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1.
Sci Total Environ ; : 150955, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656583

RESUMO

Liming is a long-established and widely used agricultural practice to ameliorate soil acidity and improve crop production. Sustainable liming strategies for regional applications require information on both lime requirements and liming intervals given land use and soil dependent acidification rates. We developed a method to optimize lime requirements and liming intervals at regional level. Lime requirements were based on soil pH buffering capacity and liming intervals were estimated by ongoing soil acidity production, derived from major cations and anions balances in cropland systems. About 66% of croplands in Qiyang required liming to raise soil pH to 6.5, with a total lime requirement of 2.4 × 105 t CaCO3, with an average rate of 2.4 t ha-1 for paddy soils and 2.6 t ha-1 for upland soils. The remaining 34% were mainly calcareous soils. Nutrient management practices and crop rotations, affecting N transformation and crop removal, were the main drivers controlling the spatial variation in total acid production in non-calcareous soils, on average contributing 73% and 25%, respectively. Under current soil acidification rates, 33% of Qiyang's croplands would need liming within 30 years after raising the soil pH to 6.5. Averaged liming interval was 20 years, and 6.8 t ha-1 would be required to maintain soil pH ranges between 5.5 and 6.5. Areas with high soil acidification risk were mostly located in the southeast of Qiyang.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556575

RESUMO

Hundreds of millions of smallholders in emerging countries substantially overuse nitrogen (N) fertilizers, driving local environmental pollution and global climate change. Despite local demonstration-scale successes, widespread mobilization of smallholders to adopt precise N management practices remains a challenge, largely due to associated high costs and complicated sampling and calculations. Here, we propose a long-term steady-state N balance (SSNB) approach without these complications that is suitable for sustainable smallholder farming. The hypothesis underpinning the concept of SSNB is that an intensively cultivated soil-crop system with excessive N inputs and high N losses can be transformed into a steady-state system with minimal losses while maintaining high yields. Based on SSNB, we estimate the optimized N application range across 3,824 crop counties for the three staple crops in China. We evaluated SSNB first in ca. 18,000 researcher-managed on-farm trials followed by testing in on-farm trials with 13,760 smallholders who applied SSNB-optimized N rates under the guidance of local extension staff. Results showed that SSNB could significantly reduce N fertilizer use by 21 to 28% while maintaining or increasing yields by 6 to 7%, compared to current smallholder practices. The SSNB approach could become an effective tool contributing to the global N sustainability of smallholder agriculture.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150125, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520912

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) from detergents contributes to water pollution and eutrophication. Understanding the impacts of detergent use on P inputs to surface waters and their main drivers is vital for supporting Sustainable Development Goals on clean water. This study aims to quantify past and future trends in P inputs to surface waters from detergent use in China. We modify the Model to Assess River Input of Nutrient to seAs (MARINA) model to assess the effects of past policies and explore options for the future on mitigating detergents P losses in China. The total consumption of detergents tripled from 2000 to 2018. However, P inputs to surface waters from detergent use decreased by 35% during these years. Although P losses vary across regions, most losses occurred in rural areas. Clearly, the P-free detergent policy which was initiated in the year 2000 has been effective. Without this policy, the detergent P losses would likely have increased fourfold during 2000-2018. In the future, detergent P inputs to surface waters in China may be further reduced to very low levels (95% reduction relative to 2018) by a combination of completely P-free detergents, an increasing urbanized population connected to sewage systems, and improving P removal in sewage treatment systems. Our results enhance the understanding of P pollution in surface waters from detergents and, illustrate the effectiveness of measures to control detergent P losses.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150183, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520915

