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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149695, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438127

RESUMO

Particle number size distribution (PNSD) is of importance for understanding the mechanisms of particle growth, haze formation and climate impacts. However, the measurements of PNSD aloft in megacities are very limited. Here we report the first simultaneous winter measurements of size-resolved particle number concentrations along with collocated gaseous species and aerosol composition at ground level and 260 m in Beijing. Our study showed that the vertical differences of particle number concentrations between ground level and aloft varied significantly as a function of particle size throughout the study. Further analysis illustrated the impacts of boundary dynamics and meteorological conditions on the vertical differences of PNSD. In particular, the temperature and relative humidity inversions were one of the most important factors by decoupling the boundary layer into different sources and processes. Positive matrix factorization analysis identified six sources of PNSD at both ground level and city aloft. The local source emissions dominantly contributed to Aitken-mode particles, and showed the largest vertical gradients in the city. Comparatively, the regional particles were highly correlated between ground level and city aloft, and the vertical differences were relatively stable throughout the day. Our results point towards a complex vertical evolution of PNSD due to the changes in boundary layer dynamics, meteorological conditions, sources, and processes in megacities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
2.
Food Chem ; 370: 131010, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530347

RESUMO

Laminaria japonica is a familiar marine plant and is often used as food due to its abundant carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. As one of the main types of active substances in L. japonica, polysaccharides are widely used in the food and chemical industries and in medicine and healthcare due to their health benefits, such as immunoregulatory, antioxidant, and antidiabetic effects. However, there has been no systematic summary of the isolation, structural characterization and bioactivities of L. japonica polysaccharides (LJPs). Therefore, the present review includes a survey of extraction and purification methods for these bioactive molecules, along with a dissertation on the structural characterization of the carbohydrate components. Moreover, an overview of the most recent results related to LJP biological activities is provided. This review provides a useful reference for further research, production, and application of LJPs in functional foods and therapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Laminaria , Antioxidantes , Hipoglicemiantes , Extratos Vegetais , Polissacarídeos
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 150730, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606857

RESUMO

It is desirable to control volatile fatty acids (VFAs) recovery from waste activated sludge (WAS) while avoiding the release of N and P. Structural extracellular polymeric substances (St-EPS), with typical components of alginate and polygalacturonic acid, resist the biodegradation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in WAS. Previously, we purposely enriched an alginate-degrading consortium (ADC), but, both controlling VFAs production and cell integrity after dosing with ADC were not investigated. In this work, ADC with a high percentage of the genus Bacteroides (~67%) was further enriched with alginate utilization above 95%. The St-EPS content in WAS was 109.7 ± 3.3 mg/g-VSS, accounting for 31% of EPS. After dosing ADC in the WAS, the main metabolites were acetate (1.6 g/L) and propionate (0.7 g/L), the hydrolysis efficiency was increased to 38%, and the acidification efficiency was increased to 72%. Cell integrity was maintained during WAS fermentation by dosing with ADC according to no P release and unchanged lactate dehydrogenase activity. VFA production was mainly from the EPS, and protein degradation in EPS resulted in low N release (e.g., 212 mg/L from casein and no P release). Consequently, ADC doing offers the advantages of controlling VFAs production from EPS while maintaining cell integrity.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150147, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509840

RESUMO

Microbial conversion of methane to electricity, fuels, and liquid chemicals has attracted much attention. However, due to the low solubility of methane, it is not considered a suitable substrate for microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, a conductive fiber membrane (CFM) module was constructed as the bioanode of methane-driven MFCs, directly delivering methane. After biofilm formation on the CFM surface, a steady voltage output of 0.6 to 0.7 V was recorded, and the CFM-MFCs obtained a maximum power density of 64 ± 2 mW/m2. Moreover, methane oxidation produced a high concentration of intermediate acetate (up to 7.1 mM). High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing suggests that the microbial community was significantly changed after electricity generation. Methane-related archaea formed a symbiotic consortium with characterized electroactive bacteria and fermentative bacteria, suggesting a combination of three types of microorganisms for methane conversion into acetate and electricity.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Acetatos , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Metano , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
5.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850542

