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1.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394076

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy and safety profile of S-1-based versus non-S-1-based chemotherapy as first-line treatment in mCRC. METHODS: Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were obtained from PubMed, Embase, and Ovid databases and the Cochrane library from database set up in May 2018. The RCTs of S-1-based monotherapy or combination therapy as first-line treatment were selected. The impact of S-1-based chemotherapy on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was assessed by pooling data via RevMan 5.3. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of 10 RCTs showed that S-1-based chemotherapy significantly improved PFS (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84-0.97, P = 0.006). In subgroup analysis, there was a statistically significant increase in PFS when S-1-based chemotherapy was compared with 5-FU-based (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.84-1.00, P = 0.04) or capecitabine-based chemotherapy (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.73-0.99, P = 0.04). The meta-analysis of OS (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.86-1.05, P = 0.36), overall response rate (ORR) (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.84-1.17, P = 0.90), and disease control rate (DCR) (HR 1.61, 95% CI 0.87-3.00, P = 0.13) showed no statistical significance between S-1-based and non-S-1-based chemotherapy. The statistically significant differences in the meta-analysis indicated less incidence of graded 3-4 leucopenia (OR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.13-0.71, P = 0.006) and hand-foot syndrome (HFS) (OR = 0.24, 95% CI 0.10-0.58, P = 0.001) in the S-1-based chemotherapy, and there was no statistically significant difference for other adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: S-1-based chemotherapy in mono or combined therapy was an attractive alternative to standard first-line regimen for patients of mCRC.

2.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(1): 35-47, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166663

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with an increased risk of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and Wnt/ß-catenin/GSK3ß have been demonstrated to play pathogenic roles in diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the roles of these two pathways in T1DM-induced cardiomyopathy in rats. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats were treated with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or meisoindigo (Me) to inhibit NF-κB and Wnt/ß-catenm/GSK3ß respectively for 4 or 8 weeks. As compared with untreated diabetic rats, treatment with either PDTC or Me partly attenuated the myocardial hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis, improved cardiac function, and exhibited reduction in inflammatory reaction. In addition, we found that inhibiting NF-κB and Wnt/ß-catenin/GSK3ß pathways could regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. The effects were associated with the decrease of NF-κB activity and the downregulation of some proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-2. Our data suggested that the activities of NF-κB and Wnt/ß-catenin/GSK3ß pathways were both increased and inhibiting NF-κB and Wnt/ß-catenin/GSK3ß signaling pathways might improve myocardial injury in T1DM rats.

3.
J Proteomics ; 222: 103691, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068187

RESUMO

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is an acute heart disease. Cycloastragenol, as a natural product, inhibits inflammation and protects cardiomyocytes. Cycloastragenol (Y006) modulates inflammation in AMI is not known. To explore the function of Cycloastragenol in AMI, this study investigated the effect of Y006 and its mechanisms both in vitro and in vivo. Y006 influences the concentration of 11 proteins, as shown by a proteomics analysis, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Among these 11 proteins, Erk1/2, PLCG1, IKBKG, and ZEB1 are related to inflammatory regulation. BAX, COX2, and GSK3ß are involved in modulating cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and RhoA and DSC2 are directly associated with myocardial function. However, the functions of ARHGAP17 and Rit2 in heart are less well established. Additionally, Y006 suppressed TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17 production in PBMCs (peripheral blood monocytes) from patients with acute myocardial infarction and enhanced IL-10 and IL-4 expression. Similar results were obtained in a rat model of AMI by flow cytometry detection and ELISA. Our findings indicate that Y006 protects rats from AMI through direct or indirect inhibition of inflammation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, the specific mechanism of Y006's protective function requires further study. Nonetheless, this research revealed a novel aspect for the treatment of myocardial infarction. SIGNIFICANCE: In the present study, we undertook the first proteomic evaluation of Cycloastragenol (Y006) function in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Y006 significantly improved myocardial function in vivo by regulating multiple molecular expressions. Hypoxia is a direct reason for AMI. And our data support a role of Y006 in gene expression, cell apoptosis under hypoxia. The conclusions of this research assist to explain the potential molecular mechanism in Cycloastragenol treating AMI and supply a new method for ameliorating AMI.

