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1.
Talanta ; 221: 121670, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076176

RESUMO

Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (TEVs) have emerged as promising sources of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the lack of high-sensitivity analytic methods for ultratrace membrane proteins on TEVs hamper their clinical application of TEVs. Herein, by combining aptamers that specifically bind to protein targets on TEVs, PCR-based exponential amplification and CRISPR/Cas12a real-time DNA detection, we developed a novel technique, termed the aptamer-CRISPR/Cas12a assay, to detect CD109+ and EGFR+ TEVs from cell lines and complex biofluids. The platform enables highly sensitive detection of CD109+ and EGFR+ TEVs at as low as 100 particles/mL with a linear range spanning 6 orders of magnitude (102-108 particles/mL), which was found to be sufficient to effectively detect TEV proteins directly in low-volume (50 µl) samples. Furthermore, clinical serum sample analysis verified that the combination of serum CD109+ and EGFR+ TEV levels yielded high diagnostic accuracy, with an AUC of 0.934 (95% CI: 0.868-1.000), a sensitivity of 84.1% and a specificity of 85.0%, in discriminating NPC from healthy controls. Moreover, the dramatic decrease in both biomarkers in responders after radiotherapy indicated their potential roles in radiotherapy surveillance. Given that the aptamer-CRISPR/Cas12a assay rapidly and conveniently detects ultralow concentrations of CD109+ and EGFR+ TEVs directly in serum, it could be useful in NPC diagnosis and prognosis.

2.
Nanotechnology ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137799

RESUMO

Hollow structure and pore size are considered to be crucial to the performance of nitrogen-doped carbon materials. In this paper, a lipstick-like hollow and mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon (HNC-1000) material is prepared using a bottom-up template participation strategy. The images by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy show that the precursor ZnO particles, the intermediate ZnO@ZIF-8 core-shell particles, and the target HNC-1000 particles all maintain a lipstick-like morphology, and HNC-1000 is a hollow nitrogen-doped carbon material. The specific surface area and pore size analysis show that the synthesized HNC-1000 has a very rich mesoporous structure with Vmeso+macro/Vtotal of 94.8% and mean mesopore size at 13.67 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that the nitrogen in the catalyst HNC-1000 is mainly pyridine nitrogen and graphite nitrogen. The prepared HNC-1000 has excellent ORR catalytic activity with onset potential (0.98 V vs. RHE), half-wave potential (0.85 V vs. RHE), and limiting current density (5.51 mA cm-2), which is comparable to that of commercial Pt/C (20 wt. %) and superior to NC-1000 derived from pristine ZIF-8. HNC-1000 also has good stability and strong methanol tolerance, which is superior to commercial Pt/C catalyst. The improved performance of HNC-1000 is attributed to its hollow and mesoporous morphology. These findings demonstrate a stratage for the rational design and synthesis of practical electrocatalysts.

3.
Gut ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Exosomes released from tumour cells are packed with unique RNA and protein cargo, and they are emerging as an important mediator in the communication network that promotes tumour progression. The facultative intracellular bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) is an important colorectal cancer (CRC)-associated bacterium. To date, the function of exosomes from Fn-infected CRC cells has not been explored. DESIGN: Exosomes were isolated by sequential differential centrifugation and verified by transmission electron microscopy, NanoSight analysis and Western blotting. Given that exosomes have been shown to transport miRNAs and proteins to alter cellular functions, we performed miRNA sequencing and proteome analysis of exosomes from Fn-infected and non-infected cells. The biological role and mechanism of exosomes from Fn-infected cells in CRC tumour growth and liver metastasis were determined in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: We demonstrated that exosomes delivered miR-1246/92b-3p/27a-3p and CXCL16/RhoA/IL-8 from Fn-infected cells into non-infected cells to increase cell migration ability in vitro and promote tumour metastasis in vivo. Finally, both circulating exosomal miR-1246/92b-3p/27a-3p and CXCL16 levels were closely associated with Fn abundance and tumour stage in patients with CRC. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that Fn infection may stimulate tumour cells to generate miR-1246/92b-3p/27a-3p-rich and CXCL16/RhoA/IL-8 exosomes that are delivered to uninfected cells to promote prometastatic behaviours.