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNA SET-binding factor 2 (SBF2) antisense RNA 1 (AS1) is associated with the growth and metastasis of multiple cancer types, but its biological roles in serous ovarian carcinoma (SOC) remain unclear. In this study, the aberrant upregulation of SBF2-AS1 is detected in SOC after analysis of differentially expressed genes between SOC tissues and normal fallopian tubes from the public Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. We determine that knockdown of SBF2-AS1 inhibits SOC cell proliferation and invasion by sponging miR-338-3p. MiR-338-3p acts as a tumor suppressor in SOC, and E26 transformation specific-1 (ETS1) is identified as a potential target of miR-338-3p regulation. Furthermore, SBF2-AS1 could modulate ETS1 by operating as a competing endogenous RNA for miR-338-3p. This finding elucidates a new mechanism for SBF2-AS1 in SOC development and provides a potential target for SOC therapeutic intervention.

6.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1288, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effect of the single energy metal artifact reduction (SEMAR) algorithm with a multidetector CT (MDCT) for knee tumor prostheses. METHODS: First, a phantom of knee tumor prosthesis underwent a MDCT scan. The raw data was reconstructed by iterative reconstruction (IR) alone and IR plus SEMAR. The mean value of the CT number and the image noise were measured around the prosthesis at the stem level and articular level. Second, 95 consecutive patients with knee tumor prostheses underwent MDCT scans. The raw data were also reconstructed by the two methods. Periprosthetic structures were selected at the similar two levels. Four radiologists visually graded the image quality on a scale from 0 to 5. Additionally, the readers also assessed the presence of prosthetic complication and tumor recurrence on a same scale. RESULTS: In the phantom, when the SEMAR was used, the CT numbers were closer to normal value and the noise of images using soft and sharper kernel were respectively reduced by up to 77.1% and 43.4% at the stem level, and by up to 82.2% and 64.5% at the articular level. The subjective scores increased 1 ~ 3 points and 1 ~ 4 points at the two levels, respectively. Prosthetic complications and tumor recurrence were diagnosed in 66 patients. And the SEMAR increased the diagnostic confidence of prosthetic complications and tumor recurrence (4 ~ 5 vs. 1 ~ 1.5). CONCLUSIONS: The SEMAR algorithm can significantly reduce the metal artifacts and increase diagnostic confidence of prosthetic complications and tumor recurrence in patients with knee tumor prostheses.

7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34860015

RESUMO

Uronic acid in extracellular polymeric substances is a primary but often ignored factor related to the difficult hydrolysis of waste-activated sludge (WAS), with alginate as a typical polymer. Previously, we enriched alginate-degrading consortia (ADC) in batch reactors that can enhance methane production from WAS, but the enzymes and metabolic pathway are not well documented. In this work, two chemostats in series were operated to enrich ADC, in which 10 g/L alginate was wholly consumed. Based on it, the extracellular alginate lyase (∼130 kD, EC 4.2.2.3) in the cultures was identified by metaproteomic analysis. This enzyme offers a high specificity to convert alginate to disaccharides over other mentioned hydrolases. Genus Bacteroides (>60%) was revealed as the key bacterium for alginate conversion. A new Entner-Doudoroff pathway of alginate via 5-dehydro-4-deoxy-d-glucuronate (DDG) and 3-deoxy-d-glycerol-2,5-hexdiulosonate (DGH) as the intermediates to 2-keto-3-deoxy-gluconate (KDG) was constructed based on the metagenomic and metaproteomic analysis. In summary, this work documented the core enzymes and metabolic pathway for alginate degradation, which provides a good paradigm when analyzing the degrading mechanism of unacquainted substrates. The outcome will further contribute to the application of Bacteroides-dominated ADC on WAS methanogenesis in the future.

