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1.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(5)2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353954

RESUMO

There is growing evidence that microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a new endocrine disruptor, whereas the impacts of persistent exposure to MC-LR on the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis and health hazards thereafter have not been investigated. In this work, adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio) were immersed into MC-LR solutions at concentrations of 0, 1, 5 and 25 µg/L for 30 d, respectively. The results showed that persistent MC-LR exposure caused an extensive upregulation of HPI-axis genes but an inhibition of brain nuclear receptors (gr and mr), which finally increased serum cortisol levels. Furthermore, the decreased expression of hepatic gr might partly be responsible for the strong inhibition on the expression of downstream genes involved in glucose metabolic enzymes, including gluconeogenesis-related genes (pepck, fbp1a, g6pca), glycogenolysis-related gene (pyg), glycolysis-related genes (gk, pfk1b, pk) and glycogenesis-related gene (gys2). These findings are in accordance with the decline in serum glucose, indicating that long-term MC-LR exposure caused a lower production of glucose relative to glucose lysis. Our above results firstly establish the link between persistent MC-LR exposure and impaired glucose metabolism, suggesting that long-term MC-LR-mediated stress might threaten fish's health.

2.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379592

RESUMO

The pandemic novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global concern in which respiratory system is not the only one involved. Previous researches have presented the common clinical manifestations including respiratory symptoms (i.e., fever and cough), fatigue and myalgia. However, there is limited evidence for neurological and psychological influences by SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we discuss the common neurological manifestations of COVID-19 including acute cerebrovascular disease (i.e., cerebral hemorrhage) and muscle ache. Possible viral transmission to the nervous system may occur via circulation, an upper nasal transcribrial route and/or conjunctival route. Also, we cannot ignore the psychological influence on the public, medical staff and confirmed patients. Dealing with public psychological barriers and performing psychological crisis intervention are an important part of public health interventions.

3.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(2): 215-219, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in the treatment of patients with moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 30 treatment-naïve patients with confirmed COVID-19 after informed consent at Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. The patients were randomized 1:1 to HCQ group and the control group. Patients in HCQ group were given HCQ 400 mg per day for 5 days plus conventional treatments, while those in the control group were given conventional treatment only. The primary endpoint was negative conversion rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in respiratory pharyngeal swab on days 7 after randomization. This study has been approved by the Ethics Committee of Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center and registered online (NCT04261517). RESULTS: One patient in HCQ group developed to severe during the treatment. On day 7, nucleic acid of throat swabs was negative in 13 (86.7%) cases in the HCQ group and 14 (93.3%) cases in the control group (P>0.05). The median duration from hospitalization to virus nucleic acid negative conservation was 4 (1,9) days in HCQ group, which is comparable to that in the control group [2 (1,4) days, Z=1.27, P>0.05]. The median time for body temperature normalization in HCQ group was 1 (0,2) day after hospitalization, which was also comparable to that in the control group [1 (0,3) day]. Radiological progression was shown on CT images in 5 cases (33.3%) of the HCQ group and 7 cases (46.7%) of the control group, and all patients showed improvement in follow-up examinations. Four cases (26.7%) of the HCQ group and 3 cases (20%) of the control group had transient diarrhea and abnormal liver function (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis of COVID-19 moderate patients is good. Larger sample size study are needed to investigate the effects of HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19. Subsequent research should determine better endpoint and fully consider the feasibility of experiments such as sample size.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Hidroxicloroquina , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400781

RESUMO

Exploration of photovoltaic materials has received enormous interest for a wide range of both fundamental and applied research. Therefore, in this work, we identify a CsSi compound with a Zintl phase as a promising candidate for photovoltaic material by using a global structure prediction method. Electronic structure calculations indicate that this phase possesses a quasi-direct band gap of 1.45 eV, suggesting that its optical properties could be superior to those of diamond-Si for capturing sunlight from the visible to the ultraviolet range. In addition, a novel silicon allotrope is obtained by removing Cs atoms from this CsSi compound. The superconducting critical temperature (Tc) of this phase was estimated to be of 9 K in terms of a substantial density of states at the Fermi level. Our findings represent a new promising CsSi material for photovoltaic applications, as well as a potential precursor of a superconducting silicon allotrope.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8433, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439894

