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2.
Chronic Dis Transl Med ; 5(2): 97-104, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367698

RESUMO

Objective: Both exposure to heavy metals and alcohol intake have been related to the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we aimed to assess the potential interactions between metal exposure and alcohol intake on the risk of T2D and prediabetes in a cohort of Chinese male workers. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 26,008 Chinese male workers in an occupational cohort study from 2011 to 2013. We assessed metal exposure and alcohol consumption at baseline in these workers who were aged ≥20 years. Based on occupations which were categorized according to measured urine metal levels, multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the independent and joint effects of metal and alcohol exposure on the risk of T2D and prediabetes. Results: Risks of T2D (P trend = 0.001) and prediabetes (P trend = 0.001) were significantly elevated with increasing number of standard drinks per week, years of drinking, and lifetime alcohol consumption. An adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 6.1 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.8-7.8) was observed for the smelting/refining workers (highest metal exposure levels) who had the highest lifetime alcohol consumption (>873 kg) (P interaction = 0.018), whereas no statistically significant joint effect was found for prediabetes (P interaction = 0.515). Conclusions: Both exposures to metal and heavy alcohol intake were associated with the risk of diabetes in this large cohort of male workers. There was a strong interaction between these two exposures in affecting diabetes risk that needs to be confirmed in future studies.

3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 3(5): e000909, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30294459

RESUMO

Unlike other disasters, injury rates after earthquakes are still on the rise at a global scale. With an estimated one million people injured by earthquakes in the last decade, the burden of injury is considerable. Importantly, the surgical procedures carried out by healthcare facilities are capable to avert part of this burden. Yet both burdens remain unquantified using understandable metrics. We explored in this analysis a method to calculate them using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), an internationally accepted measure expressing years of healthy life lost due to a health condition. We used data from a large standardised hospital database of earthquake-related injuries with complete information on International Classification of Diseases for injury and surgical procedures, sex and age information. DALYs and averted DALYs were calculated by injury types and per patient using disability weights available in the literature and expert opinion. We also suggested how DALYs might be further converted into an economic measure using approaches in the published literature. We estimated 10 397 DALYs as the earthquake surgical-injury burden produced in 1861 hospitalised patients treated in a single hospital (on average, 5.6 DALYs per patient). Our study also assessed that 4379 DALYs, or 2.4 DALYs per patient, were averted by surgery (42%). In economic terms, DALY losses amounted to US$36.1 million, from which US$15.2 million were averted by surgery in our case study. We urge to systematically estimate these impacts through improvements in the routine reporting of injury diagnoses and surgical procedures by health systems, potentially improving prevention policies and resource allocation to healthcare facilities.

4.
Innate Immun ; 20(1): 88-103, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23729477

RESUMO

A hallmark of Francisella tularensis, a highly virulent Gram-negative bacterium, is an unusual LPS that possesses both structural heterogeneity and characteristics that may contribute to innate immune evasion. However, none of the methods yet employed has been sufficient to determine the overall LPS composition of Francisella. We now demonstrate that metabolic labeling of francisellae with [(14)C]acetate, combined with fractionation of [(14)C]acetate-labeled lipids by ethanol precipitation rather than hot phenol-water extraction, permits a more sensitive and quantitative appraisal of overall compositional heterogeneity in lipid A and LPS. The majority of lipid A of different francisellae strains grown in diverse bacteriologic media and within human phagocytes accumulated as very hydrophobic species, including free lipid A, with <10% of the lipid A molecules substituted with O-Ag polysaccharides. The spectrum of lipid A and LPS species varied in a medium- and strain-dependent fashion, and growth in THP-1 cells yielded lipid A species that were not present in the same bacteria grown in brain heart infusion broth. In summary, metabolic labeling with [(14)C]acetate greatly facilitates assessment of the effect of genotypic and/or environmental variables on the synthesis and accumulation of lipid A and LPS by Francisella, including during growth within the cytosol of infected host cells.


Assuntos
Francisella tularensis/fisiologia , Lipídeo A/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Monócitos/imunologia , Fagócitos/imunologia , Radioisótopos de Carbono/química , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Fracionamento Químico , Precipitação Química , Meios de Cultura , Etanol , Francisella tularensis/patogenicidade , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Imunidade Inata , Lipídeo A/química , Metabolismo , Monócitos/virologia , Virulência
5.
PLoS One ; 8(4): e61371, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23585897

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Earthquakes are the most violent type of natural disasters and injuries are the dominant medical problem in the early phases after earthquakes. However, likely because of poor data availability, high-quality research on injuries after earthquakes is lacking. Length of hospital stay (LOS) has been validated as a proxy indicator for injury severity in high-income settings and could potentially be used in retrospective research of injuries after earthquakes. In this study, we assessed LOS as an adequate proxy indicator for severe injury in trauma survivors of an earthquake. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted using a database of 1,878 injured patients from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Our primary outcome was severe injury, defined as a composite measure of serious injury or resource use. Secondary outcomes were serious injury and resource use, analysed separately. Non-parametric receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and area under the curve (AUC) analysis was used to test the discriminatory accuracy of LOS when used to identify severe injury. An 0.7