8.
Phytomedicine ; : 153786, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer has become the principal cause of cancer-related deaths. Emodin is a Chinese herb-derived compound extracted from the roots of Rheum officinale that exhibits numerous pharmacological characteristics. Secretory phospholipase A2-IIa (sPLA2-IIa) is overexpressed in cancers and plays an important role in cancer development. PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the anti-tumor mechanism of emodin in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: MTT assay was applied to detect the sensitivity of emodin to NSCLC cell line. Flow cytometry was used to examine the effect of emodin on cell cycle distribution and evaluate ROS level and apoptosis. Western blot analysis was utilised to examine the expression levels of sPLA2-IIa, PKM2, and AMPK and its downstream pathways induced by emodin. Enzyme inhibition assay was applied to investigate the inhibitory effect of emodin on sPLA2-IIa. The anticancer effect of emodin was also detected using an in vivo model. RESULTS: Emodin significantly inhibited NSCLC proliferation in vivo and in vitro and was relatively less cytotoxic to normal lung cell lines. Most importantly, emodin inhibited the proliferation of KRAS mutant cell lines by decreasing the expression of sPLA2-IIa and NF-κB pathways. Emodin also inhibited mTOR and AKT and activated the AMPK pathway. Furthermore, emodin induced apoptosis, increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, and arrested the cell cycle. CONCLUSION: Emodin exhibited a novel anti-tumor mechanism of inhibiting the proliferation of KRAS mutant cell lines by decreasing the expression levels of sPLA2-IIa and NF-κB pathways. Hence, emodin can potentially serve as a therapeutic target in NSCLC.

9.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(11): 1225-8, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical effect of Xingnao Kaiqiao acupuncture on promoting wake-up of vegetative state after brain injury on the basis of comprehensive rehabilitation training. METHODS: A total of 100 patients with vegetative state after brain injury were randomly divided into an observation group (50 cases, 2 cases dropped off) and a control group (50 cases). Both groups were treated with routine clinical treatment. The patients in the control group were treated with rehabilitation and hyperbaric oxygen; on the basis of the control group treatment, the patients in the observation group were treated with Xingnao Kaiqiao acupuncture at Neiguan (PC 6), Shuigou (GV 26), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Chize (LU 5), Weizhong (BL 40), Hegu (LI 4) and Taichong (LR 3). The acupuncture was given once a day, 5 days per week, for continuous 30 days. The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and coma recovery scale-revised (CRS-R) scores were observed before treatment and 10, 20 and 30 days into treatment. The wake-up rate of the two groups was compared after treatment. RESULTS: On 10, 20 and 30 days into treatment, the GCS and CRS-R scores in the two groups were higher than those before treatment (P<0.01), and the scores in the observation group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.01). After treatment, the wake-up rate was 16.7% (8/48) in the observation group, which was higher than 12.0% (6/50) in the control group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: On the basis of comprehensive rehabilitation and wake-up promotion therapy, the Xingnao Kaiqiao acupuncture could promote the recovery of consciousness level in patients with vegetative state after brain injury.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Lesões Encefálicas , Pontos de Acupuntura , Lesões Encefálicas/terapia , Humanos , Estado Vegetativo Persistente/etiologia , Estado Vegetativo Persistente/terapia
10.
Phytomedicine ; : 153831, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, the identification of accurate biomarkers for the diagnosis of patients with early-stage lung cancer remains difficult. Fortunately, metabolomics technology can be used to improve the detection of plasma metabolic biomarkers for lung cancer. In a previous study, we successfully utilised machine learning methods to identify significant metabolic markers for early-stage lung cancer diagnosis. However, a related research platform for the investigation of tumour metabolism and drug efficacy is still lacking. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: A novel methodology for the comprehensive evaluation of the internal tumour-metabolic profile and drug evaluation needs to be established. METHODS: The optimal location for tumour cell inoculation was identified in mouse chest for the non-traumatic orthotopic lung cancer mouse model. Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) was applied to monitor lung tumour growth. Proscillaridin A (P.A) and cisplatin (CDDP) were utilised to verify the anti-lung cancer efficacy of the platform. The top five clinically valid biomarkers, including proline, L-kynurenine, spermidine, taurine and palmitoyl-L-carnitine, were selected as the evaluation indices to obtain a suitable lung cancer mouse model for clinical metabolomics research by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). RESULTS: The platform was successfully established, achieving 100% tumour development rate and 0% surgery mortality. P.A and CDDP had significant anti-lung cancer efficacy in the platform. Compared with the control group, four biomarkers in the orthotopic model and two biomarkers in the metastatic model had significantly higher abundance. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a significant separation between the orthotopic/metastatic model and the control/subcutaneous/KRAS transgenic model. The platform was mainly involved in arginine and proline metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to simulate clinical metabolomics by comparing the metabolic phenotype of plasma in different lung cancer mouse models. We found that the orthotopic model was the most suitable for tumour metabolism. Furthermore, the anti-tumour drug efficacy was verified in the platform. The platform can very well match the clinical reality, providing better lung cancer diagnosis and securing more precise evidence for drug evaluation in the future.