RESUMO

Sustainable phosphorus (P) management is crucial to both food security and environmental conservation. The optimization of P input from mineral fertilizers has been advocated as an effective approach to improve P use efficiency. However, strategies for maximizing P use efficiency by linking soil-crop systems and fertilizer types with the P flow, from a whole P supply chain perspective, are lacking. In this study, a meta-analysis and substance flow analysis (SFA) were employed to evaluate the effects of different mineral P fertilizer types on crop yield and P flow from rock phosphate (RP) exploitation to P use in China. Compared to single superphosphate (SSP), triple superphosphate (TSP), and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP), a significantly higher yield was obtained when diammonium phosphate (DAP) and monoammonium phosphate (MAP) were used 2005 onwards. However, P loss, from RP extraction to application, was 24% higher for DAP and MAP than for SSP, TSP, and CMP. DAP and MAP use led to a 6% larger P footprint than SSP, TSP, and CMP use. The P use efficiency could be improved by 22%, 36%, and 40% in wheat, maize, and rice production, respectively, by integrating the soil-crop system with mineral P fertilizer types, while P loss and P footprint could be reduced by 13% and 17%, respectively. These results indicate that P use efficiency can be significantly improved by integrating mineral P fertilizer types with soil-crop systems, providing an effective approach for RP exploitation to improve P use efficiency and alleviate the overexploitation of RP.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371952

RESUMO

The distinct Tibetan regional diet is strongly influenced by the regional biogeography, indigenous traditions, popular religious beliefs and food taboos. In the context of the nutritional transition in Tibet, studies seldom report on the food consumption and dietary patterns of Tibetan residents. This is a cross-section study of 552 local adults (≥18 years old, 277 men and 275 women) living in 14 agricultural countries along the Yarlung Tsangpo River. Dietary intakes were assessed by a culturally specific FFQ and compared with the Chinese Dietary Pagoda (2016). Dietary Patterns were extracted by using PCA method. The binary logistic regression model was applied to assess the association between independent variables (genders, regions and age groups) and adherence to dietary patterns. With the exception of meat (100 ± 260 g/day) and soybean nuts (42 ± 12 g/day), which exceeded the recommended dietary intakes of CDP, the dietary intake of other foods were not up to the recommended value. In particular, the intake of aquatic products (2 ± 0.1 g/day), vegetables (90 ± 19 g/day), dairy products (114 ± 29 g/day), cereals (117 ± 27 g/day) and fruits (97 ± 25 g/day) were seriously inadequate, which were 95%, 70%, 62%, 53.2% and 51.5% lower than the recommended intakes, respectively. Four dietary patterns were identified. "Local traditional diet" was characterized by a high intake of tsampa (roasted highland barley flour), culturally specific beverages (sweet tea and yak buttered tea), potato and yak beef and was associated with female, rural and older adults (≥51 years old). The male, urban and 18~30 years old group had a higher adherence score with the "Han diet", which was comprised of rice, pork, dumplings, eggs, milk and cabbage. The "Beverage diet", which mainly include tsampa, chang (homemade barley wine) and sweet tea, was associated with the following group: female, urban and aged 18~30 years. The "Out-sourced diet" pattern, consisting of mainly rice, steam bread and some processed meat, was associated with being male, urban and 18-30 years of age. These findings indicate that the dietary practice of the Tibetan people still has strong local characteristics, but it is also undergoing a dietary transition with the penetration of the Chinese Han diet and the increased consumption of outsourced (processed) foods. The unbalanced dietary intake of Tibetan residents should be taken seriously by all parties.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Bebidas , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Recomendações Nutricionais , Rios , População Rural , Fatores Sexuais , Tibet , População Urbana , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
6.
Environ Pollut ; 288: 117768, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265556

RESUMO

Insight in the phosphorus (P) flows and P balances in the food chain is largely unknown at county scale in China, being the most appropriate spatial unit for nutrient management advice. Here, we examined changes in P flows in the food chain in a typical agricultural county (Quzhou) during 1980-2017, using substance flow analyses. Our results show that external P inputs to the county by feed import and fertilizer were 7 times greater in 2017 than in 1980, resulting in a 7-fold increase in P losses to the environment in the last 3 decades, with the biggest source being animal production. Phosphorus use efficiency decreased from 51% to 30% in crop production (PUEc) and from 32% to 11% in the whole food chain (PUEf), but increased from 4% to 7% in animal production (PUEa). A strong reduction in P inputs and thus increase in PUE can be achieved by balanced P fertilization, which is appropriate for Quzhou considering a current average adequate soil P status. Fertilizer P use can be reduced from 7276 tons yr-1 to 1765 tons yr-1 to equal P removal by crops. This change would increase P use efficiency for crops from 30% to 86% but it has a negligible effect on P losses to landfills and water bodies. Increasing the recycling of manure P from the current 43%-95% would reduce fertilizer P use by 17% and reduce P losses by 47%. A combination of reduced fertilizer P use and increased recycling of manure P would save fertilizer P by 93%, reduce P accumulation by 100% and P loss by 49%. The results indicate that increasing manure-recycling and decreasing fertilizer-application are key to achieving sustainable P use in the food chain, which can be achieved through coupling crop-livestock systems and crop-based nutrient management.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Fósforo , Agricultura , Animais , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Esterco , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 793: 148527, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174594