Assuntos
Desastres , Terremotos , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismo Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismo Múltiplo/cirurgia , Traumatismo Múltiplo/terapia , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
J Immunol ; 179(4): 2477-84, 2007 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17675509

RESUMO

The bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) is thought to play an important role in killing and clearance of Gram-negative bacteria and the neutralization of endotoxin. A possible role for BPI in clearance of cell-free endotoxin has also been suggested based on studies with purified endotoxin aggregates and blood monocytes. Because the interaction of BPI with cell-free endotoxin, during infection, occurs mainly in tissue and most likely in the form of shed bacterial outer membrane vesicles ("blebs"), we examined the effect of BPI on interactions of metabolically labeled ([(14)C]-acetate) blebs purified from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B with either human monocyte-derived macrophages or monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC). BPI produced a dose-dependent increase (up to 3-fold) in delivery of (14)C-labeled blebs to MDDC, but not to monocyte-derived macrophages in the presence or absence of serum. Both, fluorescently labeled blebs and BPI were internalized by MDDC under these conditions. The closely related LPS-binding protein, in contrast to BPI, did not increase association of the blebs with MDDC. BPI-enhanced delivery of the blebs to MDDC did not increase cell activation but permitted CD14-dependent signaling by the blebs as measured by changes in MDDC morphology, surface expression of CD80, CD83, CD86, and MHC class II and secretion of IL-8, RANTES, and IP-10. These findings suggest a novel role of BPI in the interaction of bacterial outer membrane vesicles with dendritic cells that may help link innate immune recognition of endotoxin to Ag delivery and presentation.


Assuntos
Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/imunologia , Proteínas Sanguíneas/imunologia , Membrana Celular/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Neisseria meningitidis Sorogrupo B/imunologia , Proteínas da Fase Aguda/imunologia , Proteínas da Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Antígenos de Bactérias/metabolismo , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico Ativo/imunologia , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocinas/imunologia , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/imunologia , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
7.
Blood ; 101(2): 711-21, 2003 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12393713

RESUMO

Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are complex macromolecules on cell membranes that have been shown to play a role in neutrophil differentiation, activation, phagocytosis, and adhesion to both microorganisms and vascular endothelium. Because GSLs are often cryptic antigens on cell membranes, little is known regarding GSL expression in early myelopoiesis. To study the latter, myeloblasts were collected from patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) who required therapeutic leukocytopheresis for hyperleukocytosis. The neutral GSLs were isolated and identified by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), HPTLC immunostaining, gas chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry. Like mature peripheral blood neutrophils, myeloblasts expressed glucosylceramide, lactosylceramide, and the neolacto-family GSLs, lactotriaosylceramide and neolactotetraosylceramide. Unlike neutrophils and chronic myeloid leukemia, most ANLL samples also expressed the globo-series GSLs, globotriaosylceramide and globotetraosylceramide. Globo GSL expression was strongly associated with a myeloblastic (ANLL M0-M2) and monoblastic phenotype (M5). A weak association was also noted with expression of either lymphoid (P <.10) or early hematopoietic markers (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase [TdT], CD34; P <.10). Globo-positive ANLL samples bound both shiga toxin and parvovirus B19 on HPTLC immunostaining. Based on these findings, we propose that neolacto and globo GSLs are expressed during early myeloid differentiation. Globotriaosylceramide expression on myeloblasts, and possibly myeloid stem cells, may have important implications for the use of shiga toxin as an ex vivo purging agent in autologous stem cell transplantation. Expression of globotetraosylceramide, the parvovirus B19 receptor, on myeloblasts may also explain the association between B19 infection, aplastic anemia, and chronic neutropenia of childhood.


Assuntos
Glicoesfingolipídeos/análise , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Configuração de Carboidratos , Diferenciação Celular , Ceramidas/análise , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Globosídeos/análise , Glicoesfingolipídeos/biossíntese , Glicoesfingolipídeos/química , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide/metabolismo , Mielopoese , Parvovirus B19 Humano/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/análise , Toxina Shiga/metabolismo
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12237698

RESUMO

There was difference between the reactivities of anti-human ferritin monoclonal antibodies, 6D6 and A-hF-C with liver and heart ferritins. 6D6 reacts with liver and heart ferritin with similar intensity, while A-hF-C reacts preferentially with liver ferritin. Two affinity gels were made with 6D6 and A-hF-C respectively, and used to purify ferritins from crude extracts of human liver and heart ferritins. The results have showed that it is a simple and time-saving method for the purification of ferritin with high purity and yield.

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