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1.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 255, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848682

RESUMO

The marvelously diverse Orchidaceae constitutes the largest family of angiosperms. The genus Cymbidium in Orchidaceae is well known for its unique vegetation, floral morphology, and flower scent traits. Here, a chromosome-scale assembly of the genome of Cymbidium ensifolium (Jianlan) is presented. Comparative genomic analysis showed that C. ensifolium has experienced two whole-genome duplication (WGD) events, the most recent of which was shared by all orchids, while the older event was the τ event shared by most monocots. The results of MADS-box genes analysis provided support for establishing a unique gene model of orchid flower development regulation, and flower shape mutations in C. ensifolium were shown to be associated with the abnormal expression of MADS-box genes. The most abundant floral scent components identified included methyl jasmonate, acacia alcohol and linalool, and the genes involved in the floral scent component network of C. ensifolium were determined. Furthermore, the decreased expression of photosynthesis-antennae and photosynthesis metabolic pathway genes in leaves was shown to result in colorful striped leaves, while the increased expression of MADS-box genes in leaves led to perianth-like leaves. Our results provide fundamental insights into orchid evolution and diversification.

2.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 751853, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34899778

RESUMO

Terpene synthases (TPSs) are essential for forming terpenes, which play numerous functional roles in attracting pollinators, defending plants, and moderating the interaction between plants. TPSs have been reported in some orchids, but genome-wide identification of terpenes in Cymbidium faberi is still lacking. In this study, 32 putative TPS genes were classified in C. faberi and divided into three subfamilies (TPS-a, TPS-b, and TPS-e/f). Motif and gene structure analysis revealed that most CfTPS genes had the conserved aspartate-rich DDxxD motif. TPS genes in the TPS-a and TPS-b subfamilies had variations in the RRX8W motif. Most cis-elements of CfTPS genes were found in the phytohormone responsiveness category, and MYC contained most of the numbers associated with MeJA responsiveness. The Ka/Ks ratios of 12/13 CfTPS gene pairs were less than one, indicated that most CfTPS genes have undergone negative selection. The tissue-specific expression patterns showed that 28 genes were expressed in at least one tissue in C. faberi, and TPS genes were most highly expressed in flowers, followed by leaves and pseudobulbs. In addition, four CfTPS genes were selected for the real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) experiment. The results revealed that CfTPS12, CfTPS18, CfTPS23, and CfTPS28 were mainly expressed in the full flowering stage. CfTPS18 could convert GPP to ß-myrcene, geraniol, and α-pinene in vitro. These findings of CfTPS genes of C. faberi may provide valuable information for further studies on TPSs in orchids.

4.
Data Brief ; 39: 107663, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34926741

RESUMO

The data presented here are related to the article entitled "Comparative analysis of Phytophthora genomes reveals oomycete pathogenesis in crops" [1]. These data contain the description of genomic structure of the two plant pathogens, P. fragariae and P. rubi and characterize several gene families associated with pathogenicity of them: P450, ACX gene families, CAZymes and effector. This data presents the relevant results of two newly sequenced P. fragariae and P. rubi, so as to provide data for further studies by researchers.

6.
J Genet Genomics ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757038

RESUMO

Melastomataceae have abundant morphological diversity with high economic and ornamental merit in Myrtales. The phylogenetic position of Myrtales is still contested. Here, we report the first chromosome-level genome assembly of Melastoma dodecandrum in Melastomataceae. The assembled genome size was 299.81 Mb with a contig N50 value of 3.00 Mb. Genome evolution analysis indicated that M. dodecandrum, Eucalyptus grandis and Punica granatum were clustered into a clade of Myrtales and formed a sister group with the ancestor of fabids and malvids. We found that M. dodecandrum experienced four whole-genome polyploidization events: the ancient event was shared with most eudicots, one event was shared with Myrtales, and the other two events were unique to M. dodecandrum. Moreover, we identified MADS-box genes and found that the AP1-like genes expanded, and AP3-like genes might have undergone subfunctionalization. We found that the SUAR63-like genes and AG-like genes showed different expression patterns in stamens, which may be associated with heteranthery. In addition, we found that LAZY1-like genes were involved in the negative regulation of stem branching development, which may be related to its creeping features. Our study sheds new light on the evolution of Melastomataceae and Myrtales, which provides a comprehensive genetic resource for future research.

