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1.
Chem Soc Rev ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588933

RESUMO

Redox catalysis, including photocatalysis and (photo)electrocatalysis, may alleviate global warming and energy crises by removing excess CO2 from the atmosphere and converting it to value-added resources. Nano-to-atomic two-dimensional (2D) materials, clusters and single atoms are superior catalysts because of their engineerable ultrathin/small dimensions and large surface areas and have attracted worldwide research interest. Given the current gap between research and applications in CO2 reduction, our review systematically and constructively discusses nano-to-atomic surface strategies for catalysts reported to date. This work is expected to drive and benefit future research to rationally design surface strategies with multi-parameter synergistic impacts on the selectivity, activity and stability of next-generation CO2 reduction catalysts, thus opening new avenues for sustainable solutions to climate change, energy and environmental issues, and the potential industrial economy.

2.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 17(1): 78, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The construction of a multifunctional drug delivery system with a variety of advantageous features, including targeted delivery, controlled release and combined therapy, is highly attractive but remains a challenge. RESULTS: In this study, we developed a MoS2-based hyaluronic acid (HA)-functionalized nanoplatform capable of achieving targeted delivery of camptothecin (CPT) and dual-stimuli-responsive drug release. HA was connected to MoS2 via a disulfide linkage, forming a sheddable HA shell on the surface of MoS2. This unique design not only effectively prevented the encapsulated CPT from randomly leaking during blood circulation but also significantly accelerated the drug release in response to tumor-associated glutathione (GSH). Moreover, the MoS2-based generated heat upon near-infrared (NIR) irradiation could further increase the drug release rate as well as induce photothermal ablation of cancer cells. The results of in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that MoS2-SS-HA-CPT effectively suppressed cell proliferation and inhibited tumor growth in lung cancer cell-bearing mice under NIR irradiation via synergetic chemo-photothermal therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The as-prepared MoS2-SS-HA-CPT with high targeting ability, dual-stimuli-responsive drug release, and synergistic chemo-photothermal therapy may provide a new strategy for cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Dissulfetos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Molibdênio/química , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/terapia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia Combinada , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Hipertermia Induzida , Raios Infravermelhos , Camundongos Nus , Transplante de Neoplasias , Oxirredução , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos
3.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 17(1): 76, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has been widely explored for biomedical applications due to its brilliant photothermal conversion ability. In this paper, we report a novel multifunctional MoS2-based drug delivery system (MoS2-SS-HA). By decorating MoS2 nanosheets with hyaluronic acid (HA), these functionalized MoS2 nanosheets have been developed as a tumor-targeting chemotherapeutic nanocarrier for near-infrared (NIR) photothermal-triggered drug delivery, facilitating the combination of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy into one system for cancer therapy. RESULTS: The nanocomposites (MoS2-SS-HA) generated a uniform diameter (ca. 125 nm), exhibited great biocompatibility as well as high stability in physiological solutions, and could be loaded with the insoluble anti-cancer drug erlotinib (Er). The release of Er was greatly accelerated under near infrared laser (NIR) irradiation, showing that the composites can be used as responsive systems, with Er release controllable through NIR irradiation. MTT assays and confocal imaging results showed that the MoS2-based nanoplatform could selectively target and kill CD44-positive lung cancer cells, especially drug resistant cells (A549 and H1975). In vivo tumor ablation studies prove a better synergistic therapeutic effect of the joint treatment, compared with either chemotherapy or photothermal therapy alone. CONCLUSION: The functionalized MoS2 nanoplatform developed in this work could be a potent system for targeted drug delivery and synergistic chemo-photothermal cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Dissulfetos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/farmacologia , Hipertermia Induzida , Molibdênio/química , Nanocompostos/química , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/química , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Raios Infravermelhos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Fototerapia
4.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 548: 131-144, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991180