11.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613211056548, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792423

RESUMO

Non-iatrogenic traumatic facial paralysis is most common in intratemporal facial nerve injury caused by temporal bone fracture, followed by intraparotid facial nerve branch injury. Facial paralysis caused by injury to the extratemporal trunk of the facial nerve is extremely rare. We present a case of a 60-year-old man suffering from immediate complete left peripheral facial paralysis due to blunt transection of extratemporal trunk of facial nerve by stabbing with a car key. There was a facial nerve defect about 1 cm in length. The great auricular nerve was grafted to repair the facial nerve. Over 12 months, his facial nerve function improved to a House-Brackmann III/VI.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721626

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies have reported that resveratrol has various biological effects such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor. This study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on blood glucose and blood lipids in rats with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods: The rat diabetes model was prepared by one-time intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 35 mg/kg). Fasting blood glucose was measured by using a blood glucose meter. The ELISA method was used to detect the levels of insulin, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, TNF-α, and IL-6. The content of TC, TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C was determined by using an automatic biochemical detector. Results: Compared with the GDM group, the insulin level in the resveratrol (120 and 240 mg/kg) treatment group was significantly increased. But, the blood glucose level and body weight were significantly reduced. The content of TC, TG, and LDL-C in the resveratrol (240 mg/kg) treatment group was significantly reduced, and the content of HDL-C was significantly increased. In addition, leptin, resistin, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels in the 240 mg/kg resveratrol treatment group were significantly reduced, and adiponectin was significantly increased. Also, resveratrol (240 mg/kg) was stronger than metformin hydrochloride in improving insulin secretion and regulating blood lipids and adipokine content. Conclusion: Resveratrol has a dose-dependent effect on GDM rats to increase insulin secretion, reduce blood glucose and body weight, and regulate blood lipids and plasma adipokines.

13.
J Clin Invest ; 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730111

RESUMO

Dysregulation in adipokine biosynthesis and function contributes to obesity-induced metabolic diseases. However, the identities and functions of many of the obesity-induced secretory molecules remain unknown. Here, we report the identification of leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein 1 (LRG1) as an obesity-associated adipokine that exacerbates high fat diet-induced hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance. Serum levels of LRG1 were markedly elevated in obese humans and mice compared to their respective controls. LRG1 deficiency in mice greatly alleviated diet-induced hepatosteatosis, obesity, and insulin resistance. Mechanistically, LRG1 bound with high selectivity to the liver and promoted hepatosteatosis by increasing de novo lipogenesis and suppressing fatty acid ß-oxidation. LRG1 also inhibited hepatic insulin signaling by down-regulating insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2. Our study identified LRG1 as a key molecule that mediates the crosstalk between adipocytes and hepatocytes in diet-induced hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance. Suppressing LRG1 expression and function may be a promising strategy for the treatment of obesity-related metabolic diseases.

14.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0064621, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730435

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infects eye corneal tissues leading to herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK), which is one of the leading causes of blindness. Here in our study, we found that 6-thioguanine (6-TG), a once clinically approved medication for child acute myelogenous leukemia, inhibited multiple strains of HSV-1 infection in vitro and in vivo. 6-TG is more potent than acyclovir (ACV) and ganciclovir (GCV), with the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 6-TG at 0.104 µM with high stimulation index (SI) (SI = 6,475.48) compared to the IC50 of ACV at 1.253 µM and the IC50 of GCV at 1.257 µM. In addition, 6-TG at 500 µM topically applied to the eyes with HSV-1 infection significantly inhibits HSV-1 replication, alleviates virus-induced HSK pathogenesis, and improves eye conditions. More importantly, 6-TG is effective against ACV-resistant HSV-1 strains, including HSV-1/153 and HSV-1/blue. Knockdown of Rac1 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) negatively affected HSV-1 replication, suggesting that Rac1 facilitated HSV-1 replication. Following HSV-1 infection of human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs), endogenous Rac1 activity was upregulated by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown assay. We further found that Rac1 was highly expressed in the corneal tissue of HSK patients compared to normal individuals. Mechanistic study showed that 6-TG inhibited HSV-1 replication by targeting Rac1 activity in HSV-1 infected cells, and the Rac1 is critical in the pathogenesis of HSK. Our results indicated that 6-TG is a promising therapeutic molecule for the treatment of HSK. IMPORTANCE We reported the discovery of 6-TG inhibition of HSV-1 infection and its inhibitory roles in HSK both in vitro and in vivo. 6-TG was shown to possess at least 10× more potent inhibitory activity against HSV-1 than ACV and GCV and, more importantly, inhibit ACV/GCV-resistant mutant viruses. Animal model studies showed that gel-formulated 6-TG topically applied to eyes locally infected with HSV-1 could significantly inhibit HSV-1 replication, alleviate virus-induced HSK pathogenesis, and improve eye conditions. Further study showed that HSV-1 infection upregulated Rac1 expression, and knockdown of Rac1 using siRNA markedly restricted HSV-1 replication, suggesting that Rac1 is required for HSV-1 replication. In addition, we also documented that Rac1 is highly expressed in corneal tissues from HSK patients, indicating that Rac1 is associated with HSK pathogenesis. In view of the high potency of 6-TG, low cytotoxicity, targeting a distinct therapeutic target, we suggest that 6-TG is a potential candidate for development as a therapeutic agent for HSK therapy.