7.
Plant Physiol ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618124

RESUMO

Petals of the monocot Phalaenopsis aphrodite (Orchidaceae) possess conical epidermal cells on their adaxial surfaces, and a large amount of cuticular wax is deposited on them to serve as a primary barrier against biotic and abiotic stresses. It has been widely reported that subgroup 9A members of the R2R3-MYB gene family, MIXTA and MIXTA-like in eudicots, act to regulate the differentiation of conical epidermal cells. However, the molecular pathways underlying conical epidermal cell development and cuticular wax biosynthesis in monocot petals remain unclear. Here, we characterized two subgroup 9A R2R3-MYB genes, PaMYB9A1 and PaMYB9A2 (PaMYB9A1/2), from P. aphrodite through the transient overexpression of their coding sequences and corresponding chimeric repressors in developing petals. We showed that PaMYB9A1/2 function to coordinate conical epidermal cell development and cuticular wax biosynthesis. In addition, we identified putative targets of PaMYB9A1/2 through comparative transcriptome analyses, revealing that PaMYB9A1/2 acts to regulate the expression of cell wall-associated and wax biosynthetic genes. Furthermore, a chemical composition analysis of cuticular wax showed that even-chain n-alkanes and odd-chain primary alcohols are the main chemical constituents of cuticular wax deposited on petals, which is inconsistent with the well-known biosynthetic pathways of cuticular wax, implying a distinct biosynthetic pathway occurring in P. aphrodite flowers. These results reveal that the function of subgroup 9A R2R3-MYB family genes in regulating the differentiation of epidermal cells is largely conserved in monocots and dicots. Furthermore, both PaMYB9A1/2 have evolved additional functions controlling the biosynthesis of cuticular wax.

8.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 215, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593777

RESUMO

The genetic diversity of germplasm is critical for exploring genetic and phenotypic resources and has important implications for crop-breeding sustainability and improvement. However, little is known about the factors that shape and maintain genetic diversity. Here, we assembled a high-quality chromosome-level reference of the Chinese common apricot 'Yinxiangbai', and we resequenced 180 apricot accessions that cover four major ecogeographical groups in China and other accessions from occidental countries. We concluded that Chinese-cultivated common apricot germplasms possessed much higher genetic diversity than those cultivated in Western countries. We also detected seven migration events among different apricot groups, where 27% of the genome was identified as being introgressed. Remarkably, we demonstrated that these introgressed regions drove the current high level of germplasm diversity in Chinese-cultivated common apricots by introducing different genes related to distinct phenotypes from different cultivated groups. Our results highlight the consideration that introgressed regions may provide an important reservoir of genetic resources that can be used to sustain modern breeding programs.

9.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 183, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465765

RESUMO

As one of the largest families of angiosperms, the Orchidaceae family is diverse. Dendrobium represents the second largest genus of the Orchidaceae. However, an assembled high-quality genome of species in this genus is lacking. Here, we report a chromosome-scale reference genome of Dendrobium chrysotoxum, an important ornamental and medicinal orchid species. The assembled genome size of D. chrysotoxum was 1.37 Gb, with a contig N50 value of 1.54 Mb. Of the sequences, 95.75% were anchored to 19 pseudochromosomes. There were 30,044 genes predicted in the D. chrysotoxum genome. Two whole-genome polyploidization events occurred in D. chrysotoxum. In terms of the second event, whole-genome duplication (WGD) was also found to have occurred in other Orchidaceae members, which diverged mainly via gene loss immediately after the WGD event occurred; the first duplication was found to have occurred in most monocots (tau event). We identified sugar transporter (SWEET) gene family expansion, which might be related to the abundant medicinal compounds and fleshy stems of D. chrysotoxum. MADS-box genes were identified in D. chrysotoxum, as well as members of TPS and Hsp90 gene families, which are associated with resistance, which may contribute to the adaptive evolution of orchids. We also investigated the interplay among carotenoid, ABA, and ethylene biosynthesis in D. chrysotoxum to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of the short flowering period of orchids with yellow flowers. The reference D. chrysotoxum genome will provide important insights for further research on medicinal active ingredients and breeding and enhances the understanding of orchid evolution.