RESUMO

The construction of multifunctional theranostic nanoplatforms to integrate accurate imaging and enhanced therapy to treat tumors is highly attractive but remains a challenge. Here, we developed a molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)-based hyaluronic acid (HA)-functionalized nanoplatform capable of achieving the targeted co-delivery of the gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (CAs) and the anticancer drug gefitinib (Gef) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and synergetic chemo-photothermal therapy of tumors. Gd3+ ions were coupled to HA-grafted MoS2 nanosheets with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as a linker, followed by the incorporation of Gef. The resulting MoS2-HA-DTPA-Gd/Gef exhibited enhanced relaxivity, 3.3 times greater than that of the commercial CA DTPA-Gd, which facilitated the MRI in vivo. Moreover, the nanoplatform effectively converted the absorbed near-infrared (NIR) light into heat, which not only induced the photothermal ablation of cancer cells but also triggered the release of Gef from MoS2-HA-DTPA-Gd/Gef, enabling the synergetic chemo-photothermal therapy. The results of in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that MoS2-HA-DTPA-Gd/Gef upon NIR irradiation effectively blocked the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway and activated apoptosis-related proteins to induce cell apoptosis and suppress cell proliferation, thus inhibiting the tumor growth in lung cancer cell-bearing mice. Taken together, this multifunctional theranostic nanoplatform has significant promise for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

5.
World Neurosurg ; 125: e442-e447, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative contact selection of deep brain stimulation (DBS), testing one contact at a time, is a clinically time-consuming procedure being challenged by incoming applications of more complex DBS leads. The objective of this study is to guide clinicians to select the optimal contact by neuroanatomic information derived from electrode reconstruction. METHODS: We reviewed 33 patients with Parkinson disease who underwent bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative computed tomography scan. All electrodes were reconstructed in standardized Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital space, and the volume of tissue activated (VTA) was estimated for each contact. According to the DISTAL atlas, we calculated 6 neuroanatomic parameters: the distances of each contact to the STN and the motor part of the STN (M-STN), the volumes of the overlapping areas of the VTA and STN/M-STN, and the number and ratio of fiber tracts through both the VTA and motor areas (primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area). RESULTS: All 6 parameters showed significant group differences between clinical optimal and nonoptimal contacts by permutation test. Moreover, the possibility of being the optimal contact was estimated for all contacts under the combination of these 6 parameters using a generalized linear model, which resulted in accuracy of 72.7% for prediction of contact selection. CONCLUSIONS: Electrode reconstruction could assist in selecting the clinical optimal contact and improving its efficiency.

6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 13: 7457-7472, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30532533

RESUMO

Background: Gefitinib (Gef), an important epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is used to treat lung cancer, but low water solubility and poor bioavailability severely limit its application in cancer therapy. Methods: In this study, nanographene oxide (NGO) was decorated with hyaluronic acid (HA) by a linker cystamine dihydrochloride containing disulfide bonds (-SS-), followed by the incorporation of gefitinib, thus, constructing a HA-functionalized GO-based gefitinib delivery system (NGO-SS-HA-Gef). Subsequently, studies of biological experiments in vitro and in vivo were performed to investigate the therapeutic effect of the system in lung cancer. Results: The HA-grafted GO nanosheets possessed enhanced physiological stability, admirable biocompatibility, and no obvious side effects in mice and could act as a nanocarrier for the delivery of gefitinib to tumor. Cellular uptake and intracellular cargo release assays showed that the uptake of NGO-SS-HA by A549 cells was facilitated via CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis, and that more drug was released from NGO-SS-HA in the presence of GSH than in the absence of GSH. The target-specific binding of NGO-SS-HA to cancer cells with redox-responsive cargo release significantly enhanced the abilities of gefitinib-loaded GO nanosheets to induce cell apoptosis, suppress cell proliferation, and inhibit tumor growth in lung cancer cell-bearing mice. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the potential utility of NGO-SS-HA-Gef for therapeutic applications in the treatment of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Grafite/química , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Nanopartículas/química , Água/química , Células A549 , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dissulfetos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Oxirredução , Solubilidade , Distribuição Tecidual
7.
Int J Oncol ; 53(6): 2590-2604, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280201