15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(47): 14270-14277, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797654

RESUMO

4'-O-Methylpyridoxine (MPN) and MPN-5'-glucoside (MPNG) are collectively known as ginkgotoxin, which are the main toxic ingredients of excessive consumption of Ginkgo biloba seeds. Water extraction is the generally adopted sample preparation method for high-performance liquid chromatography determination of ginkgotoxin. However, endogenous enzymes such as glycosidases in Ginkgo biloba seeds can hydrolyze MPNG to MPN in the process of water extraction, which will result in the measured contents of MPN and MPNG but not their natural contents in Ginkgo biloba seeds. In this work, inhibitors for the endogenous enzymes were first screened, and it was found that silver fluoride could effectively inhibit endogenous enzymes such as glucosidase and phosphatase. The optimized concentration of silver fluoride was 25 mmol/L, which could effectively inhibit the endogenous enzymes for more than 60 h. A new sample preparation method based on water extraction with 25 mmol/L silver fluoride addition was thus developed. This method was employed to determine the native contents of MPN and MPNG in the exotesta and kernel of five Ginkgo biloba seed cultivars. The result showed that the contents of MPNG in the exotesta and kernel of five cultivars were significantly higher than those of MPN. MPNG was present at high content in raw seeds, which was the main form of ginkgotoxin in seeds. The method established in this work is simple and effective and can be used to accurately quantify the native contents of MPN and MPNG.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797638

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is typically associated with poor prognosis due to its only partial response to chemotherapy and lack of clinically established targeted therapies coupled with an aggressive disease course. Aerobic glycolysis is a hallmark of reprogrammed metabolic activity in cancer cells, which can be repressed by small-interfering RNA (siRNA). However, the lack of effective carriers to deliver vulnerable siRNA restricts the clinical potentials of glycolysis-based gene therapy for TNBC. Herein, we develop a tumor-targeted, biomimetic manganese dioxide (MnO2)-shrouded metal-organic framework (MOF) based nanomedicine to deliver siRNA against pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme M2 (siPKM2), wherein PKM2 is a rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis, to inhibit the reprogrammed glycolysis of TNBC. This MOF-based genetic nanomedicine shows excellent monodispersity and stability and protects siPKM2 against degradation by nucleases. The nanomedicine not only substantially blocks the glycolytic pathway but also improves intracellular hypoxia in TNBC cells, with a resultant O2-enhanced anticancer effect. In the mice orthotopic TNBC model, the nanomedicine shows a remarkable therapeutic effect. Meanwhile, the Mn2+ ions released from acid microenvironment-responsive MnO2 enable in vivo monitoring of the therapeutic process with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our study shows great promise with this MRI-visible MOF-based nanomedicine for treating TNBC by inhibition of glycolysis via the RNA interference.