RESUMO

The effect of flooding on soil enzyme activities and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics remains a widely debated topic. Here, we investigated spatial variations in C-hydrolyzing enzyme activities, soil C contents in different fractions [i.e. labile and recalcitrant carbon (LC and RC)] from 6 sites with four different elevations at two soil depths (0-10 cm and 10-30 cm) in riparian zones of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. At region scales, the SOC, RC contents, and RC/SOC (RIC) generally showed decreasing tendency from the upstream to the downstream. The C-hydrolyzing enzyme activities were higher in the midstream compared to other sites, which did not correspond well with the changing trend of SOC content, but matched with the spatial variation in LC content. At ecosystem scales, the RC and RIC declined with decreased elevations, but the LC showed opposite trend. Whereas, the four C-hydrolyzing enzyme activities and the specific enzyme activities were corresponded well with the changing trend of LC content. Soil C contents and enzyme activities were generally higher in top soil than deep soil across sites and elevation zones. These results reveal that the LC is the tightest factor in regulating C-hydrolyzing enzyme activities, whereas the soil C quality (i.e. RIC) and flooding collectively drive C-hydrolyzing enzyme activities possibly by affecting decomposition rates of SOC in the riparian zones.

6.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; : e8830, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415693

RESUMO

RATIONALE: White tea has become very popular in recent years, but there has been no scientific identification of white tea from different origins. For product authentication and valorization, every kind of white tea must be marked with an indication of its origin. METHODS: Volatile profiles of white tea leaf samples from their main origins in China (Fuding City, Zhenghe County, and Jianyang City) were analyzed by proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS). Tentative identifications of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were obtained by PTR-TOF-MS of the headspace. Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were performed to evaluate the differences among the different origins. RESULTS: Teas from different origins were shown to have characteristic VOCs and profiles. Thus, white teas from different origins could be separated by characterizing the volatile emissions from the dry tea leaves. The ability of the two classification models to use the volatile fingerprints in origin discrimination was investigated. CONCLUSIONS: Two classification models (PCA and OPLS-DA) were applied to the PTR-TOF-MS data obtained from the VOCs obtained from different white teas. The classification models were shown to be useful in identifying the origin of white tea samples, providing a reference for white tea identification.

7.
Bioresour Technol ; 311: 123520, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413638

RESUMO

A novel macroporous (~150 µm) double network hydrogel (TR/PAA) was prepared from tea residue and acrylic acid, and its performance was systematically evaluated. The static adsorption experiments showed that gel exhibited high selectivity and adsorption capacity, ultrafast kinetics (~10 min) for Cr(III), Pb(II) and Fe(III). The adsorption behavior showed heterogeneous and chemisorption process adsorption capacities of 206.19, 253.16, and 94.88 mg g-1 for Cr(III), Pb(II) and Fe(III), respectively. In pluralistic systems, TR/PAA showed the adsorption order of Fe(III) > Cr(III) > Pb(II). Mechanism studies confirm that nitrogen and oxygen-containing functional groups play a major role in the adsorption process. In the fixed-bed column experiments, the treatment volume of simulated wastewater reached 1400 bed volumes (BV) (21.6 L), producing only 7 BV (323 mL) eluent. This work provides a new avenue for the combination of TR/PAA reuse and heavy metal removal, which is expected to be applied in actual wastewater treatment.

8.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 21(5): 667-685, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314529

RESUMO

Secreted small cysteine-rich proteins (SCPs) play a critical role in modulating host immunity in plant-pathogen interactions. Bioinformatic analyses showed that the fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae encodes more than 100 VdSCPs, but their roles in host-pathogen interactions have not been fully characterized. Transient expression of 123 VdSCP-encoding genes in Nicotiana benthamiana identified three candidate genes involved in host-pathogen interactions. The expression of these three proteins, VdSCP27, VdSCP113, and VdSCP126, in N. benthamiana resulted in cell death accompanied by a reactive oxygen species burst, callose deposition, and induction of defence genes. The three VdSCPs mainly localized to the periphery of the cell. BAK1 and SOBIR1 (associated with receptor-like protein) were required for the immunity triggered by these three VdSCPs in N. benthamiana. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that cysteine residues that form disulphide bonds are essential for the functioning of VdSCP126, but not VdSCP27 and VdSCP113. VdSCP27, VdSCP113, and VdSCP126 individually are not essential for V. dahliae infection of N. benthamiana and Gossypium hirsutum, although there was a significant reduction of virulence on N. benthamiana and G. hirsutum when inoculated with the VdSCP27/VdSCP126 double deletion strain. These results illustrate that the SCPs play a critical role in the V. dahliae-plant interaction via an intrinsic virulence function and suppress immunity following infection.