RESUMO

Cherry tomatoes, as a highly profitable vegetable, consume a substantial amount of fertilizer and pesticide compared with other staple crops, which leads to remarkably negative environmental impacts. The optimization of these agricultural inputs to mitigate these environmental burdens and improve cherry tomato yield has drawn little attention. This study used life cycle assessment (LCA) combined with a field investigation to analyze the environmental benefits under optimized fertilizer and pesticide inputs (i.e., reduction of 24.7% nitrogen, 35.6% phosphorus pentoxide, 18.8% potassium oxide, 17.1% organic fertilizer, and 30.9% pesticides) compared to traditional farmer inputs. Results showed that: (1) compared to traditional farmer management, optimized inputs reduced the energy depletion by 24.7%, water depletion by 6.4%, global warming by 28.8%, acidification by 23.7%, aquatic eutrophication by 34.2%, human toxicity by 34.8%, aquatic eco-toxicity by 34.8%, and soil eco-toxicity by 26.7%, respectively; (2) among them, aquatic eco-toxicity and aquatic eutrophication were the major environmental impacts in cherry tomato production and were mainly attributed to chlorothalonil and phosphate fertilizer use, respectively; and (3) optimized inputs decreased the total environmental index and environmental damage cost by 33.8% and 28.1%, respectively, without compromising the yield. These findings provide insight into optimizing fertilizer and pesticide usage to alleviate multiple environmental impacts while maintaining cherry tomato yield and improving economic benefits. Further studies should focus mainly on less harmful pesticide utilization and phosphate use efficiency improvement, which may achieve vegetable production system sustainability in China and also provide a reference value for vegetable production systems in the Global South.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Praguicidas , Agricultura , China , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Nitrogênio/análise
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 785: 147329, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940418

RESUMO

The soil microbiome, existing as interconnected communities closely associated with soil aggregates, is the key driver in nutrient cycling. However, the underlying genomic information encoding the machinery of the soil microbiome involved in nutrient cycling at the soil aggregate scale is barely known. Here comparative metagenomics and genome binning were applied to investigate microbial functional profiles at the soil aggregate scale under different organic material amendments in a long-term field experiment. Soil samples were sieved into large macroaggregates (>2 mm), macroaggregates (0.25-2 mm) and microaggregates (<0.25 mm). Microbial taxonomic and functional alpha diversity were significantly correlated to soil NO3- and SOC. The highest abundance of nasB, nirK, and amoA genes, which are responsible for denitrification and ammonia oxidizers driving nitrification, was observed in microaggregates. Both manure and peat treatments significantly decreased the abundance of napA and nrfA that encode enzymes involved in dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). As a biomarker for soil inorganic P solubilization, the relative abundance of gcd was significantly increased in macroaggregates and large macroaggregates. Three nearly complete genomes of Nitrososphaeraceae (AOA) and seven bacterial genomes were shown to harbor a series of genes involved in nitrification and P solubilization, respectively. Our study provides comprehensive insights into the microbial genetic potential for DNRA and P-solubilizing activity across different soil aggregate fractions and fertilization regimes.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Solo , Archaea , Metagenômica , Nitrificação , Fósforo , Microbiologia do Solo
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 788: 147798, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034165