10.
Plant J ; 108(5): 1382-1399, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587334

RESUMO

Malvids is one of the largest clades of rosids, includes 58 families and exhibits remarkable morphological and ecological diversity. Here, we report a high-quality chromosome-level genome assembly for Euscaphis japonica, an early-diverging species within malvids. Genome-based phylogenetic analysis suggests that the unstable phylogenetic position of E. japonica may result from incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization event during the diversification of the ancestral population of malvids. Euscaphis japonica experienced two polyploidization events: the ancient whole genome triplication event shared with most eudicots (commonly known as the γ event) and a more recent whole genome duplication event, unique to E. japonica. By resequencing 101 samples from 11 populations, we speculate that the temperature has led to the differentiation of the evergreen and deciduous of E. japonica and the completely different population histories of these two groups. In total, 1012 candidate positively selected genes in the evergreen were detected, some of which are involved in flower and fruit development. We found that reddening and dehiscence of the E. japonica pericarp and long fruit-hanging time promoted the reproduction of E. japonica populations, and revealed the expression patterns of genes related to fruit reddening, dehiscence and abscission. The key genes involved in pentacyclic triterpene synthesis in E. japonica were identified, and different expression patterns of these genes may contribute to pentacyclic triterpene diversification. Our work sheds light on the evolution of E. japonica and malvids, particularly on the diversification of E. japonica and the genetic basis for their fruit dehiscence and abscission.

11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 371, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Orchid family is the largest families of the monocotyledons and an economically important ornamental plant worldwide. Given the pivotal role of this plant to humans, botanical researchers and breeding communities should have access to valuable genomic and transcriptomic information of this plant. Previously, we established OrchidBase, which contains expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from different tissues and developmental stages of Phalaenopsis as well as biotic and abiotic stress-treated Phalaenopsis. The database includes floral transcriptomic sequences from 10 orchid species across all the five subfamilies of Orchidaceae. DESCRIPTION: Recently, the whole-genome sequences of Apostasia shenzhenica, Dendrobium catenatum, and Phalaenopsis equestris were de novo assembled and analyzed. These datasets were used to develop OrchidBase 4.0, including genomic and transcriptomic data for these three orchid species. OrchidBase 4.0 offers information for gene annotation, gene expression with fragments per kilobase of transcript per millions mapped reads (FPKM), KEGG pathways and BLAST search. In addition, assembled genome sequences and location of genes and miRNAs could be visualized by the genome browser. The online resources in OrchidBase 4.0 can be accessed by browsing or using BLAST. Users can also download the assembled scaffold sequences and the predicted gene and protein sequences of these three orchid species. CONCLUSIONS: OrchidBase 4.0 is the first database that contain the whole-genome sequences and annotations of multiple orchid species. OrchidBase 4.0 is available at http://orchidbase.itps.ncku.edu.tw/.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Orchidaceae/genética , Genoma de Planta
12.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 19(12): 2501-2516, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342129

RESUMO

The Orchidaceae is of economic and ecological importance and constitutes ˜10% of all seed plant species. Here, we report a genome physical map for Cymbidium sinense, a well-known species belonging to genus Cymbidium that has thousands of natural variation varieties of flower organs, flower and leaf colours and also referred as the King of Fragrance, which make it arose into a unique cultural symbol in China. The high-quality chromosome-scale genome assembly was 3.52 Gb in size, 29 638 protein-coding genes were predicted, and evidence for whole-genome duplication shared with other orchids was provided. Marked amplification of cytochrome- and photosystem-related genes was observed, which was consistent with the shade tolerance and dark green leaves of C. sinense. Extensive duplication of MADS-box genes, and the resulting subfunctional and expressional differentiation, was associated with regulation of species-specific flower traits, including wild-type and mutant-type floral patterning, seasonal flowering and ecological adaption. CsSEP4 was originally found to positively regulate gynostemium development. The CsSVP genes and their interaction proteins CsAP1 and CsSOC1 were significantly expanded and involved in the regulation of low-temperature-dependent flowering. Important genetic clues to the colourful leaf traits, purple-black flowers and volatile trait in C. sinense were also found. The results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of important phenotypic traits of Cymbidium and its evolution and serve as a powerful platform for future evolutionary studies and molecular breeding of orchids.