9.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 202, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer during pregnancy is rare. The management for stage IB3 during pregnancy remains unclear and challenging. We report a successful preserved pregnancy in a stage IB3 patient who was treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) plus radical surgery. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old pregnant woman was diagnosed with a 5-cm-diameter stage IB3 squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix at 13 gestational weeks. The patient received 5 courses of systemic chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel every 3 weeks, followed by caesarean section and radical hysterectomy. Both the mother and infant are in good general condition. CONCLUSION: This case suggests that NACT plus radical surgery could be one method to maintain pregnancy in stage IB3 cervical cancer diagnosed as early as 13 gestational weeks.

10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(18): 5118-5128, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32309947

RESUMO

Fucoxanthin (Fx), an allenic carotenoid from brown seaweeds or diatoms, has been demonstrated to prevent obesity. Gut dysbiosis and inflammation are two counted important incidence reasons of obesity and related diseases. In this paper, a mouse model induced by high-fat diet (HFD) was used to reveal the role of Fx in modulating intestinal homeostasis and treating obesity. In addition, 16S rRNA sequencing results inferred that Fx alleviated HFD-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis by significantly inhibiting the growth of obesity-/inflammation-related Lachnospiraceae and Erysipelotrichaceae while promoting the growth of Lactobacillus/Lactococcus, Bifidobacterium, and some butyrate-producing bacteria. The correlation analysis showed that some gut microbiota taxa were strongly correlated with obesity phenotypes and the inflammation level. In conclusion, dietary Fx has the potential to alleviate the development of obesity and related symptoms through mediating the composition of gut microbiota as demonstrated in mice. This study provides scientific evidence for the potential effects of Fx on obesity treatment.

11.
New Phytol ; 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255501

RESUMO

Fruit ripening is governed by a complex regulatory network. Reversible histone methylation and demethylation regulate chromatin structure and gene expression. However, little is known about the involvement of histone demethylases in regulating fruit ripening. Here, we found that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) SlJMJ6 encodes a histone lysine demethylase that specifically demethylates H3K27 methylation. Overexpression of SlJMJ6 accelerates tomato fruit ripening, which is associated with the upregulated expression of a large number of ripening-related genes. Integrated analysis of RNA-seq and chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing identified 32 genes directly targeted by SlJMJ6 and transcriptionally upregulated with decreased H3K27m3 in SlJMJ6-overexpressed fruit. Numerous SlJMJ6-regulated genes are involved in transcription regulation, ethylene biosynthesis, cell wall degradation and hormone signaling. Eleven ripening-related genes including RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylate synthase-4 (ACS4), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase 1 (ACO1), pectate lyase (PL) and beta-galactosidase 4 (TBG4), and a DNA demethylase DML2, were confirmed to be regulated directly by SlJMJ6 through removing H3K27me3. Our results demonstrate that SlJMJ6 is a ripening-prompting H3K27me3 demethylase that activates the expression of the ripening-related genes by modulating H3K27me3, thereby facilitating tomato fruit ripening. Our work also reveals a novel link between histone demethylation and DNA demethylation in regulating fruit ripening. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the involvement of a histone lysine demethylase in the regulation of fruit ripening.

12.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 15(3): 285-291, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232371

RESUMO

Social anxiety has been associated with abnormalities in cognitive processing in the literature, manifesting as various cognitive biases. To what extent these biases interrupt social interactions remains largely unclear. This study used the Social Judgment Paradigm that could separate the expectation and experience stages of social feedback processing. Event-related potentials (ERPs) in these two stages were recorded to detect the effect of social anxiety that might not be reflected by behavioral data. Participants were divided into two groups according to their social anxiety level. Participants in the high social anxiety (HSA) group were more likely to predict that they would be socially rejected by peers than did their low social anxiety (LSA) counterparts (i.e. the control group). Compared to the ERP data of the LSA group, the HSA group showed: (a) a larger P1 component to social cues (peer faces) prior to social feedback presentation, possibly indicating an attention bias; (b) a difference in feedback-related negativity amplitude between unexpected social acceptance and unexpected social rejection, possibly indicating an expectancy bias; and (c) a diminished sensitivity of the P3 amplitude to social feedback valence (be accepted/be rejected), possibly indicating an experience bias. These results could help understand the cognitive mechanisms that comprise and maintain social anxiety.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244959