RESUMO

A link between microbial life history strategies and soil organic carbon storage in agroecosystems is presumed, but largely unexplored at the gene level. We aimed to elucidate whether and how differential organic material amendments (manure versus peat-vermiculite) affect, relative to sole chemical fertilizer application, the link between microbial life history strategies and soil organic carbon storage in a wheat-maize rotation field experiment. To achieve this goal, we combined bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS amplicon sequencing, metagenomics and the assembly of genomes. Fertilizer treatments had a significantly greater effect on microbial community composition than aggregate size, with soil available phosphorus and potassium being the most important community-shaping factors. Limitation in labile carbon was linked to a K-selected oligotrophic life history strategy (Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria) under sole chemical fertilizer application; defined by a significant enrichment of genes involved in resource acquisition, polymer hydrolysis, and competition. By contrast, excess of labile carbon promoted an r-selected copiotrophic life history strategy (Cytophagales, Bacillales, Mortierellomycota) under manure treatment; defined by a significant enrichment of genes involved in cellular growth. A distinct life history strategy was not observed under peat-vermiculite treatment, but rather a mix of both K-selected (Acidobacteria) and r-selected (Actinobacteria, Mortierellomycota) microorganisms. Compared to sole chemical fertilizer application, soil organic carbon storage efficiency was significantly increased by 26.5% and 50.0% under manure and peat-vermiculite treatments, respectively. Taken together, our results highlight the importance of organic material amendments, but in particular a one-time peat-vermiculite application, to promote soil organic carbon storage as a potential management strategy for sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Agricultura , Fertilizantes/análise , Esterco , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Rotação , Microbiologia do Solo , Triticum , Zea mays
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 216: 112180, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865187

RESUMO

Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is a vital component of the global N cycle. Excessive N deposition on the Earth's surface has adverse impacts on ecosystems and humans. Quantification of atmospheric N deposition is indispensable for assessing and addressing N deposition-induced environmental issues. In the present review, we firstly summarized the current methods applied to quantify N deposition (wet, dry, and total N deposition), their advantages and major limitations. Secondly, we illustrated the long-term N deposition monitoring networks worldwide and the results attained via such long-term monitoring. Results show that China faces heavier N deposition than the United States, European countries, and other countries in East Asia. Next, we proposed a framework for estimating the atmospheric wet and dry N deposition using a combined method of surface monitoring, modeling, and satellite remote sensing. Finally, we put forth the critical research challenges and future directions of the atmospheric N deposition. CAPSULE: A review of quantification methods and the global data on nitrogen deposition and a systematic framework was proposed for quantifying nitrogen deposition.

11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(8): 4440-4451, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793238

RESUMO

Pig production contributes considerably to land use and greenhouse gas (GHG) and reactive nitrogen (Nr) emissions. Land use strategies were widely proposed, but the spillover effects on biological flow are rarely explored. Here, we simultaneously assessed the carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and cropland footprints of China's pig production at the provincial scale in 2017. The environmental impacts of land use strategies were further evaluated. Results show that one kg live-weight pig production generated an average of 1.9 kg CO2-equiv and 59 g Nr emissions, occupying 3.5 m2 cropland, with large regional variations. A large reduction in GHG (58-64%) and Nr (12-14%) losses and occupied cropland (10-11%) could be achieved simultaneously if combined strategies of intensive crop production, improved feed-protein utilization efficiency, and feeding co-products were implemented. However, adopting a single strategy may have environmental side-effects. Reallocating cropland that pigs used for feed to plant food alternatives would enhance human-edible energy (3-20 times) and protein delivery (1-5 times) and reduce C and N footprints, except for rice and vegetables. Reallocating cropland to beef and milk production would decrease energy and protein supply. Therefore, a proper combination of land use strategies is essential to alleviate land use changes and nutrient emissions without sacrificing food supply.


Assuntos
Efeito Estufa , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Animais , Pegada de Carbono , Bovinos , China , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Suínos
12.
Food Energy Secur ; 10(1): e255, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791100

