VP1 interacted with TPL2 and degrade TPL2 via proteasome pathway to repress TPL2-mediated antivirus activity. This study provided new insights into FMDV immune evasion mechanisms, elucidating new informations regarding FMDV counteraction of host antivirus activity.

3.
Vet Microbiol ; 251: 108889, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33223235

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious infection caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that mediate antiviral immune responses in host cells and could be used by pathogens to evade host cell immune responses. Whether FMDV affects exosome secretion or whether exosomes derived from FMDV-infected cells mediate host cell antiviral immune responses is not yet clarified. In this study, the exosomes were identified and extracted from FMDV-infected PK-15 cells, and it was found that FMDV inhibits exosome secretion. Further investigation revealed that FMDV suppresses exosomes by degrading Rab27a via the autophagy-lysosome pathway. Also, microRNA (miRNA) differential analysis was performed in exosomes, which revealed that miRNA-136 was highly differentially expressed in exosomes and may be the key miRNA that inhibits the proliferation of FMDV. In summary, these results showed that host cells take advantage of exosomes to mediate their antiviral immune response, while FMDV evades exosome-mediated immune responses by degrading the exosome molecular switch, Rab27a.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242203, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180806

RESUMO

Guided by parental investment theory and social role theory, this study aimed to understand current contradictory results regarding sex differences in response to infant faces by considering the effect of gender role orientation. We recruited 300 adults in China and asked them to complete an Interest in Infants questionnaire and a Bem Sex Role Inventory and then administered a behavioral assessment that used unfamiliar infant faces with varying expressions (laughing, neutral, and crying) as stimuli to gauge three components of motivation towards infants (i.e., liking, representational responding, and evoked responding). The results demonstrated that sex differences emerged only in self-reported interest in infants, but no difference was found between the sexes in terms of their hedonic reactions to infant faces. Furthermore, femininity was found to correlate with preferences for infants in both verbal and visual tests, but significant interactive effects of feminine traits and sex were found only in the behavioral test. The findings indicated that men's responses to infants were influenced more by their feminine traits than were women's responses, potentially explaining the greater extent to which paternal (vs. maternal) investment is facultative.

5.
Opt Express ; 28(23): 34804-34811, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182940

RESUMO

A reconfigurable metamaterial for chirality switching and selective intensity modulation is demonstrated experimentally. Through simple folding strategy, nonchiral state, single-band chiral states and dual-bands chiral states can be switched. Circular dichroism up to 0.94 is measured with folding angles of 70°. Meanwhile, selective intensity modulation is realized by the combined effect of folding angle and incident angle. The transmission intensity of circularly polarized waves can be modulated by more than 90% at any selected resonating frequency between 8.97 and 10.73 GHz. This work will benefit the researches of foldable metamaterials and have potential applications in the field of reconfigurable devices.

6.
Br J Educ Psychol ; : e12384, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Chinese educational system, there has been an ongoing debate between using examination- or quality-oriented education. The Chinese concept of psychological suzhi was proposed based on quality-oriented education, and a positive link between psychological suzhi and academic achievement was found by cross-sectional studies; however, studies examining their longitudinal relationship are still lacking. AIMS: To examine the longitudinal trajectories of Chinese adolescents' academic achievement and the longitudinal effects of psychological suzhi on academic achievement trajectories. SAMPLE: Participants were 3,587 adolescents (Mage  = 14.85 years, 51.1% male) in grades 7 and 10, from 10 secondary schools in southwest China. METHOD: A 2-year (four-wave) longitudinal study was conducted, and growth mixture models were used to analyse the data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Four distinct developmental trajectories of academic achievement were identified (i.e., high-positive growth, middle-negative growth, low-stable, and lowest-stable) that were significantly predicted by different levels of psychological suzhi, particularly the dimension of cognitive quality. Cognitive quality was strongly associated with the initial academic achievement values in the high-positive growth group and linked to achievement rate (decreasing) in the middle-negative growth group. However, individuality quality and adaptability quality had a buffering effect on the rate of achievement decreasing in the middle-negative growth group. This study not only highlighted the promotive role of high cognitive quality on high levels of achievement (static) but also indicated the protective role of non-cognitive factors (i.e., individuality and adaptability) against a decreasing rate of academic achievement (dynamic).