4.
J Mater Chem B ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226396

RESUMO

Pore-forming toxins (PFTs), the most common virulence proteins, are promising therapeutic keys in bacterial infections. CAL02, consisting of sphingomyelin (Sm) and containing a maximum ratio of cholesterol (Ch), has been applied to sequester PFTs. However, Sm, a saturated phospholipid, leads to structural rigidity of the liposome, which does not benefit PFT combination. Therefore, in order to decrease the membrane rigidity and improve the fluidity of liposomes, we have introduced an unsaturated phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine (Pc), to the saturated Sm. In this report, a soft nanoliposome (called CSPL), composed of Ch, Sm and Pc, was artificially prepared. In order to further improve its antibacterial effect, vancomycin (Van) was loaded into the hydrophilic core of CSPL, where Van can be released radically at the infectious site through transmembrane pores formed by the PFTs in CSPL. This soft Van@CSPL nanoliposome with detoxification/drug release was able to inhibit the possibility of antibiotic resistance and could play a better role in treating severe invasive infections in mice.

5.
Theranostics ; 10(26): 12263-12278, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33204341

RESUMO

Emerging evidence is revealing that microRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in mechanosensing for regulating osteogenesis. However, no mechanoresponsive miRNAs have been identified in human bone specimens. Methods: Bedridden and aged patients, hindlimb unloaded and aged mice, and Random Positioning Machine and primary aged osteoblasts were adopted to simulate mechanical unloading conditions at the human, animal and cellular levels, respectively. Treadmill exercise and Flexcell cyclic mechanical stretching were used to simulate mechanical loading in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Results: Here, we found increased miR-138-5p levels with a lower degree of bone formation in bone specimens from bedridden and aged patients. Loss- and gain-of-function studies showed that miR-138-5p directly targeted microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1 (MACF1) to inhibit osteoblast differentiation under different mechanical conditions. Regarding translational medicine, bone-targeted inhibition of miR-138-5p attenuated the decrease in the mechanical bone anabolic response in hindlimb unloaded mice. Moreover, bone-targeted inhibition of miR-138-5p sensitized the bone anabolic response to mechanical loading in both miR-138-5p transgenic mice and aged mice to promote bone formation. Conclusion: These data suggest that miR-138-5p as a mechanoresponsive miRNA accounts for the mechanosensitivity of the bone anabolic response and that inhibition of miR-138-5p in osteoblasts may be a novel bone anabolic sensitization strategy for ameliorating disuse or senile osteoporosis.

6.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 350, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Omadacycline (ZL-2401) is a semi-synthetic derivative of minocycline. It has a broadspectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and atypical pathogens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of omadacycline against recently collected bacterial isolates from Chinese patients. RESULTS: Omadacycline showed potent activity against all Gram-positive pathogens: S. aureus MICs were low regardless of susceptibility to methicillin (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA: N = 97, MIC50/90 0.12/0.25 mg/L, 98.5% susceptible; methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, MSSA: N = 100, MIC50/90 0.12/0.12 mg/L, 100.0% susceptible). Omadacycline was also very effective against ß-haemolytic streptococci (MIC50/90, 0.06/0.12 mg/L), viridans group streptococci (MIC50/90,<0.03/0. 06 mg/L), and enterococci (MIC50/90, 0.03/0.12 mg/L). Against S. pneumoniae, omadacycline was highly active regardless of penicillin-resistance (MIC90 0.06 mg/L) and despite the fact that less than 10.0% of these strains were susceptible to tetracycline. Omadacycline exhibited good in vitro activity against Enterobacterales isolates (MIC50/90, 2/8 mg/L), inhibiting 81.7% of the isolates at ≤4 mg/L. M. catarrhalis isolates (MIC50/90, 0.12/0.25 mg/L) were fully susceptible to omadacycline at ≤0.5 mg/L. CONCLUSIONS: Omadacycline showed potent in vitro activity against most common bacterial pathogens, and even against highly resistant problem pathogens, such as MRSA, penicillin-R and tetracycline-R S. pneumoniae and enterococci. The susceptibility rate of Chinese isolates was similar to those reported in other countries, but the decreased activity against K. pneumoniae isolates in the present study should be noted.