4.
Anim Biotechnol ; 31(1): 42-51, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570383

RESUMO

Cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2 (CRABP2) is essential to myoblast differentiation. However, there was no report about the function of CRABP2 gene in cattle. This study explored the association of CRABP2 gene polymorphisms with growth traits in cattle breeds by several methods, such as DNA sequencing, PCR, PCR-RFLP and forced PCR-RFLP. Two sequence variants were determined. There were 621 individuals in six cattle breeds from China for the experiment, and three breeds were used to test validation of polymorphisms and extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD). The results showed that both SNPs (SNP1, g.2458 G > T, SNP2, g.3878 G > A) were in intron1. Two SNPs were in low linkage disequilibrium. Association analysis suggested that SNP1 had the significant difference on growth traits with body height, height at hip cross and body slanting length (P < .05), while SNP2 showed a significant difference in growth traits with body height, height at hip cross and body slanting length(P < .05). The results of this investigation displayed that the CRABP2 gene is an available candidate gene and may be used for breed selection and conservation.

5.
Life Sci ; 242: 117205, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874165

RESUMO

AIMS: TGF-ß-induced alveolar epithelial cells apoptosis were involved in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). This study aimed to explore potential targets and mechanisms of IPF. MAIN METHODS: mRNA and microRNA arrays were used to analyze differentially expressed genes and miRNAs. Several essential targets of TGF-ß-SMADs and TGF-ß-PI3K-AKT pathways were detected. KEY FINDINGS: miR-31 and miR-184 expression levels were positively correlated with smad6 and smad2/akt expression levels in IPF patients. TGF-ß could induce miR-31 and suppress miR-184 levels in A549 cells. miR-31 was confirmed to bind to the smad6-3'UTR and functionally suppress its expression. Down-regulated SMAD6 enhanced SMAD2/SMAD4 dimer formation and translocation due to its failure to prevent SMAD2 phosphorylation. In contrast, anti-fibrotic functions of miR-184 were abolished due to TGF-ß directly suppressing miR-184 levels in A549 cells. When A549 was stimulated by TGF-ß combined with or without miR-31 inhibitor/miR-184 mimic, it was showed that depleted miR-31 and/or increased miR-184 significantly ameliorated TGF-ß-induced viability of A549 cells, as well as inhibited the expression of profibrotic factors, MMP7 and RUNX2. SIGNIFICANCE: Inhibiting miR-31 and/or promoting miR-184 protect against TGF-ß-induced fibrogenesis by respectively repressing the TGF-ß-SMAD2 and TGF-ß-PI3K-AKT signaling pathways, implying that miR-31/184 are potential targets and suggesting a new management strategy for IPF.


Assuntos
Células A549/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/farmacologia , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo
6.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 1218, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680982

RESUMO

Our previous studies have investigated the systematic pharmacokinetic characteristics, biological activities, and toxicity of arctigenin. In this research, the potential toxicities of arctigenin in beagle dogs were investigated via repeated 28-day subcutaneous injections. Beagle dogs were randomly divided into control, vehicle [polyethylene glycol (PEG)], and arctigenin 6, 20, 60 mg/kg treated groups. The whole experimental period lasted 77 days, including adaptive period (35 days), drug exposure period (animals were treated with saline, PEG, or arctigenin for 28 consecutive days), and recovery period (14 days). Arctigenin injection (60 mg/kg) affected the lymphatic hematopoietic, digestive, urinary, and cardiovascular systems, and all the impact on these tissues resulted in death in five dogs (three female and two male dogs); 20 mg/kg arctigenin injection resulted in toxic reactions of the lymphatic hematopoietic and digestive systems; and 6 mg/kg arctigenin and PEG injection did not lead to significant toxic reactions. Meanwhile, there were no sexual differences of drug exposure and accumulation when dogs underwent different dosages. As stated previously, the toxic target organs of arctigenin administration include lymphatic hematopoietic, digestive (liver and gallbladder), urinary (kidney), and cardiovascular (heart) systems, and the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of arctigenin is less than 6 mg/kg.

7.
Atherosclerosis ; 290: 125-135, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis is the major cause of heart attack and stroke in humans. However, pathological details and molecular mechanisms underlying early atherogenesis remain incompletely characterized. This study explored the early events of atherogenesis in a hypercholesterolemic zebrafish model in vivo. METHODS: We used transparent transgenic zebrafish larvae Tg(lysc:EGFP), Tg(mpx:EGFP), Tg(mpeg1:EGFP), Tg(flk1:EGFP) or Tg(lysc:EGFP/flk1:mCherry), together with fluorescently labeled control and high cholesterol diets (HCD), to dynamically investigate the early development of atherosclerosis with confocal in vivo. Endothelial cells with green fluorescence were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to detect gene expression. Moreover, we treated hypercholesterolemic zebrafish model in vivo or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro with rosiglitazone, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). RESULTS: We found that HCD-induced endothelial inflammation was an earlier pathological alteration than myeloid cells/neutrophils accumulation and lipid deposition in zebrafish vascular vessels of HCD-fed zebrafish. Endothelial inflammation was characterized by down-regulation of anti-inflammatory PPARγ and upregulation of pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß). Pharmacological treatment with rosiglitazone reversed the decrease in the expression of PPARγ and decreased expression of TNF-α and IL-1ß in HCD-fed zebrafish. Moreover, rosiglitazone ameliorated myeloid cells accumulation and lipid deposition in HCD-fed zebrafish in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperlipidemia-induced endothelial inflammation happens earlier than myeloid cell neutrophils accumulation in vascular vessels, and neutrophils accumulation is prior to lipid deposition during the initial stage of atherosclerosis. Early alleviation of inflammation induced by HCD would have a prophylactic effect for the initial development of atherosclerosis.