RESUMO

Producing high economic benefits and high grain yields with limited environmental impacts is crucial for feeding the world's growing population. Yet it remains challenging to improve the performance of one objective without creating unintended consequences for other objectives. This is especially difficult for smallholders navigating a diverse array of environmental and personal demands. This study demonstrates how combining participatory research through the Science and Technology Backyards (STB) approach with Pareto-based ranking modeling can increase smallholder production while also reducing environmental impact. Through an intensive farmer survey in a 1 × 1 km grid in Quzhou County, we demonstrate that farmers engaged in STBs performed better according to multiple objectives (i.e., optimizing overall grain yield, benefit-cost ratio, and GHG emissions, without compromising any one of these objectives) than farmer's not engaged in STBs. Moreover, we used a Pareto optimization approach (OPT) to determine the optimal smallholder scenario. We found that under OPT, grain yield could reach 9.5 t/ha, with a benefit-cost ratio of 2.1, a 100% N recovery efficiency, and 7,395 kg CO2eq ha-1 GHG emissions. With OPT as a final goal, our research team worked with STB farmers to improve economic and environmental outcomes without compromising yield. Our findings demonstrate that no significant difference was obtained between farmers engaged in STBs and these under OPT. Compared with non-STB farmers, STB farmers' grain yield improved by 18%, benefit-cost ratio improved by 26% due to improved N recovery efficiency, and GHG emissions were reduced by 31%. These improvements demonstrate the power of scientist-farmer engagement for optimizing wheat production. Such engagement allows farmers to modify their agronomic practices to more closely match Pareto optimal conditions, thus improving environmental and economic benefits without compromising yield. Our results provide solid evidence of the potential for sustainable wheat production by combining modeling with participatory research.

13.
Glob Chang Biol ; 27(10): 2011-2028, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528058

RESUMO

Current consensus on global climate change predicts warming trends with more pronounced temperature changes in winter than summer in the Northern Hemisphere at high latitudes. Moderate increases in soil temperature are generally related to faster rates of soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition in Northern ecosystems, but there is evidence that SOC stocks have remained remarkably stable or even increased on the Tibetan Plateau under these conditions. This intriguing observation points to altered soil microbial mediation of carbon-cycling feedbacks in this region that might be related to seasonal warming. This study investigated the unexplained SOC stabilization observed on the Tibetan Plateau by quantifying microbial responses to experimental seasonal warming in a typical alpine meadow. Ecosystem respiration was reduced by 17%-38% under winter warming compared with year-round warming or no warming and coincided with decreased abundances of fungi and functional genes that control labile and stable organic carbon decomposition. Compared with year-round warming, winter warming slowed macroaggregate turnover rates by 1.6 times, increased fine intra-aggregate particulate organic matter content by 75%, and increased carbon stabilized in microaggregates within stable macroaggregates by 56%. Larger bacterial "necromass" (amino sugars) concentrations in soil under winter warming coincided with a 12% increase in carboxyl-C. These results indicate the enhanced physical preservation of SOC under winter warming and emphasize the role of soil microorganisms in aggregate life cycles. In summary, the divergent responses of SOC persistence in soils exposed to winter warming compared to year-round warming are explained by the slowing of microbial decomposition but increasing physical protection of microbially derived organic compounds. Consequently, the soil microbial response to winter warming on the Tibetan Plateau may cause negative feedbacks to global climate change and should be considered in Earth system models.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano , Microbiologia do Solo
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141795, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892043

RESUMO

Sugarcane is the second largest bioenergy crop in the world and it accounts for 80% of global sugar production. Grown mostly in wet and warm tropics with relatively high nitrogen (N) fertiliser input and crop residue retention, sugarcane production is a significant source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission. Yet, a global evaluation of research on N2O emission from sugarcane crop is lacking. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis using data from 141 measurements compiled from 15 sugarcane field studies reported from different countries to i) quantify N2O emissions and emission factors (EFs) globally, and for tropics and sub-tropics, and ii) identify the key factors that promote N2O emission. Our analysis shows that the global mean total N2O emission from sugarcane production reached 2.26 (CI: 1.93-2.62) kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 with an estimated EF of 1.21% (CI: 0.971-1.46%). N2O emissions increased exponentially with increase in N fertiliser rate, questioning the adequacy of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) default EF value (1%) for sugarcane N2O emission estimation. Mean total N2O emissions and EFs in tropics and sub-tropics did not vary significantly. Supplementing synthetic N fertiliser (SN) with organic amendments (OA) significantly increased mean N2O emission (~1.4-fold) and EF (~2.5-fold) compared to SN. A remarkable reduction in N2O emission (38.6%) and EF (61.5%) was evident when enhanced efficiency fertilisers (EEF) replaced SN. In contrast, crop residue removal had little impact on N2O emission and EF, but both parameters showed an upward trend with irrigation and increased rainfall. Soil carbon content and pH were emerged as key regulators of sugarcane N2O emission and EF. It is concluded that global sugarcane N2O emission could be significant and that there is considerable prospect for mitigating the emission through innovative nutrient formulations and precision agriculture that help meet crop nutrient demand without compromising environmental imperatives.