7.
Opt Lett ; 45(22): 6142-6145, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186935

RESUMO

We demonstrate sub-100-fs Kerr-lens mode-locking of a Tm:MgWO4 laser emitting at ∼2µm assisted by a single-walled carbon-nanotube saturable absorber. A maximum average output power of 100 mW is achieved with pulse duration of 89 fs at a pulse repetition rate of ∼86MHz. The shortest pulse duration derived from frequency-resolved optical gating amounts to 76 fs at 2037 nm, corresponding to nearly bandwidth-limited pulses. To the best of our knowledge, these are the shortest pulses generated from any Tm-doped tungstate crystal and the first report on saturable absorber assisted Kerr-lens mode-locking of a Tm laser at ∼2µm.

8.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241911, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156833

RESUMO

Multiple factors contribute to gestational duration variability. Understanding the sources of variability allows to design better association studies and assess public health measures. Here, we aimed to assess geographical and temporal changes in the determination of gestational duration and its reporting in Sweden between 1973 and 2012. Singleton live births between 1973 and 2012 were retrieved from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Gestational duration trends in percentiles and rates of pre- and post-term deliveries were analyzed by plotting the values over time. Temporal changes in gestational duration based on ultrasound and last menstrual period (LMP) estimation methods were compared. Intervals between LMP date and LMP-based due date were analyzed to assess changes in expected gestational duration. In total, 3 940 577 pregnancies were included. From 1973 until 1985, the median of gestational duration estimated based on LMP or ultrasound decreased from 283 to 278 days, and remained stable until 2012. The distribution was relatively stable when ultrasound-based estimates were used. Until the mid-1990s, there was a higher incidence than expected of births occurring on every seventh gestational day from day 157 onward. On an average, these gestational durations were reported 1.8 times more often than adjacent durations. Until 1989, the most common expected gestational duration was 280 days, and thereafter, it was 279 days. The expected gestational duration varied from 279 to 281 days across different Swedish counties. During leap years, the expected gestational duration was one day longer. Consequently, leap years were also associated with significantly higher preterm and lower post-term delivery rates than non-leap years. Changes in data handling and obstetrical practices over the years contribute to gestational duration variation. The resulting increase in variability might reduce precision in association studies and hamper the assessment of public health measures aimed to improve pregnancy outcomes.

9.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 166, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study reports the global trends of antimicrobial susceptibility to ceftaroline and ceftazidime-avibactam using data from the Antimicrobial Testing Leadership and Surveillance (ATLAS) program between 2012 and 2016. METHODS: For the 2012-2016 ATLAS program, 205 medical centers located in Africa-Middle East (n = 12), Asia-Pacific (n = 32), Europe (n = 94), Latin America (n = 26), North America (n = 31), and Oceania (n = 10) consecutively collected the clinical isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and in vitro susceptibilities to ceftaroline and ceftazidime-avibactam were assessed using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2019and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) 2019 guidelines. RESULTS: Between 2012 and 2016, 176,345 isolates were collected from around the globe and included in the analysis. Regarding Gram-negative bacteria, ceftazidime-avibactam demonstrated high susceptibility (> 90%) against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with increased antimicrobial activity observed from the addition of avibactam (4 mg/L) to ceftazidime. Regarding Gram-positive bacteria, ceftaroline showed > 90% susceptibility against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, α-and ß-hemolytic Streptococcus. The antimicrobial susceptibilities to ceftaroline and ceftazidime-avibactam were mostly stable from 2012 to 2016, but the susceptibilities to ceftazidime-avibactam to carbapenem-resistant (CR) Klebsiella pneumonia (88.4-81.6%) and to CR-P. aeruginosa (89.6-72.7%) decreased over time. In terms of regional difference, the susceptibilities of methicillin-resistant S. aureus to ceftaroline in Asia and of CR-K. pneumonia to ceftazidime-avibactam in Asia/Africa-Middle East were lower compared with other regions, while the susceptibility of CR-P. aeruginosa to ceftazidime-avibactam in North America was higher. CONCLUSION: The addition of avibactam improves the activity of ceftazidime against Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa. The global antimicrobial susceptibilities to ceftaroline and ceftazidime-avibactam were, in general, stable from 2012 to 2016, but a marked reduction in the susceptibilities of specific species and CR-P. aeruginosa to ceftazidime-avibactam was observed.