RESUMO

To solve the flood drainage conflict among different regions of the water basin when the flood occurs, it is of great significance to study the allocation of flood drainage rights. The allocation of flood drainage rights requires flood management departments to consider the influences of socioeconomic differences among different regions on flood control operations to realize sustainable development. Under the pattern of the total amount allocation of "watershed-administrative regions", the evaluation index system of flood drainage rights allocation incorporated four aspects: natural conditions, level of social development, level of economic development, and technology and management. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) was used to calculate the weight coefficient of each allocation index and the initial distribution's proportion of the total amount in each region. Land area, population, gross domestic product (GDP), and sewage treatment capacity were selected as the evaluation indexes of the environmental Gini coefficient, and the environmental Gini coefficient method was used to evaluate and adjust the initial allocation of each region. Taking the allocation of flood drainage rights in the Taihu Basin as a case study, the final allocation results were obtained after initial allocation and feedback optimization. By evaluating the environmental Gini coefficient of each evaluation index, it is concluded that the final allocation could meet the requirements of fair allocation in each administrative region and be effectively implemented. Optimal allocation of the flood drainage rights in the Taihu Basin can contribute to overall flood control management, the reduction of flood disasters, and the stable development of society in the basin.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 724: 138302, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247970

RESUMO

Large water conservancy project can strongly alter the plant community composition, however, how these changes can potentially affect ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics is not fully understood. Here, we investigated natural 13C and 15N abundance of C3 and C4 plants and soil in different fractions [labile C (LC) and N (LN), recalcitrant C (RC) and N (RN)]from 6 sites with two elevations (flooding zone, 145-175 m, area with revegetation due to flooding, N = 6); and unflooding zone, >175 m with original plant as a control, N = 3) in riparian zones of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. The dominant species were the C4 plants in the upstream including Changshou (CS), Fuling (FL) and Zhongxian (ZX) and the C3 plants in the downstream in unflooding zone including Wanzhou (WZ) Badong (BD), and Zigui (ZG). C4 plant in flooding zone was significant decreased by mean 25% compared with unflooding zone in the upstream but significantly increased the by mean 59% in the downstream. The 13C isotopic differences between soil and plant (Δδ13C) was lower than zero in both flooding and unflooding in the upstream, but was only lower than zero in flooding zone in the downstream. The proportion of C3-derived C in soil organic carbon pool (average 74.64%) was lower for the flooding zone compared to the unflooding zone (average 87.26%) in most sites, while the proportion of C3-derived C in LC (average 44.38%) was decreased in the flooding zone compared to the unflooding zone (69.52%) in the downstream. Additionally, the δ15N values of soil were higher than plant community in most sites, and were strongly associated with soil C and N pool content, as well as soil pH. Overall, our results revealed that soil C accumulation was primarily determined by C3 plant in situ and new C input by existing dominant C4 plant, whereas soil N dynamics was predictably dependent on soil relative C and N availability in response to flooding at regional scale.

15.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 318(6): F1369-F1376, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32308018