Assuntos
Óxido Nitroso , Saccharum , Agricultura , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Solo
15.
Front Genet ; 11: 574547, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381147

RESUMO

Phytate-phosphorus (P) in food and feed is not efficiently utilized by humans and non-ruminant livestock, potentially contributing to high losses of P to the environment. Crops with high P-acquisition efficiency can access soil P effectively. It remains elusive whether crop genotypes with high P-acquisition efficiency can also have low seed phytate concentrations. A core collection of 256 soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotypes from China with diverse genetic background were grown in the same environment and seeds were sampled to screen for seed phytate-P concentration. Some of these genotypes were also grown in a low-P soil in the glasshouse to measure root morphological and physiological traits related to P acquisition. Large genotypic variation was found in seed phytate-P concentration (0.69-5.49 mg P g-1 dry weight), total root length, root surface area, rhizosheath carboxylates, and acid phosphatase activity in rhizosheath soil. Geographically, seed phytate-P concentration was the highest for the genotypes from Hainan Province, whereas it was the lowest for the genotypes from Inner Mongolia. Seed phytate-P concentration showed no correlation with any desirable root traits associated with enhanced P acquisition. Two genotypes (Siliyuan and Diliuhuangdou-2) with both low phytate concentrations and highly desirable P-acquisition traits were identified. This is the first study to show that some soybean genotypes have extremely low seed phytate concentrations, combined with important root traits for efficient P acquisition, offering material for breeding genotypes with low seed phytate-P concentrations.

16.
Trends Plant Sci ; 25(12): 1194-1202, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830043

RESUMO

Root-soil interactions in the rhizosphere are central to resource acquisition and crop production in agricultural systems. However, apart from studies in idealized experimental systems, rhizosphere processes in real agricultural soils in situ are largely uncharacterized. This limits the contribution of rhizosphere science to agriculture and the ongoing Green Revolution. Here, we argue that understanding plant responses to soil heterogeneity is key to understanding rhizosphere processes. We highlight rhizosphere sensing and root-induced soil modification in the context of heterogeneous soil structure, resource distribution, and root-soil interactions. A deeper understanding of the integrated and dynamic root-soil interactions in the heterogeneously structured rhizosphere could increase crop production and resource use efficiency towards sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Agricultura , Raízes de Plantas , Solo
17.
Environ Int ; 144: 106022, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795750

RESUMO

China has experienced a dramatic change in atmospheric reactive nitrogen (Nr) emissions over the past four decades. However, it remains unclear how nitrogen (N) deposition has responded to increases and/or decreases in Nr emissions. This study quantitatively assesses temporal and spatial variations in measurements of bulk and calculated dry N deposition in China from 1980 to 2018. A long-term database (1980-2018) shows that bulk N deposition peaked in around 2000, and had declined by 45% by 2016-2018. Recent bulk and dry N deposition (based on monitoring from 2011 to 2018) decreased from 2011 to 2018, with current average values of 19.4 ± 0.8 and 20.6 ± 0.4 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Oxidized N deposition, especially dry deposition, decreased after 2010 due to NOx emission controls. In contrast, reduced N deposition was approximately constant, with reductions in bulk NH4+-N deposition offset by a continuous increase in dry NH3 deposition. Elevated NH3 concentrations were found at nationwide monitoring sites even at urban sites, suggesting a strong influence of both agricultural and non-agricultural sources. Current emission controls are reducing Nr emissions and deposition but further mitigation measures are needed, especially of NH3, built on broader regional emission control strategies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Nitrogênio , Agricultura , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise
18.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110888, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721326