10.
Neuroscience ; 452: 1-12, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069779

RESUMO

It has been demonstrated Inhibitor Kappa B Kinase ß (IKKß) facilitates autophagy, which in turn mediates p-Tau protein clearance. However, the specific regulatory mechanism in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear. Firstly, AD model was generated by the intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of the Β-amyloid 1-42 (Aß1-42) peptide. Subsequently, mice were injected with shRNA adenoviral transduction particles designed to target DJ-1 or Aß1-42 or Aß1-42 + shNC or Aß1-42 + shRNA against DJ-1. shRNA against DJ-1 were injected into hippocampus of mice (8 × 104 viral particles for each mice) for seven consecutive days. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the accumulation of Aß in the hippocampus of mice, and Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining assay was carried to detect pathological changes in the hippocampus of mice. Further, sh-IKKß, shDJ-1, pcDNA-IKKß and pcDNA-DJ-1 plasmids were transfected into HT-22 cells, MTT assay, TUNEL staining and Hoechst staining were performed to detect cell viability and apoptosis, respectively. Western blotting was carried to measure the relative expression of proteins. Findings indicated that Aß1-42 inhibited autophagy and up-regulated p-Tau protein expression; Overexpression of IKKß and DJ-1 all rescued the autophagy inhibited by Aß1-42 and down-regulated p-Tau protein expression induced by Aß1-42; DJ-1 up-regulated IKKß via p-VHL, further promoted autophagy and reduced the expression of p-Tau protein; DJ-1 knockdown inhibited autophagy and up-regulated p-Tau protein expression, resulting in delayed behavior in mice. In conclusion, IKKß, modulated by DJ-1/p-VHL, reduces p-Tau accumulation via autophagy in AD's disease model. This study may provide theoretical basis for the treatment of AD.

11.
Artif Organs ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate four pacemaker pocket cleaning methods for preventing implantation-related infections. METHODS: This single-center trial prospectively randomized 910 patients undergoing first-time pacemaker implantation or replacement into four pocket cleaning methods: hemocoagulase (group A, n=228), gentamicin (group B, n=228), hemocoagulase plus gentamicin (group C, n=227), and normal saline (group D, n=227). Before implanting the pacemaker battery, the pockets were cleaned with gauze presoaked in the respective cleaning solutions. Then, these patients were followed-up to monitor the occurrence of infections for one month after implantation. RESULTS: Twelve implantation-related infections occurred in 910 patients (1.32%): four patients from group A (1.75%), three patients from group B (1.32%), two patients from group C (0.88%), and three patients from group D (1.32%) (P>0.05). Furthermore, two patients developed bloodstream infections (0.22%), and both of these patients were associated with pocket infection (one patient was from group A, while the other patient was from group C, respectively). No cases of infective endocarditis occurred. The differences in the number of infections in these study groups were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The application of hemocoagulase, gentamicin, hemocoagulase plus gentamicin, or normal saline on the presoaked gauze before implantation was equally effective in preventing pocket-associated infections.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057728

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs) of norvancomycin for Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus hominis. METHODS: We collected 1199 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species from five laboratories located in four cities in China. MICs and inhibitory zone diameters of norvancomycin were determined by broth microdilution and the disc diffusion method, separately. ECOFFs of norvancomycin for four species were calculated by ECOFFinder software following EUCAST principles. Methicillin and vancomycin resistance genes (mecA/mecC and vanA/vanB/vanC/vanD/vanE) were screened for by PCR in all isolates. Pearson correlation and χ2 test were used to calculate the correlation of MICs and inhibition zone diameters, and MICs and resistance genes, respectively. RESULTS: MICs of norvancomycin for all strains from five laboratories fell in the range of 0.12-2 mg/L. ECOFFs of norvancomycin were determined to be 2 mg/L for S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus and 1 mg/L for S. aureus and S. hominis. A weak correlation was observed between MIC values and zone diameters for S. haemolyticus (r = -0.36) and S. hominis (r = -0.26), while no correlation was found for S. epidermidis and S. aureus. The mecA gene was detected in 63.1% of Staphylococcus, whereas no isolate carried mecC, vanA, vanB, vanC, vanD or vanE. ECOFFs of norvancomycin were not correlated with mecA gene carriage in Staphylococcus species. CONCLUSIONS: ECOFFs of norvancomycin for four Staphylococcus species were determined, which will be helpful to differentiate WT strains. The correlation of MICs and zone diameters of norvancomycin was weak in Staphylococcus species.