14.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 671, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083720

RESUMO

Wolfberry Lycium, an economically important genus of the Solanaceae family, contains approximately 80 species and shows a fragmented distribution pattern among the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Although several herbaceous species of Solanaceae have been subjected to genome sequencing, thus far, no genome sequences of woody representatives have been available. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 13 perennial woody species of Lycium, with a focus on Lycium barbarum. Integration with other genomes provides clear evidence supporting a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event shared by all hitherto sequenced solanaceous plants, which occurred shortly after the divergence of Solanaceae and Convolvulaceae. We identified new gene families and gene family expansions and contractions that first appeared in Solanaceae. Based on the identification of self-incompatibility related-gene families, we inferred that hybridization hotspots are enriched for genes that might be functioning in gametophytic self-incompatibility pathways in wolfberry. Extremely low expression of LOCULE NUBER (LC) and COLORLESS NON-RIPENING (CNR) orthologous genes during Lycium fruit development and ripening processes suggests functional diversification of these two genes between Lycium and tomato. The existence of additional flowering locus C-like MADS-box genes might correlate with the perennial flowering cycle of Lycium. Differential gene expression involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway between Lycium and tomato likely illustrates woody and herbaceous differentiation. We also provide evidence that Lycium migrated from Africa into Asia, and subsequently from Asia into North America. Our results provide functional insights into Solanaceae origins, evolution and diversification.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Lycium/genética , Solanaceae/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , África , Ásia , Evolução Molecular , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Geografia , Lycium/classificação , Lycium/metabolismo , América do Norte , Filogenia , Poliploidia , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Solanaceae/classificação , Solanaceae/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Heliyon ; 7(2): e06317, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33665461

RESUMO

The oomycete genus Phytophthora includes devastating plant pathogens that are found in almost all ecosystems. We sequenced the genomes of two quarantined Phytophthora species-P. fragariae and P. rubi. Comparing these Phytophthora species and related genera allowed reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Phytophthora and revealed Phytophthora genomic features associated with infection and pathogenicity. We found that several hundred Phytophthora genes are putatively inherited from red algae, but Phytophthora does not have vestigial plastids originating from phototrophs. The horizontally-transferred Phytophthora genes are abundant transposons that "transmit" exogenous gene to Phytophthora species thus bring about the gene recombination possibility. Several expansion events of Phytophthora gene families associated with cell wall biogenesis can be used as mutational targets to elucidate gene function in pathogenic interactions with host plants. This work enhanced the understanding of Phytophthora evolution and will also be helpful for the design of phytopathological control strategies.

16.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(1)2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374250

RESUMO

The YABBY gene family, specific to seed plants, encodes a class of transcription factors in the lamina maintenance and development of lateral organs. Magnoliids are sisters to the clade-containing eudicots and monocots, which have rapidly diversified among the common ancestors of these three lineages. However, prior to this study, information on the function of the YABBY genes in magnoliids was extremely limited to the third major clades and the early diverging lineage of Mesangiospermae. In this study, the sum of 55 YABBY genes including five genes in INO, six in CRC, eight in YAB2, 22 in YAB5, and 14 in FIL clade were identified from seven magnoliid plants. Sequence analysis showed that all encoded YABBY protein sequences possess the highly conserved YABBY domain and C2C2 zinc-finger domain. Gene and protein structure analysis indicates that a certain number of exons were highly conserved and similar in the same class, and YABBY genes encode proteins of 71-392 amino acids and an open reading frame of 216-1179 bp in magnoliids. Additionally, the predicted molecular weight and isoelectric point of YABBY proteins in three species ranged from 7689.93 to 43578.13 and from 5.33 to 9.87, respectively. Meanwhile, the YABBY gene homolog expression of Litsea was detected at a temporal and spatial level during various developmental stages of leaf and reproductive tissues. This research could provide a brief overview of YABBY gene family evolution and its differential expression in magnoliids. Therefore, this comprehensive diversification analysis would provide a new insight into further understanding of the function of genes in seven magnoliids.

17.
Hortic Res ; 7: 146, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922818

RESUMO

Lauraceae includes the genus Phoebe, and the family is linked to the evolution of magnoliids. We sequenced the genome of Phoebe bournei Nanmu. The assembled genome size was 989.19 Mb, with a contig N50 value of 2.05 Mb. A total of 28,198 protein-coding genes were annotated in P. bournei. Whole-genome duplication (WGD) analysis showed that Lauraceae has experienced two WGD events; the older WGD event occurred just before the divergence of Lauraceae and Magnoliales, and the more recent WGD was shared by all lineages of Lauraceae. The phylogenetic tree showed that magnoliids form a sister clade to monocots and eudicots. We also identified 63 MADS-box genes, including AGL12-like genes that may be related to the regulation of P. bournei roots and FIN219-like genes encoding GH3 proteins, which are involved in photomorphogenesis. SAUR50-like genes involved in light signal-mediated pedicel or stem development were also identified. Four ATMYB46- and three PtrEPSP-homologous genes related to lignin biosynthesis were identified. These genes may be associated with the formation of straight trunks in P. bournei. Overall, the P. bournei reference genome provides insight into the origin, evolution, and diversification of Phoebe and other magnoliids.