7.
Pathogens ; 9(9)2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899635

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious vesicular disease in cloven-hoofed livestock that results in severe consequences for international trade, posing a great economic threat to agriculture. The FMDV infection antagonizes the host immune responses via different signaling pathways to achieve immune escape. Strategies to escape the cell immune system are key to effective infection and pathogenesis. This review is focused on summarizing the recent advances to understand how the proteins encoded by FMDV antagonize the host innate and adaptive immune responses.

8.
Arch Virol ; 165(11): 2561-2587, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876795

RESUMO

Orf virus (ORFV) infects sheep and goat tissues, resulting in severe proliferative lesions. To analyze cellular protein expression in ORFV-infected goat skin fibroblast (GSF) cells, we used two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). The proteomics approach was used along with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to detect differentially expressed proteins in ORFV-infected GSF cells and mock-infected GSF cells. A total of 282 differentially expressed proteins were identified. It was found that 222 host proteins were upregulated and 60 were downregulated following viral infection. We confirmed that these proteins were differentially expressed and found that heat shock 70-kDa protein 1B (HSPA1B) was differentially expressed and localized in the cytoplasm. It was also noted that HSPA1B caused inhibition of viral proliferation, in the middle and late stages of viral infection. The differentially expressed proteins were associated with the biological processes of viral binding, cell structure, signal transduction, cell adhesion, and cell proliferation.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/fisiologia , Vírus do Orf/fisiologia , Proteoma/genética , Replicação Viral , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida , Fibroblastos/virologia , Cabras , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Vírus do Orf/genética , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Vet Res ; 51(1): 103, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811541

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

10.
Opt Express ; 28(12): 17374-17383, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679946

RESUMO

Vortex beams (VBs) carrying orbital angular moment (OAM) modes have been proven to be promising resources for increasing communication capacity. Although considerable attention has been paid on metasurface-based VB generators due to the unprecedented advantages of metasurface, most applications are usually limited at a single band with a fixed OAM mode. In this work, an emerging dual-band reflection-type coding metasurface is proposed to mitigate these issues by newly engineered meta-atoms, which could achieve independent 2-bit phase modulations at two frequency bands. The proposed coding metasurface could efficiently realize and fully control dual-band VBs carrying frequency selective OAM modes under the linearly polarized incidence. As the first illustrative example, a dual-band VB generator with normal beam direction is fabricated and characterized at two widely used communication bands (Ku and Ka bands). Moreover, by encoding proper coding sequences, versatile beams carrying frequency selective OAM modes can be achieved. Therefore, by adding a gradient phase sequence to the first VB generator, the second one is designed to steer the generated beams to a preset direction, which could enable diverse scenarios. The measurement results of both VB generators agree very well with the numerical ones, validating the full control capability of the proposed approach.

11.
Sch Psychol ; 35(4): 267-276, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673054

RESUMO

The protective role of students' perceptions of school climate against mental health problems has been supported in previous research, yet relatively little is known about the mechanism underlying school climate's influence on Chinese youths' depressive symptoms. Guided by the process-person-context-time model, this study examined the mediating effect of psychological suzhi (a Chinese cultural construct comprising a hierarchical, integrated set of positive psychological qualities) on the longitudinal association between perceived school climate and depressive symptoms among Chinese adolescents. Students (N = 1,151; 52.2% boys; mean [M]age = 16.24, standard deviation [SD] = 0.70) from one Chinese high school participated in a 3-wave (each wave was 6 months apart) longitudinal study. Multilevel mediation models were used to analyze between- and within-person effects on the longitudinal association between perceived school climate and depressive symptoms. The results indicated that students who perceived a more positive school climate reported lower depressive symptoms than students who perceived a more negative school climate (between-person effect); however, students who perceived their school climate positively did not always directly report lower depressive symptoms across time (within-person effect). Psychological suzhi mediated the association between perceived school climate and depressive symptoms at both the between- and within-person levels. Students who perceived a more positive school climate had increased psychological suzhi, which, in turn, decreased their depressive symptoms. The findings provided implications for school-based mental health prevention services by highlighting the need for promoting both positive school climate and students' psychological suzhi. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