13.
Brain Res Bull ; 165: 209-217, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The function of gut microbiota as its role in normal physiology and involvement in brain function has gained a great deal of attention. The potential long-lasting effects of postweaning sodium butyrate (SB) exposure on social behaviors are still unknown; however it acts as one of the metabolites of gut microbiota. METHODS: Male mice (24-day old) were exposed to SB through drinking water for 21 continuous days. A series of behavioral tests, mainly including bedding preference test (BP), sexual preference test (SP), social interaction test (SI), tube dominance test (SDT), forced swimming test (FST), open field test (OFT), novel object recognition task (NOR) were conducted at different time after 21-d SB exposure. Serum Trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) levels were investigated to gain insight into a potential mechanism. RESULTS: Behavioral results indicated that postweaning SB exposure significantly decreased the social dominance status of low-ranked mice and decreased the sexual preference without affecting social interaction. SB exposure also exerted transient anxiolytic-like effects, while having induced a long-lasting depression-like effect without effects on memory formation. Postweaning SB exposure increased serum TMAO levels in mice, especially in lower-ranked mice, but decreased in higher-ranked mice. LIMITATIONS: Lack of understanding of the underlying mechanism. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide direct evidence, for the first time, that postweaning SB exposure produces long-term effects on social behaviors in adult mice, mainly referring to sexual orientation, social dominance, and depression-like behaviors, which may be related to the serum TMAO levels, highlighting the long-lasting potential effects of gut-brain interaction on social behaviors.

14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5426, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110060

RESUMO

Novel atherosclerosis models are needed to guide clinical therapy. Here, we report an in vitro model of early atherosclerosis by fabricating and perfusing multi-layer arteriole-scale human tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) by plastic compression. TEBVs maintain mechanical strength, vasoactivity, and nitric oxide (NO) production for at least 4 weeks. Perfusion of TEBVs at a physiological shear stress with enzyme-modified low-density-lipoprotein (eLDL) with or without TNFα promotes monocyte accumulation, reduces vasoactivity, alters NO production, which leads to endothelial cell activation, monocyte accumulation, foam cell formation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Removing eLDL leads to recovery of vasoactivity, but not loss of foam cells or recovery of permeability, while pretreatment with lovastatin or the P2Y11 inhibitor NF157 reduces monocyte accumulation and blocks foam cell formation. Perfusion with blood leads to increased monocyte adhesion. This atherosclerosis model can identify the role of drugs on specific vascular functions that cannot be assessed in vivo.


Assuntos
Arteríolas/fisiopatologia , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Arteríolas/química , Arteríolas/citologia , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Adesão Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Células Espumosas/citologia , Células Espumosas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Engenharia Tecidual , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
15.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964459

RESUMO

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like core domain of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) is a functional domain critical for osteoclast differentiation. One of the missense mutations identified in patients with osteoclast-poor autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (ARO) is located in residue methionine 199 that is replaced with lysine (M199K) amid the TNF-like core domain. However, the structure-function relationship of this mutation is not clear. Sequence-based alignment revealed that the fragment containing human M199 is highly conserved and equivalent to M200 in rat. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we generated three recombinant RANKL mutants M200K/A/E (M200s) by replacing the methionine 200 with lysine (M200K), alanine (M200A), and glutamic acid (M200E), representative of distinct physical properties. TRAcP staining and bone pit assay showed that M200s failed to support osteoclast formation and bone resorption, accompanied by impaired osteoclast-related signal transduction. However, no antagonistic effect was found in M200s against wild-type rat RANKL. Analysis of the crystal structure of RANKL predicted that this methionine residue is located within the hydrophobic core of the protein, thus, likely to be crucial for protein folding and stability. Consistently, differential scanning fluorimetry analysis suggested that M200s were less stable. Western blot analysis analyses further revealed impaired RANKL trimerization by M200s. Furthermore, receptor-ligand binding assay displayed interrupted interaction of M200s to its intrinsic receptors. Collectively, our studies revealed the molecular basis of human M199-induced ARO and elucidated the indispensable role of rodent residue M200 (equivalent to human M199) for the RANKL function.