8.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 74(3): 228-234, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356540

RESUMO

Carthamin yellow (CY) is a flavonoid compound isolated from safflower, which is widely used clinically in China. It has various pharmacological effects including promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis and alleviating pain. Ischemic heart disease is one of the main culprits of illness and death. Here, in this study, ex vivo and in vivo models were used to investigate whether CY reduces ischemia/reperfusion injury. In vitro experiments further verify and explain the potential mechanisms of CY cardioprotective function. Isolated hearts from male rats with or without CY pretreatment before ischemia which underwent 30-minute ischemia followed by 60-minute reperfusion showed that CY pretreatment significantly reduced the infarct size and lactate dehydrogenase release. The in vivo experiments also indicated CY preadministration (i.v.) reduced infarct size and improved the heart function, which was impaired by myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. The in vitro model on myocardial cell also showed that CY reduced ischemia/reperfusion injury by reducing the lactate dehydrogenase and reactive oxygen species (ROS) releasing. Eliminating ROS with N-acetylcysteine or preinject CY into rat jugular vein reduces the expression of IL-6, TNF-a, and, especially, IL-1b in an in vivo I/R model. Also, CY pretreatment strongly reduces ischemia/reperfusion-induced NLRP3 up-expression and caspase-1 activation. Our results indicated CY reduced ischemia-reperfusion injury when administered before reperfusion. The reduction in injury is accompanied by a reduced ROS release and decreased inflammatory response.

9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(5): 861-864, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989840

RESUMO

With the development of social economy,people's demand for health services is growing rapidly. As health resource with Chinese characteristics,health food containing Chinese materia medica have broad prospect and great market space for development.However,at present,there are still many problems of health food containing Chinese materia media in the research,development,evaluation and market application. In addition,due to lack of theoretical support of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) in the research and development of health food containing Chinese materia media,blurred boundaries between health food containing Chinese materia media and other health products as well as TCM are present,lacking of TCM characteristics. In the evaluation process of health food containing Chinese materia media,the construction of functional food laws,regulations and evaluation norms is relatively lagging behind,which can't meet the needs of health food containing Chinese materia media research and development,severely restricting the development of health food containing Chinese materia media. Based on the research and evaluation of health food containing Chinese materia media,the existing problems were reviewed and the reasons for the deficiencies were analyzed in this paper. Guided by the theory of TCM,based on the constitution identification in TCM,and combined with modern scientific and technological means,a new research and development mode of functional food was put forward in this paper to distinguish health food containing Chinese materia media from TCM as well as general health products. Nevertheless,we should ensure the vitality of Chinese medicine health products with original thinking and scientific and technological connotations,and accelerate the harmonious,rapid and sustainable development of Chinese medicine health industry.


Assuntos
Alimento Funcional , Materia Medica , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Indústrias , Pesquisa
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(5): 875-879, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989843

RESUMO

At present,the function evaluation of health food containing Chinese materia medica is in lack of theoretical support of Chinese medicine,which can't reflect the function characteristics,dose-effect relationship and mechanism of functional food. What' s more,the evaluation technology of health food containing Chinese materia medica is relatively lagging behind and has been abolished now,which seriously restricts the development of health food containing Chinese materia medica industry. The proportion of health food containing Chinese materia medica with enhancing immune function is the highest among approved products,which is up to 30.33%. By collecting,analyzing and digging the current evaluation situation of enhancing immune function of health food containing Chinese materia medica,this paper has shown that there is no difference between health food containing Chinese materia medica evaluation and other functional food evaluation. What's more,there is a lack of characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM). The technological means including evaluation of immune active substances is under-developed and the immune cell evaluation needs to be refined and improved urgently,restricting the development of health food containing Chinese materia medica industry. Therefore,the evaluation of the enhanced immune function of health food containing Chinese materia medica should be guided by health-preserving theory in TCM,and based on the identification of TCM constitution for its claim of health function. With TCM theory and modern scientific technological means,a new evaluation model for immune function enhancement of health food containing Chinese materia medica is put forward to distinguish it from other functional food and traditional medicines. Formulation of the evaluation technology and technical specifications suitable for health food containing Chinese materia medica can fundamentally ensure the healthy,orderly,fast and sustainable development of health food containing Chinese materia medica industry.