12.
Vet Res ; 51(1): 91, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678013

RESUMO

Seneca Valley virus (SVV) is a non-encapsulated single-stranded positive-strand RNA virus whose transmission routes have not yet been fully elucidated. Exosomes have been implicated in the intercellular transport of a variety of materials, such as proteins, RNA, and liposomes. However, whether exosomes can mediate SVV intercellular transmission remains unknown. In this study, we extracted exosomes from SVV-infected IBRS-2 cells to investigate intercellular transmission. Our results suggest that the intercellular transmission of SVV is mediated by exosomes. The results of co-localization and RT-qPCR studies showed that exosomes harbor SVV and enable the virus to proliferate in both susceptible and non-susceptible cells. Furthermore, the replication of SVV was inhibited when IBRS-2 cells were treated with interfering RNA Rab27a and exosome inhibitor GW4869. Finally, neutralization experiments were performed to further verify whether the virus was encapsulated by the exosomes that mediated transmission between cells. It was found that exosome-mediated intercellular transmission was not blocked by SVV-specific neutralizing antibodies. This study reveals a new transmission route of SVV and provides clear evidence regarding the pathogenesis of SVV, information which can also be useful for identifying therapeutic interventions.

13.
Viral Immunol ; 33(6): 468-476, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315577

RESUMO

As a zoonotic disease, ovine contagious pustular dermatitis (Orf) is a serious threat to sheep as well as humans. Orf virus (ORFV) interferon resistance protein (VIR) is the principal virulence protein that encodes a dsRNA-binding protein to inhibit host antiviral response. p53 is one of the key proteins of the host antiviral innate immunity. It not only enhances type I interferon secretion but also induces apoptosis in infected cells, and plays a crucial role in the immune response against various viral infections. However, it remains to be elucidated what role p53 plays in ORFV replication and whether ORFV's own protein VIR regulates p53 expression to promote self-replication. In this study, we showed that p53 has an antiviral effect on ORFV and can inhibit ORFV replication. In addition, ORFV nonstructural protein VIR interacts with p53 and degrades p53, which inhibits p53-mediated positive regulation of downstream antiviral genes. This study provides new insight into the immune evasion mediated by ORFV and identifies VIR as an antagonistic factor for ORFV to evade the antiviral response.

14.
Child Dev ; 91(4): e968-e983, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663608

RESUMO

Guided by the social-ecological diathesis-stress model, this longitudinal study examined the roles of self-esteem, parental attachment, and gender on the association between peer victimization and problem behaviors among Chinese early adolescents. A total of 466 Chinese middle school students (Mage  = 12.8 years) completed measures of peer victimization, self-esteem, and paternal and maternal attachment twice (T1 and T2; 6-month interval). Their guardians also completed ratings on adolescents' problem behaviors at both T1 and T2. Results indicated that self-esteem mediated the association between peer victimization and problem behaviors. Paternal attachment, but not maternal attachment, moderated the mediating effect of self-esteem. Moreover, the moderating effect of maternal attachment on the association between peer victimization and self-esteem varied depending on adolescents' gender.

15.
Bioorg Chem ; 94: 103456, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787343

RESUMO

Aiming to develop novel Type-I1/2 inhibitors of ALK to overcome extensive resistance mutations, especially the L1196M mutation surrounding the ATP pocket, two series of 2-arylaminopyrimidine derivatives (11a-f and 22a-t) were designed based on scaffold hopping. The extensive structural elaboration discovered compound 22o which possessed excellent IC50 values of 0.06 and 0.23 µM against ALK-positive Karpas299 and H2228 cell lines, respectively. Meanwhile, 22o displayed encouraging inhibitory potency in the ALKWT (2.5 nM) and ALKL1196M (6.5 nM) enzymatic assays. Furthermore, the AO/EB and Hoechst 33258 assays illustrated 22o could induce cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Eventually, the molecular docking of 22o with ALK clearly presented the vital interactions within the active site, which was in accordance with Type-I1/2 inhibitor binding mode.