16.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003305, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many maternal traits are associated with a neonate's gestational duration, birth weight, and birth length. These birth outcomes are subsequently associated with late-onset health conditions. The causal mechanisms and the relative contributions of maternal and fetal genetic effects behind these observed associations are unresolved. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Based on 10,734 mother-infant duos of European ancestry from the UK, Northern Europe, Australia, and North America, we constructed haplotype genetic scores using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to be associated with adult height, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Using these scores as genetic instruments, we estimated the maternal and fetal genetic effects underlying the observed associations between maternal phenotypes and pregnancy outcomes. We also used infant-specific birth weight genetic scores as instrument and examined the effects of fetal growth on pregnancy outcomes, maternal BP, and glucose levels during pregnancy. The maternal nontransmitted haplotype score for height was significantly associated with gestational duration (p = 2.2 × 10-4). Both maternal and paternal transmitted height haplotype scores were highly significantly associated with birth weight and length (p < 1 × 10-17). The maternal transmitted BMI scores were associated with birth weight with a significant maternal effect (p = 1.6 × 10-4). Both maternal and paternal transmitted BP scores were negatively associated with birth weight with a significant fetal effect (p = 9.4 × 10-3), whereas BP alleles were significantly associated with gestational duration and preterm birth through maternal effects (p = 3.3 × 10-2 and p = 4.5 × 10-3, respectively). The nontransmitted haplotype score for FPG was strongly associated with birth weight (p = 4.7 × 10-6); however, the glucose-increasing alleles in the fetus were associated with reduced birth weight through a fetal effect (p = 2.2 × 10-3). The haplotype scores for T2D were associated with birth weight in a similar way but with a weaker maternal effect (p = 6.4 × 10-3) and a stronger fetal effect (p = 1.3 × 10-5). The paternal transmitted birth weight score was significantly associated with reduced gestational duration (p = 1.8 × 10-4) and increased maternal systolic BP during pregnancy (p = 2.2 × 10-2). The major limitations of the study include missing and heterogenous phenotype data in some data sets and different instrumental strength of genetic scores for different phenotypic traits. CONCLUSIONS: We found that both maternal height and fetal growth are important factors in shaping the duration of gestation: genetically elevated maternal height is associated with longer gestational duration, whereas alleles that increase fetal growth are associated with shorter gestational duration. Fetal growth is influenced by both maternal and fetal effects and can reciprocally influence maternal phenotypes: taller maternal stature, higher maternal BMI, and higher maternal blood glucose are associated with larger birth size through maternal effects; in the fetus, the height- and metabolic-risk-increasing alleles are associated with increased and decreased birth size, respectively; alleles raising birth weight in the fetus are associated with shorter gestational duration and higher maternal BP. These maternal and fetal genetic effects may explain the observed associations between the studied maternal phenotypes and birth outcomes, as well as the life-course associations between these birth outcomes and adult phenotypes.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Estatura/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Haplótipos/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(19): 12271-12284, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840350

RESUMO

Ancestral benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (1 µg/L, 21 days) exposure has previously been shown to cause skeletal deformities in medaka (Oryzias latipes) larvae in the F1-F3 generation. However, when and how this deformity is induced during bone development remain to be elucidated. The col10a1:nlGFP/osx:mCherry double transgenic medaka model was employed to determine the temporal and spatial changes of col10a1:nlGFP- positive osteochondral progenitor cells (OPCs) and osx:mCherry-positive premature osteoblasts (POBs) [8 days postfertilization (dpf)-31 dpf] in combination with changes in bone mineralization at the tissue level. Ancestral BaP exposure delayed the development of col10a1:nlGFP- and osx:mCherry-positive osteoblasts and reduced the abundance of col10a1:nlGFP-positive osteoblast progenitors and col10a1:nlGFP/osx:mCherry double-positive premature osteoblasts during critical windows of early vertebral bone formation, associated with reduced bone mineralization in embryos (14 dpf) and larvae (31 dpf), compressed vertebral segments in larvae (31 dpf), and reduced bone thickness in adult male medaka (6 months old) of the F1-F3 generations. Both Col10a1:nlGFP and osx:mCherry were identified as potential targets of epigenetic modifications underlying the transgenerational inheritance of BaP bone toxicity. The present study provides novel knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of transgenerational toxicity of BaP at the cellular level.