RESUMO

Metastasis accounts for the majority of cancer-related mortalities, and the complex processes of metastasis remain the least understood aspect of cancer biology. Metabolic reprogramming is associated with cancer cell survival and metastasis in a hostile envi-ronment with a limited nutrient supply, such as solid tumors. Little is known regarding the differences of bioenergetic adaptation between primary tumor cells and metastatic tumor cells in unfavorable microenvironments; to clarify these differences, the present study aimed to compare metabolic reprogramming of primary tumor cells and metastatic tumor cells. SW620 metastatic tumor cells exhibited stronger bioenergetic adaptation in unfavorable conditions compared with SW480 primary tumor-derived cells, as determined by the sustained elevation of glycolysis and regulation of the cell cycle. This remarkable glycolytic ability of SW620 cells was associated with high expression levels of hexokinase (HK)1, HK2, glucose transporter type 1 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α. Compared with SW480 cells, the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins was effectively inhibited in SW620 cells to sustain cell survival when there was a lack of energy. Furthermore, SW620 cells exhibited a stronger mesenchymal phenotype and stem cell characteristics compared with SW480 cells; CD133 and CD166 were highly expressed in SW620 cells, whereas expression was not detected in SW480 cells. These data may explain why metastatic cancer cells exhibit greater microenvironmental adaptability and survivability; specifically, this may be achieved by upregulating glycolysis, optimizing the cell cycle and reprogramming cell metabolism. The present study may provide a target metabolic pathway for cancer metastasis therapy.

8.
Gigascience ; 7(11)2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239706

RESUMO

Background: Investigating cell fate decision and subpopulation specification in the context of the neural lineage is fundamental to understanding neurogenesis and neurodegenerative diseases. The differentiation process of neural-tube-like rosettes in vitro is representative of neural tube structures, which are composed of radially organized, columnar epithelial cells and give rise to functional neural cells. However, the underlying regulatory network of cell fate commitment during early neural differentiation remains elusive. Results: In this study, we investigated the genome-wide transcriptome profile of single cells from six consecutive reprogramming and neural differentiation time points and identified cellular subpopulations present at each differentiation stage. Based on the inferred reconstructed trajectory and the characteristics of subpopulations contributing the most toward commitment to the central nervous system lineage at each stage during differentiation, we identified putative novel transcription factors in regulating neural differentiation. In addition, we dissected the dynamics of chromatin accessibility at the neural differentiation stages and revealed active cis-regulatory elements for transcription factors known to have a key role in neural differentiation as well as for those that we suggest are also involved. Further, communication network analysis demonstrated that cellular interactions most frequently occurred in the embryoid body stage and that each cell subpopulation possessed a distinctive spectrum of ligands and receptors associated with neural differentiation that could reflect the identity of each subpopulation. Conclusions: Our study provides a comprehensive and integrative study of the transcriptomics and epigenetics of human early neural differentiation, which paves the way for a deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanisms driving the differentiation of the neural lineage.

9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(12): 2474-2479, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29950063

RESUMO

With annual Glycyrrhiza uralensis seedlings as experimental material, using "3414" optimal regression design and applied fertilizer, through the sampling of G. uralensis at harvest, root fresh weight and content of active components were measured in Lanzhou, Bayan Nur city, Chifeng, Jiuquan. Combined with NPK content in soil, potted experiments were used to study the effects of different nitrogen and phosphorus ratios on the dry matter accumulation and accumulation of active components of G. uralensis. The results reported as follows: the optimum fertilizer treatment in Lanzhou, Bayan Nur city, Chifeng, Jiuquan was N1P2K1,N2P2K1,N1P1K2 and N2P1K2, respectively. The efforts of single fertilizer on the fresh root weight acted as parabolic type.There was no significant effect of fertilizer treatment on the accumulation of active components of G. uralensis. Furthermore, in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus, the type of fertilizers that restricted the growth of the region was the type of elements with lower content in the soil. The optimal fertilizer usage was in inverse proportion to content of elements in soil. When the content of phosphorus in soil was low, nitrogen fertilizer and potash fertilizer showed positive interaction with phosphorus fertilizer, whereas, they showed negative interaction.

10.
World Neurosurg ; 117: 68-73, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary dystonia is a neurologic disease with characteristics of abnormal, involuntary twisting and turning movements, which greatly affect quality of life of patients. Treatments for dystonia consist of oral medications, botulinum neurotoxin injections, physical therapy, and surgery. For medication-refractory dystonia, surgery, especially deep brain stimulation (DBS), is the optimal option. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient was a 13-year-old boy suffering from extremely severe primary dystonia, with a Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale-motor score of 118 and a Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale-severity score of 29. The examination of 173 genes, including DYT, failed to identify any abnormality. He responded ineffectively to medications. After both bilateral subthalamic nucleus DBS and unilateral thalamic lesion in ventralis intermedius nucleus and ventralis oralis nucleus (Vim-Vo thalamotomy), his movement disorder improved dramatically. Four and 7 months after the operation, the scores of 2 rating scales sharply decreased. Potential brain structural changes were reflected in sensorimotor-related cortical thickness, surface area, and gray matter volume from magnetic resonance imaging, which may reveal a valid method to evaluate surgical effect on the brain with enough patients. CONCLUSIONS: DBS and thalamotomy is potentially an effective combination of treatments for severe medication-refractory dystonia.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Distúrbios Distônicos/terapia , Tálamo/cirurgia , Adolescente , Resistência a Medicamentos , Distúrbios Distônicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Talanta ; 186: 200-205, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29784350