16.
Front Immunol ; 11: 580334, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33488582

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a severe, highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. In order to establish an infection, the FMD virus (FMDV) needs to counteract host antiviral responses. Tumor progression locus 2 (TPL2), a mitogen-activated protein kinase, can regulate innate and adaptive immunity; however, its exact mechanisms underlying TPL2-mediated regulation of the pathogenesis of FMDV infection remain unknown. In this study, we confirmed that TPL2 could inhibit FMDV replication in vitro and in vivo. The virus replication increased in Tpl2-deficient suckling mice in association with reduced expression of interferon-stimulated genes interferon-α (IFN-α) and myxovirus resistance (MX2) and significantly reduced expression of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), and IRF7, while the phosphorylation of IRF3 was not detected. Moreover, the interactions between TPL2 and VP1 were also confirmed. The overexpression of TPL2 promoted IRF3-mediated dose-dependent activation of the IFN-ß signaling pathway in association with interactions between IRF3 and TPL2. VP1 also inhibited phosphorylation of TPL2 at Thr290, while Thr290 resulted as the key functional site associated with the TPL2-mediated antiviral response. Taken together, this study indicated that FMDV capsid protein VP1 antagonizes TPL2-mediated activation of the IRF3/IFN-ß signaling pathway for immune escape and facilitated virus replication.

17.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260519877950, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608785

RESUMO

Previous research has indicated that positive parenting practices, such as parental emotional warmth, are associated with less negative outcomes in children. These negative outcomes can present during adolescence and during emerging adulthood. One negative consequence can be aggression, a problematic outcome with its own myriad consequences. The current study aimed to examine the effect of parental emotional warmth on adolescent and young adult aggression and the mediating effect of Dark Triad personality traits (Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism) on this relationship. The sample included 530 Chinese student participants who completed an online questionnaire survey: 241 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years (M = 17.24, SD = 1.00) and 289 young adults aged 19 to 23 years (M = 20.12, SD = 1.03). The results revealed that the association between parental emotional warmth and aggression was fully mediated by Machiavellianism and psychopathy, and the mediating effects of Machiavellianism and psychopathy had no age differences between adolescents and young adults. These results may clinically suggest that paying attention to parental emotional warmth, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy in adolescents and young adults could yield a better understanding of their current and continuous functioning, especially for aggression.

18.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 12: 307-315, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118847

RESUMO

Background: There issome research on school climate impact on adolescent alcohol use in the Western social context; however, there is no research on school climate impact on adolescent alcohol use in China. This study aimed to explore the effect of school climate on Chinese adolescents' alcohol use, and the moderating role of psychological suzhi between them. Methods: A total of 801 adolescents (45.8% boys, 14.96±1.66 years) completed self-reports on school climate, psychological suzhi, and alcohol use. Results: Moderation analyses revealed that both school climate and psychological suzhi significantly negatively predicted adolescents' alcohol use, and the interaction of school climate and psychological suzhi significantly positively predicted adolescents' alcohol use. Moreover, the effect of school climate on adolescents' alcohol use was stronger for low psychological suzhi adolescents than high psychological suzhi adolescents. Conclusions: We can build good school climate by formulating of national level legal and regulations and good social norms, and use mature interventions or cultivation strategies to improve adolescents' psychological suzhi in order to better play its role in protection.

19.
J Physiol Sci ; 69(4): 643-652, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087219

RESUMO

Silibinin has been shown to attenuate cognitive dysfunction and inhibit amyloid-beta (Aß) aggregation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) models. However, the underlying mechanism by which silibinin improves cognition remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of silibinin on ß-secretase levels, Aß enzymatic degradation, and oxidative stress in the brains of APP/PS1 mice with cognitive impairments. Oral administration of silibinin for 2 months significantly attenuated the cognitive deficits of APP/PS1 mice in the Y-maze test, novel object recognition test, and Morris water maze test. Biochemical analyses revealed that silibinin decreased Aß deposition and the levels of soluble Aß1-40/1-42 in the hippocampus by downregulating APP and BACE1 and upregulating NEP in APP/PS1 mice. In addition, silibinin decreased the MDA content and increased the activities of the antioxidant enzymes CAT, SOD, and NO. Based on our findings, silibinin is a potentially promising agent for preventing AD-associated Aß pathology.


Assuntos
Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Silibina/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Immunobiology ; 224(3): 383-387, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853309

RESUMO

Tumor progression locus 2 (TPL2) is a serine/threonine kinase that belongs to the MAP3K family. The activated TPL2 regulates the innate immune-relevant signaling pathways, such as ERK, JNK, and NF-κB, and the differentiation of immune cells, for example, CD4+ T and NK cells. Therefore, TPL2 plays a critical role in regulating the innate immune response. The present review summarizes the recent advancements in the TPL2-regulated innate immune response.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Ativação de Macrófagos , Ativação de Neutrófilo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética
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