17.
JAMA Pediatr ; : e214375, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747972

RESUMO

Importance: A rapid nutritional transition has caused greater childhood obesity prevalence in many countries, but the repertoire of effective preventive interventions remains limited. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of a novel multifaceted intervention for obesity prevention in primary school children. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cluster randomized clinical trial was conducted during a single school year (from September 11, 2018, to June 30, 2019) across 3 socioeconomically distinct regions in China according to a prespecified trial protocol. Twenty-four schools were randomly allocated (1:1) to the intervention or the control group, with 1392 eligible children aged 8 to 10 years participating. Data from the intent-to-treat population were analyzed from October 1 to December 31, 2019. Interventions: A multifaceted intervention targeted both children (promoting healthy diet and physical activity) and their environment (engaging schools and families to support children's behavioral changes). The intervention was novel in its strengthening of family involvement with the assistance of a smartphone app. The control schools engaged in their usual practices. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the change in body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in square meters) from baseline to the end of the trial. Secondary outcomes included changes in adiposity outcomes (eg, BMI z score, prevalence of obesity), blood pressure, physical activity and dietary behaviors, obesity-related knowledge, and physical fitness. Generalized linear mixed models were used in the analyses. Results: Among the 1392 participants (mean [SD] age, 9.6 [0.4] years; 717 boys [51.5%]; mean [SD] BMI, 18.6 [3.7]), 1362 (97.8%) with follow-up data were included in the analyses. From baseline to the end of the trial, the mean BMI decreased in the intervention group, whereas it increased in the control group; the mean between-group difference in BMI change was -0.46 (95% CI, -0.67 to -0.25; P < .001), which showed no evidence of difference across different regions, sexes, maternal education levels, and primary caregivers (parents vs nonparents). The prevalence of obesity decreased by 27.0% of the baseline figure (a relative decrease) in the intervention group, compared with 5.6% in the control group. The intervention also improved other adiposity outcomes, dietary, sedentary, and physical activity behaviors, and obesity-related knowledge, but it did not change moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, physical fitness, or blood pressure. No adverse events were observed during the intervention. Conclusions and Relevance: The multifaceted intervention effectively reduced the mean BMI and obesity prevalence in primary school children across socioeconomically distinct regions in China, suggesting its potential for national scaling. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03665857.

18.
Appl Opt ; 60(31): 9837-9843, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807171

RESUMO

In the field of cultural relic protection, the migration of moisture will cause a series of adverse effects, such as disruption and crater eruption. Assessment of water migration status is the key to early warning and prevention of these problems. In an attempt for a solution, the whole process of moisture migration in rammed earth is studied by using the moisture migration initiation criterion based on entropy. We analyzed and compared the entropy change law of the infrared radiation temperature in the two main migration stages, and we made a judgment on whether the moisture state is in the steady equilibrium or in the process of dynamic migration. The results show that the moisture migration status can be identified quickly and in real time by using the moisture migration initiation criterion based on entropy. The results of this study provide a new method for judging the state of moisture migration in geotechnical engineering, especially in the field of cultural relic protection, which has very important practical significance.

19.
J Org Chem ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807586

RESUMO

The development of a novel environmental benign and sustainable synthetic method for highly efficient construction and direct C-H functionalization of N-heterocycles remains a pivotal central research topic for organic and medicinal chemistry. Herein, a novel visible-light-enabled biomimetic aza-6π electrocyclization for efficient assembly of diverse pyridines and further tandem Minisci-type reaction were developed. A broad spectrum of polysubstituted picolinaldehydes were readily constructed with high efficacy and good functional group tolerance under metal- and oxidant-free conditions.

20.
Foods ; 10(11)2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829100

RESUMO

Clanis bilineata tsingtauica Mell, 1922 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae), also known as "Doudan" in China, is an important pest in legume crops. As an edible insect, it is most commonly consumed in Jiangsu, Shandong, and Henan Provinces. Mass rearing requires access to large numbers of eggs. This stage, however, is of short duration and supplies are frequently not sufficient for insect production. Therefore, we identified the cold storage conditions for C. bilineata tsingtauica that can effectively prolong the storage time of the eggs, to make supplies more readily available. We found that when stored at 4 °C, only 7.5% of the eggs hatched after 7 days, while at 10 °C the hatch rate was 78.3%. At 15 °C, the egg hatch rate remained at this same level (77.8% even after 14-20 days). Considering various combinations, we found that optimal egg hatch occurred if eggs were stored at 15 °C for 11 days, and then held at 15-20 °C under dark conditions. Stored as described above, the egg hatch rate was not significantly different from the control group (at 28 °C). These conditions allow for easier mass rearing of C. bilineata tsingtauica by providing a stable supply of eggs.

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