RESUMO

A composite monolithic column was prepared by redox initiation method for the on-line purification and enrichment of ß-sitosterol, in which graphene oxide (GO) was embedded. The obtained monolithic column was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm measurement, which indicated that the monolith possessed characteristics of porous structure and high permeability. Under the optimum conditions for extraction and determination, the calibration equation was y = 47.92 × -0.1391; the linear range was 0.008-1.0 mg mL-1; the linear regression coefficient was 0.998; the limit of detection (LOD) is 2.4 µg mL-1; the limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 8 µg mL-1; precisions for intra-day and inter-day assays presented as relative standard deviations were less than 4.3% and 6.8%, respectively. Under the selective conditions, the enrichment factor of the method was 119. The recovery was in the range of 80.40-98.00%. Moreover, the adsorption amount of the monolith was compared with silica gel-C18 adsorbent and the monolith without graphene oxide being embedded. The polymerization monolithic column showed high selectivity and good permeability, and it was successfully used as on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) column for determination of ß-sitosterol in edible oil.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Grafite/química , Óxidos/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sitosteroides/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Adsorção , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Estrutura Molecular
12.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 30(15): 154001, 2018 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29504945

RESUMO

By using a self-designed pressure-jump apparatus, we investigated the melt solidification behavior in rapid compression process for several kinds of materials, such as elementary sulfur, polymer polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) and poly-ethylene-terephthalate, alloy La68Al10Cu20Co2 and Nd60Cu20Ni10Al10. Experimental results clearly show that their melts could be solidified to be amorphous states through the rapid compression process. Bulk amorphous PEEK with 24 mm in diameter and 12 mm in height was prepared, which exceeds the size obtained by melt quenching method. The bulk amorphous sulfur thus obtained exhibited extraordinarily high thermal stability, and an abnormal exothermic transition to liquid sulfur was observed at around 396 K for the first time. Furthermore, it is suggested that the glass transition pressure and critical compression rate exist to form the amorphous phase. This approach of rapid compression is very attractive not only because it is a new technique of make bulk amorphous materials, but also because novel properties are expected in the amorphous materials solidified by the pressure-jump within milliseconds or microseconds.

13.
J Sep Sci ; 41(9): 1923-1929, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29368444

RESUMO

An ionic-liquid-based polymer monolithic column was synthesized by free radical polymerization within the confines of a stainless-steel column (50 mm × 4.6 mm id). In the processes, ionic liquid and stearyl methacrylate were used as dual monomers, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linking agent, and polyethylene glycol 200 and isopropanol as co-porogens. Effects of the prepolymerization solution components on the properties of the resulting monoliths were studied in detail. Scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements, and mercury intrusion porosimetry were used to investigate the morphology and pore size distribution of the prepared monoliths, which showed that the homemade ionic-liquid-based monolith column possessed a relatively uniform macropore structure with a total macropore specific surface area of 44.72 m2 /g. Compared to a non-ionic-liquid-based monolith prepared under the same conditions, the ionic-liquid-based monolith exhibited excellent selectivity and high performance for separating proteins from complex biosamples, such as egg white, snailase, bovine serum albumin digest solution, human plasma, etc., indicating promising applications in the fractionation and analysis of proteins from the complex biosamples in proteomics research.