RESUMO

Cytochrome P-450 (Cyp) epoxygenase-dependent metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) have been shown to inhibit renal Na+ transport, and inhibition of Cyp-epoxygenase is associated with salt-sensitive hypertension. We used the patch-clamp technique to examine whether Cyp-epoxygenase-dependent AA metabolites inhibited the basolateral 40-pS K+ channel (Kir4.1/Kir5.1) in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT). Application of AA inhibited the basolateral 40-pS K+ channel in the DCT. The inhibitory effect of AA on the 40-pS K+ channel was specific because neither linoleic nor oleic acid was able to mimic the effect of AA on the K+ channel. Inhibition of Cyp-monooxygenase with N-methylsulfonyl-12,12-dibromododec-11-enamide or inhibition of cyclooxygenase with indomethacin failed to abolish the inhibitory effect of AA on the 40-pS K+ channel. However, the inhibition of Cyp-epoxygenase with N-methylsulfonyl-6-(propargyloxyphenyl)hexanamide abolished the effect of AA on the 40-pS K+ channel in the DCT. Moreover, addition of either 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) or 14,15-EET also inhibited the 40-pS K+ channel in the DCT. Whole cell recording demonstrated that application of AA decreased, whereas N-methylsulfonyl-6-(propargyloxyphenyl)hexanamide treatment increased, Ba2+-sensitive K+ currents in the DCT. Finally, application of 14,15-EET but not AA was able to inhibit the basolateral 40-pS K+ channel in the DCT of Cyp2c44-/- mice. We conclude that Cyp-epoxygenase-dependent AA metabolites inhibit the basolateral Kir4.1/Kir5.1 in the DCT and that Cyp2c44-epoxygenase plays a role in the regulation of the basolateral K+ channel in the mouse DCT.

16.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potassium channel Kir4.1 forms the Kir4.1/Kir5.1 heterotetramer in the basolateral membrane of the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and plays an important role in the regulation of the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC). Kidney-specific deletion of the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 increases expression of NCC, and coexpression of Nedd4-2 inhibits Kir4.1/Kir5.1 in vitro. Whether Nedd4-2 regulates NCC expression in part by regulating Kir4.1/Kir5.1 channel activity in the DCT is unknown. METHODS: We used electrophysiology studies, immunoblotting, immunostaining, and renal clearance to examine Kir4.1/Kir5.1 activity in the DCT and NCC expression/activity in wild-type mice and mice with kidney-specific knockout of Nedd4-2, Kir4.1, or both. RESULTS: Deletion of Nedd4-2 increased the activity/expression of Kir4.1 in the DCT and also, hyperpolarized the DCT membrane. Expression of phosphorylated NCC/total NCC and thiazide-induced natriuresis were significantly increased in the Nedd4-2 knockout mice, but these mice were normokalemic. Double-knockout mice lacking both Kir4.1/Kir5.1 and Nedd4-2 in the kidney exhibited increased expression of the epithelial sodium channel α-subunit, largely abolished basolateral potassium ion conductance (to a degree similar to that of kidney-specific Kir4.1 knockout mice), and depolarization of the DCT membrane. Compared with wild-type mice, the double-knockout mice displayed inhibited expression of phosphorylated NCC and total NCC and had significantly blunted thiazide-induced natriuresis as well as renal potassium wasting and hypokalemia. However, NCC expression/activity was higher in the double-knockout mice than in Kir4.1 knockout mice. CONCLUSIONS: Nedd4-2 regulates Kir4.1/Kir5.1 expression/activity in the DCT and modulates NCC expression by Kir4.1-dependent and Kir4.1-independent mechanisms. Basolateral Kir4.1/Kir5.1 activity in the DCT partially accounts for the stimulation of NCC activity/expression induced by deletion of Nedd4-2.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130854

RESUMO

Large-sized orbital bone defects have serious consequences that destroy orbital integrity and result in maxillofacial deformities and vision loss. The treatment of orbital bone defects is currently palliative and not reparative, suggesting an urgent demand for biomaterials that regenerate orbital bones. In this study, via alloying, extrusion and surface modification, we developed mechanobiologically optimized Magnesium (Mg) scaffolds (Ca-P-coated Mg-Zn-Gd scaffolds, referred to as Ca-P-Mg) for the orthotopic reconstruction of large-sized orbital bone defects. At 6 months after transplanting the scaffolds to a clinically relevant canine large animal model, large-sized defects were successfully bridged by an abundance of new bone with normal mechanical properties that corresponded to gradual degradation of the implants. The osteogenic and ancillary cells, including vascular endothelial cells and trigeminal neurons, played important roles in this process. The scaffolds robustly enhanced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) osteogenic differentiation. In addition, the increased angiogenesis including increased ratio of the specific endothelial subtype CD31hi endomucinhi (CD31hiEmcnhi) endothelial cells can facilitate osteogenesis. Furthermore, the scaffolds trigger trigeminal neurons via transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (Trpv1) to produce the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which promotes angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Overall, our investigations revealed the efficacy of Ca-P-Mg scaffolds in healing orbital bone defects and warrant further exploration of these scaffolds for clinical applications.