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) fertilizer-induced soil acidification in Chinese croplands is well-known, but insight in the impacts of different N fertilizer management approaches (fertilizer type and rate) on soil acidification rates is very limited. Here, we conducted a field experiment on a moderate acid soil to quantify soil acidification rates in response to N fertilization by different fertilizer types and N rates through monitoring the fate of elements (mainly nutrients) related to H+ production and consumption. Two N fertilizer types (urea and NH4Cl) and three N rates (control, optimized and conventional, 0/120/240 kg N ha-1 for wheat, 0/160/320 kg N ha-1 for maize) were included. Nitrogen addition led to an average H+ production of 4.0, 8.7, 11.4, 29.7 and 52.6 keq ha-1 yr-1, respectively, for the control, optimized urea, conventional urea, optimized NH4Cl and conventional NH4Cl plots. This was accompanied with a decline in soil base saturation of 1-10% and in soil pH of 0.1-0.7 units in the topsoil (0-20 cm). Removal of base cations by crop harvesting and N transformations contributed ~70% and ~20% to the H+ production in the urea treated plots, being ~20% and ~75% in the NH4Cl treated plots, respectively. The large NH4+ input via fertilization in the NH4Cl treated plots strongly enhanced the H+ production induced by N transformations. The low contribution of N transformations to the H+ production in the urea treated plots was due to the limited NO3- leaching, induced by the high N losses to air caused by denitrification. Increased N addition by urea, however, strongly increased H+ production by enhanced plant uptake of base cations, mainly due to a large potassium uptake in straw. Our results highlight the important role of optimizing fertilizer form and N rate as well as straw return to the field in alleviating soil acidification.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Triticum , Agricultura , China , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nitrogênio , Solo , Zea mays
19.
Nat Plants ; 6(6): 653-660, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483328

RESUMO

Intercropping, the simultaneous production of multiple crops on the same field, provides opportunities for the sustainable intensification of agriculture if it can provide a greater yield per unit land and fertilizer than sole crops. The worldwide absolute yield gain of intercropping as compared with sole crops has not been analysed. We therefore performed a global meta-analysis to quantify the effect of intercropping on the yield gain, exploring the effects of crop species combinations, temporal and spatial arrangements, and fertilizer input. We found that the absolute yield gains, compared with monocultures, were the greatest for mixtures of maize with short-grain cereals or legumes that had substantial temporal niche differentiation from maize, when grown with high nutrient inputs, and using multirow strips of each species. This approach, commonly practised in China, provided yield gains that were (in an absolute sense) about four times as large as those in another, low-input intercropping strategy, commonly practised outside China. The alternative intercropping strategy consisted of growing mixtures of short-stature crop species, often as full mixtures, with the same growing period and with low to moderate nutrient inputs. Both the low- and high-yield intercropping strategies saved 16-29% of the land and 19-36% of the fertilizer compared with monocultures grown under the same management as the intercrop. The two syndromes of production in intercropping uncovered by this meta-analysis show that intercropping offers opportunities for the sustainable intensification of both high- and low-input agriculture.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melhoramento Vegetal , China , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Environ Res ; 184: 109319, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151842

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) is an essential and limiting nutrient for agricultural systems, where the demand for agricultural products such as food, feed, and bio-fuel are the major drivers of the intensification of agricultural production systems. Globally, maize is one of three main cereal crops, a main feedstock for animal production and a substrate for the production of bio-ethanol. This study investigated P flows through the multiple utilization systems of maize (as represented by the subsystems of food, feed and energy production) at a crop level of 2016 as reference year and made future predictions of P flows for the year 2030 based on different scenarios for food-feed-energy systems in China. For 2016, the subsystem of animal production resulted in the highest waste of P due to inappropriate manure management, but the subsystem of value-added products (Bio-fuel production, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), maize-oil) showed the lowest P use efficiency (39%). From the value-added subsystem, 17% of P from the process flow to the subsystem of animal production as DDGS, and 61% of P is wasted associated with wastewater and sludge. Future scenarios of structural adjustments in the maize consumption system predict that the supply of maize for animal feed will be threatened if the policy of the Biofuel National Promotion before 2020 is fully implemented in China, as current maize production will not meet the future demand of food, feed and energy simultaneously. The results emphasized the use of P waste resources and better sludge management from a systems perspective. This also implied the importance of exploring coordinated development and integrated strategies for sustainable P flow management in multiple utilization systems.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Zea mays , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , China , Grão Comestível/química , Fósforo/análise
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