Assuntos
Líquidos Iônicos/química , Polímeros/química , Proteínas/química , 2-Propanol/química , Adsorção , Animais , Celulase/química , Fracionamento Químico , Clara de Ovo/química , Glucuronidase/química , Humanos , Metacrilatos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Complexos Multienzimáticos/química , Nitrogênio/química , Permeabilidade , Plasma/química , Poligalacturonase/química , Polimerização , Porosidade , Proteoma , Proteômica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Soroalbumina Bovina/química
14.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1068-1069: 358-364, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29127055

RESUMO

In this work a polymer monolithic column was fabricated within the confines of a stainless steel column (50×4.6mm i.d.) via radical polymerization by using iron porphyrin and butyl methacrylate as co-monomers, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinking agent, ethylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol and N, N-dimethylformamide as tri-porogens, benzoyl peroxide and N,N-dimethylaniline as initiators. The resulting monolithic column was characterized by elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption BET surface area, and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Results showed that the homemade monolith occupied relatively uniform pore structure, low back pressure, and enhanced selectivity for proteins in complex bio-samples. The present work described a simple and efficient method for "fractionation separation" of human plasma proteins, and it is a promising separation method for complex bio-samples in proteomic research.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ferro/química , Porfirinas/química , Animais , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Proteínas Sanguíneas/química , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação , Proteínas do Ovo , Humanos , Porosidade
15.
Analyst ; 143(1): 280-288, 2017 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29184931

RESUMO

A double-functionalized polymer monolithic column was fabricated within the confines of a stainless-steel column (50 mm × 4.6 mm i.d.) via a facile method using iron porphyrin, ionic liquid (1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) and 1,10-decanediol dimethacrylate as tri-monomers; ethylene dimethacrylate as a crosslinker; polyethylene glycol 400 and N,N-dimethylformamide as co-porogens; benzoyl peroxide and N,N-dimethyl aniline as the redox initiation system. Results obtained from scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and mercury intrusion porosimetry confirmed the uniform pore structure and the pore size distribution of macro-pores. The home-made monolith was further characterized by elemental analysis to investigate the elemental composition of Fe supplied by iron porphyrin, confirming the synthetic process. The resulting optimized monolithic column was used as the stationary phase in high performance liquid chromatography for separating proteins, such as mixture of standard proteins, egg white, and human plasma, exhibiting good selectivity and high performance. It is worth noting that the home-made double-functionalized polymer monolithic column shows excellent selectivity for fractionation separation of human plasma proteins, and it is a promising separation tool for complex bio-samples in proteomic research.

16.
ChemSusChem ; 10(22): 4324-4341, 2017 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977741

RESUMO

Photoelectrochemical (PEC) technology for the conversion of solar energy into chemicals requires cost-effective photoelectrodes to efficiently and stably drive anodic and/or cathodic half-reactions to complete the overall reactions for storing solar energy in chemical bonds. The shared properties among semiconducting photoelectrodes and photovoltaic (PV) materials are light absorption, charge separation, and charge transfer. Earth-abundant silicon materials have been widely applied in the PV industry, and have demonstrated their efficiency as alternative photoabsorbers for photoelectrodes. Many efforts have been made to fabricate silicon photoelectrodes with enhanced performance, and significant progress has been achieved in recent years. Herein, recent developments in crystalline and thin-film silicon-based photoelectrodes (including amorphous, microcrystalline, and nanocrystalline silicon) immersed in aqueous solution for PEC hydrogen production from water splitting are summarized, as well as applications in PEC CO2 reduction and PEC regeneration of discharged species in redox flow batteries. Silicon is an ideal material for the cost-effective production of solar chemicals through PEC methods.


Assuntos
Processos Fotoquímicos , Silício/química , Energia Solar , Água/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Catálise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Hidrogênio/química , Microesferas , Estrutura Molecular , Nanopartículas , Oxirredução , Semicondutores
17.
J Neurol Sci ; 381: 250-255, 2017 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28991693

RESUMO

Electrode position after deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) needs to be confirmed, but there are concerns about the risk of postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after DBS. These issues could be avoided by fusion images obtained from preoperative MRI and postoperative computed tomography (CT). This study aimed to investigate image fusion technology for displaying the position of the electrodes compared with postoperative MRI. This was a retrospective study of 32 patients with PD treated with bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS between April 2015 and March 2016. The postoperative (same day) CT and preoperative MRI were fused using the Elekta Leksell 10.1 planning workstation (Elekta Instruments, Stockholm, Sweden). The position of the electrodes was compared between the fusion images and postoperative 1-2-week MRI. The position of the electrodes was highly correlated between the fusion and postoperative MRI (all r between 0.865 and 0.996; all P<0.001). The differences of the left electrode position in the lateral and vertical planes was significantly different between the two methods (0.30 and 0.24mm, respectively, both P<0.05), but there were no significant differences for the other electrode and planes (all P>0.05). The position of the electrodes was highly correlated between the fusion and postoperative MRI. The CT-MRI fusion images could be used to avoid the potential risks of MRI after DBS in patients with PD.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem Multimodal , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/instrumentação , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal/instrumentação , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/instrumentação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
18.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 138: 14-21, 2017 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28171788