18.
Zool Res ; 41(2): 105-122, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202089

RESUMO

The genus-level recognition of monophyletic short-legged toads ( Brachytarsophrys) has been recently implicated in the taxonomic debate of Megophrys sensu lato. In the present study, Brachytarsophrys is reasonably regarded as a distinct genus based on significant morphological differentiations and recent molecular analyses. Furthermore, a comprehensive review of this genus is performed, with two species groups proposed based on morphological differences and phylogenetic relationships. Particularly, Brachytarsophrys platyparietus is removed as a synonym of Brachytarsophrys carinense and considered a valid species due to significant genetic divergence and distinct morphological differences. In addition, a new species, Brachytarsophrys orientalis sp. nov., is described based on a series of specimens collected from southeastern China. This work takes the member species of the genus Brachytarsophrys to seven, suggesting that the diversity of Brachytarsophrys is underestimated. In addition, the genus levels of other monophyletic groups within the subfamily Megophryinae are discussed.

19.
Front Behav Neurosci ; 14: 28, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218724

RESUMO

Neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience have shown that anxious individuals have deficits in response inhibition. However, existing knowledge about the influence of trait anxiety on response inhibition is still inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate response inhibition between groups with high trait anxiety (HTA) and low trait anxiety (LTA). Here, we used event-related potential (ERP) indexes as biomarkers to examine the effect of trait anxiety on response inhibition using the Go/NoGo task. Behavioral results indicated that the HTA group made significantly lower accuracy than did the LTA group in the NoGo condition but not the Go condition. Meanwhile, the HTA group needed significantly longer overall response time (RT) than the LTA group did. ERP analyses revealed that the HTA group had smaller and later frontal NoGo-N2 as well as larger and later parietal NoGo-P3 compared to the LTA group. The two response inhibition-related ERP components are distinct neurophysiological indexes that, first, the NoGo-N2 is a component involved in the motor plan prior to the motor execution inhibitory process. Second, the NoGo-P3 reflects later monitoring and evaluation of the inhibition process. Accordingly, the current ERP findings suggest that HTA individuals' response inhibition deficits are the consequence of abnormal premotor inhibition control and inefficient evaluation and monitoring. In addition, we also found that the peak amplitude of NoGo-N2 and NoGo-P3 were significantly correlated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores after correction for multiple comparisons. To sum up, these results support the notion that trait anxious individuals have response inhibition deficits in the Go/NoGo task.

20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(7): e014996, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208832

RESUMO

Background Angiotensin II stimulates epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) by aldosterone-independent mechanism. We now test the effect of angiotensin II on ENaC in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD) of wild-type (WT) and kidney-specific mineralocorticoid receptor knockout mice (KS-MR-KO). Methods and Results We used electrophysiological, immunoblotting and renal-clearance methods to examine the effect of angiotensin II on ENaC in KS-MR-KO and wild-type mice. High K+ intake stimulated ENaC in the late DCT/early connecting tubule (DCT2/CNT) and in the CCD whereas low sodium intake stimulated ENaC in the CCD but not in the DCT2/CNT. The deletion of MR abolished the stimulatory effect of high K+ and low sodium intake on ENaC, partially inhibited ENaC in DCT2/CNT but almost abolished ENaC activity in the CCD. Application of losartan inhibited ENaC only in DCT2/CNT of both wild-type and KS-MR-KO mice but not in the CCD. Angiotensin II infusion for 3 days has a larger stimulatory effect on ENaC in the DCT2/CNT than in the CCD. Three lines of evidence indicate that angiotensin II can stimulate ENaC by MR-independent mechanism: (1) angiotensin II perfusion augmented ENaC expression in KS-MR-KO mice; (2) angiotensin II stimulated ENaC in the DCT2/CNT but to a lesser degree in the CCD in KS-MR-KO mice; (3) angiotensin II infusion augmented benzamil-induced natriuresis, increased the renal K+ excretion and corrected hyperkalemia of KS-MR-KO mice. Conclusions Angiotensin II-induced stimulation of ENaC occurs mainly in the DCT2/CNT and to a lesser degree in the CCD and MR plays a dominant role in determining ENaC activity in the CCD but to a lesser degree in the DCT2/CNT.

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