18.
Vet Microbiol ; 247: 108751, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768205

RESUMO

Brucellosis is one of the major zoonotic diseases in the world. In China, understanding on its causative agent Brucella is still limited. Recently, we isolated a Brucella strain XZ19-1 from yak in Lhasa, Tibet. Phenotypical characterization proved that it belongs to B. abortus biovar 4, a biotype that has never been reported in China. MLVA-16 genotyping revealed a novel profile (4-5-3-12-2-2-3-3-8-32-8-5-4-3-3-3) in this strain, while MLST sequence typing demonstrated that it belongs to ST 71. Furthermore, the whole genome of XZ19-1 strain was sequenced. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that XZ19-1was genetically more closely related to B. abortus strains originated from European countries rather than to those collected from China previously. Isolation and identification of XZ19-1 strain may thus indicate a unique Brucella lineage existing in Qing-Tibet plateau. These findings will help to improve the diagnosis and epidemiological studies of brucellosis in animals and human in this part of China.

19.
Eur J Med Genet ; 63(11): 104041, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853829

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) with complex genetic architecture marked primarily by social and communication impairments along with deficits in restrictive and repetitive behaviors. Due to the complex nature and genetic heterogeneity of the disease, genotype and phenotype correlation remains challenging. Prior studies have implicated RALGAPB as a candidate gene for ASD, but stringent analysis is required to determine the pathogenicity. By targeted sequencing, we identified a new de novo RALGAPB missense variant (c.1238C> T; p.T413M) in an ASD family. By leveraging published large-scale genome sequencing studies, we curated five de novo likely gene-disruptive (LGD) variants and 5 de novo missense variants in ASD and related NDDs and revealed a genome-wide significant excess of RALGAPB de novo LGD variants (P_adjust = 0.0053). Quantitative reverse transcription PCR revealed that the frameshift variant c.1927dupA; p.N643fs*3 reduced mRNA expression levels confirming the loss-of-function effect. Co-expression analysis using human brain transcriptome data provide the potential functional link of RALGAPB and 38 ASD and/or NDD genes. Our study suggests RALGAPB as a new NDD risk gene which should be considered in clinical diagnosis of ASD and related NDDs.

20.
Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 2443-2452, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765018

RESUMO

Objective: Invasive candidiasis (IC), a life-threatening fungal infection prevalent among hospitalized patients, has highly variable regional epidemiology. We conducted a multicenter surveillance study to investigate recent trends in species distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns among IC-associated Candida spp. in Beijing, China, from 2016 to 2017. Materials and Methods: A total of 1496 non-duplicate Candida isolates, recovered from blood and other sterile body fluids of IC patients, were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry combined with ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequencing. Broth microdilution-based susceptibility testing using six antifungal agents was also conducted. Results: Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species (49.9%), followed by Candida tropicalis (15.5%), Candida glabrata (14.7%) and Candida parapsilosis (14.2%). No significant differences in species distribution were observed when compared with a 2012-2013 dataset. Overall, the rates of susceptibility to fluconazole and voriconazole were high among C. albicans (98% and 97.2%, respectively) and C. parapsilosis species complex (91.1% and 92%, respectively) isolates but low among C. tropicalis (81.5% and 81.1%, respectively) isolates. In addition, the rate of azole resistance among C. tropicalis isolates increased significantly (1.8-fold, P<0.05) compared with that observed in 2012-2013, while micafungin resistance rates were <5% for all tested Candida species. Conclusion: Our results suggest that species distribution has remained stable among IC-associated Candida isolates in Beijing. Resistance to micafungin was rare, but increased azole resistance among C. tropicalis isolates was noted. Our study provides information on local epidemiology that will be important for the selection of empirical antifungal agents and contributes to global assessments of antifungal resistance.

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