18.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(9)2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825004

RESUMO

The plant YABBY transcription factors are key regulators in the lamina development of lateral organs. Orchid is one of the largest families in angiosperm and known for their unique floral morphology, reproductive biology, and diversified lifestyles. However, nothing is known about the role of YABBY genes in orchids, although biologists have never lost their fascination with orchids. In this study, a total of 54 YABBY genes, including 15 genes in CRC/DL, eight in INO, 17 in YAB2, and 14 in FIL clade, were identified from the eight orchid species. A sequence analysis showed that all protein sequences encoded by these YABBY genes share the highly conserved C2C2 zinc-finger domain and YABBY domain (a helix-loop-helix motif). A gene structure analysis showed that the number of exons is highly conserved in the same clades. The genes in YAB2 clade have six exons, and genes in CRC/DL, INO, and FIL have six or seven exons. A phylogenetic analysis showed all 54 orchid YABBY genes could be classified into four major clades, including CRC/DL, INO, FIL, and YAB2. Many of orchid species maintain more than one member in CRC/DL, FIL, and YAB2 clades, implying functional differentiation among these genes, which is supported by sequence diversification and differential expression. An expression analysis of PhalaenopsisYABBY genes revealed that members in the CRC/DL clade have concentrated expressions in the early floral development stage and gynostemium, the fused male and female reproductive organs. The expression of PeINO is consistent with the biological role it played in ovule integument morphogenesis. Transcripts of members in the FIL clade could be obviously detected at the early developmental stage of the flowers. The expression of three genes, PeYAB2,PeYAB3, and PeYAB4, in the YAB2 clade could be revealed both in vegetative and reproductive tissues, and PeYAB4 was transcribed at a relatively higher level than that of PeYAB2 and PeYAB3. Together, this comprehensive analysis provides the basic information for understanding the function of the YABBY gene in Orchidaceae.


Assuntos
Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Orchidaceae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Orchidaceae/classificação , Orchidaceae/genética , Orchidaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
19.
Hortic Res ; 7(1): 95, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528707

RESUMO

Oxalidaceae is one of the most important plant families in horticulture, and its key commercially relevant genus, Averrhoa, has diverse growth habits and fruit types. Here, we describe the assembly of a high-quality chromosome-scale genome sequence for Averrhoa carambola (star fruit). Ks distribution analysis showed that A. carambola underwent a whole-genome triplication event, i.e., the gamma event shared by most eudicots. Comparisons between A. carambola and other angiosperms also permitted the generation of Oxalidaceae gene annotations. We identified unique gene families and analyzed gene family expansion and contraction. This analysis revealed significant changes in MADS-box gene family content, which might be related to the cauliflory of A. carambola. In addition, we identified and analyzed a total of 204 nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat receptor (NLR) genes and 58 WRKY genes in the genome, which may be related to the defense response. Our results provide insights into the origin, evolution and diversification of star fruit.

20.
Hortic Res ; 7: 75, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377365

RESUMO

The mangrove Kandelia obovata (Rhizophoraceae) is an important coastal shelterbelt and landscape tree distributed in tropical and subtropical areas across East Asia and Southeast Asia. Herein, a chromosome-level reference genome of K. obovata based on PacBio, Illumina, and Hi-C data is reported. The high-quality assembled genome size is 177.99 Mb, with a contig N50 value of 5.74 Mb. A large number of contracted gene families and a small number of expanded gene families, as well as a small number of repeated sequences, may account for the small K. obovata genome. We found that K. obovata experienced two whole-genome polyploidization events: one whole-genome duplication shared with other Rhizophoreae and one shared with most eudicots (γ event). We confidently annotated 19,138 protein-coding genes in K. obovata and identified the MADS-box gene class and the RPW8 gene class, which might be related to flowering and resistance to powdery mildew in K. obovata and Rhizophora apiculata, respectively. The reference K. obovata genome described here will be very useful for further molecular elucidation of various traits, the breeding of this coastal shelterbelt species, and evolutionary studies with related taxa.

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