RESUMO

A novel polymer-based monolithic column was prepared via redox initiation system within the confines of a stainless steel column with 4.6mm i.d. In the processes, hemin and lauryl methacrylate were used as co-monomers; ethylene dimethacrylate as crosslinking agent; n-butyl alcohol, ethanediol, and N, N-dimethylformamide as tri-porogens; benzoyl peroxide and N, N-dimethyl aniline as redox initiation system. The resulting polymer-based monolithic columns were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption instrument, and mercury intrusion porosimeter, respectively. The results illustrated that the improved monolith had relative uniform porous structure, good permeability, and low back pressure. Aromatic compounds were used to test the chromatographic behavior of the monolith, resulting in highest column efficiency of 19 880 plates per meter with reversed-phase mechanism. Furthermore, the homemade monolith was used as the stationary phase of high performance liquid chromatography to separate proteins from complex bio-matrix, including human plasma, egg white, and snailase. The results showed that the monolithic column occupied good separation ability with these complex bio-samples. Excellent specific character of the homemade hemin-based monolith was that it could simultaneously remove high-abundance proteins (including human serum albumin, immunoglobulin G, and human fibrinogen) from human plasma and separate other proteins to different fractions.


Assuntos
Cromatografia/métodos , Hemina/química , Proteínas/química , 1-Butanol/química , Adsorção , Metacrilatos/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Permeabilidade , Polímeros/química , Porosidade
19.
Sci Rep ; 6: 25834, 2016 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27174565

RESUMO

Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder that is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Herein, we report the identification a novel homozygous missense mutation, c.156 C > A in VPS16, co-segregating with disease status in a Chinese consanguineous family with adolescent-onset primary dystonia by whole exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping. To assess the biological role of c.156 C > A homozygous mutation of VPS16, we generated mice with targeted mutation site of Vps16 through CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing approach. Vps16 c.156 C > A homozygous mutant mice exhibited significantly impaired motor function, suggesting that VPS16 is a new causative gene for adolescent-onset primary dystonia.


Assuntos
Distúrbios Distônicos/genética , Genes Recessivos , Mutação/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Criança , Cromossomos Humanos Par 20/genética , Sequência Conservada/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Testes Genéticos , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 41(22): 4175-4182, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28933085

RESUMO

With annual Salvia miltiorrhiza seedlings as experimental material, using "3414" optimal regression design recommended by the Ministry of Agriculture and regularly watered with nutrient solution, through the dynamic sampling of S. miltiorrhiza in different growing stages, and the growth index, dry weight of plant root and content of active components were measured. The potted experiments were applied to study the effects of different nitrogen and phosphorus ratios on the growth, dry matter accumulation and accumulation of active components of S. miltiorrhiza, in order to explore a compatible fertilization method of nitrogen and phosphorus ratio that are suitable for production and quality of S. miltiorrhiza. The results reported as follows:①High concentrations of nitrogen fertilizer was beneficial to dry matter accumulation of S. miltiorrhiza aerial parts, and low concentration of nitrogen fertilizer transferred the dry matter accumulation to underground, and N1P1 could make the transfer ahead of time;②Regression analysis showed that in the early growth stage (before early July), we could use the nitrogen and phosphorus as basic fertilizer at a concentration of 1.521,0.355 g•L⁻¹ respectively to promote the growth of S. miltiorrhiza and at a concentration of 2.281,0.710 g•L⁻¹ respectively to promote the dry matter accumulation of root (after mid-August);③Five kinds of active components of S. miltiorrhiza decreased with the increase of nitrogen concentration, and increased with the increase of the concentration of phosphate fertilizer. Nitrogenous fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer in N-P=2∶3 ratio was more suitable for the accumulation of salvianolic acids, in N-P=1∶2 ratio was more suitable for the accumulation of tanshinone.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio/química , Fósforo/química , Salvia miltiorrhiza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química
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