Assuntos
Alimento Funcional , Materia Medica , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Projetos de Pesquisa , Tecnologia
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(5): 880-884, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989844

RESUMO

Health food containing Chinese materia medica has many advantages in health preservation and reducing the risk of disease occurrence,which meets people's demands for " great health" and " preventive treatment of disease". However,due to its complex ingredients,diverse quality of raw materials,as well as the vagueness and lack of integrity for existing quality standards,chaos is caused in the health food market,which restricts its healthy development and also poses new challenges to the quality control of healthy food. At present,the total component content or single component content is determined in most functional/marker component examinations. Safety and microbial detection methods fail to cover the contamination range of the raw materials of Chinese materia medica.Therefore,it is impossible to meet the purpose of ensuring authenticity,safety and efficacy. In recent years,a lot of Chinese materia medica extracts have been used as raw materials for food products,but many extracts lack standards. The author believes that the quality control of health food containing Chinese materia medicas should start with the quality control of Chinese materia medica extracts. In this way,product quality is controlled from source to ensure product consistency; secondly,the overall quality control should be strengthened to ensure the authenticity of the products; the scope of safety inspection shall be expanded to fundamentally ensure the safety of products. At the same time,we should strengthen the quality control of whole process and strengthen the overall quality control of raw materials to produce health food of high quality.


Assuntos
Alimentos/normas , Materia Medica/normas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Controle de Qualidade , Projetos de Pesquisa
12.
Br J Pharmacol ; 176(8): 1106-1121, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a rapid renal dysfunctional disease, for which no effective drugs or therapies are available to improve prognosis. Loganetin is a natural product with unknown bioactivities. Here, we identified a new protective effect and mechanism of Loganetin in a mouse model of AKI induced by rhabdomyolysis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: AKI was induced using glycerol by i.m. injection in mice models. Thirty minutes and 24 and 48 hr after injection of glycerol, the mice received 2 and 18 mg·kg-1 of Loganetin i.p. respectively. Then mice blood and kidney were collected for various biochemical and histopathological studies. Mechanistic studies on modulation of AKI by Loganetin were performed using HK-2 cells and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) knockout mice. KEY RESULTS: In the Loganetin treated group, kidney damage and mortality rate were declined, and blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were much lower. Loganetin prevented damage to the tubular structures induced by glycerol and decreased apoptotic cells at the corticomedullary junction. In HK-2 cells, Loganetin could inhibit NF-κB pathway and pro-apoptotic genes expression. However, TLR4 was silenced by a specific shRNA, and the inhibitory effect of Loganetin in HK-2 cells vanished. Loganetin also down-regulated the expression of inflammation factors by suppressing TLR4 activity. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: All the results suggested that TLR4 plays a critical role in AKI development, and Loganetin ameliorates AKI by inhibiting TLR4 activity and blocking the JNK/p38 pathway, which provides a new strategy for AKI treatment.

13.
Gene ; 680: 99-104, 2019 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099021

RESUMO

Copy number variation (CNV) related to complex traits, such as disease and quantitative phenotype, is considered an important and wealthy source of genetic and phenotypic diversity. It suggests that the copy number variation of function gene maybe leads to the phenotypic changes. Kupple like factor 3 (KLF3) gene is a vital transcription factor associated with the growth and development of muscle and adipose tissue. It has been mapped in a CNV region by animal genome re-sequencing. In this study, we detected the distribution diversity of KLF3 gene copy numbers in six Chinese cattle breeds (QC, NY, XN, PN, QDM and JX) and associated the phenotypic traits with it. Then, we analyzed the KLF3 gene transcription expression level in different tissues of Jiaxian (JX) cattle. Furthermore, we detected mRNA expression level of muscle and fat tissues of Jiaxian cattle (JX), Angus × Jiaxian (AJ). The results showed that the copy number in CNV loss was more frequent in QC than others. And we revealed a positive effect of KLF3 CNV on growth traits, such as body mass and heart girth (P < 0.05). In a word, we ascertained the significance between CNVs of KLF3 gene and growth traits in different cattle breeds, and our data indicates that the CNVs of KLF3 gene may as a marker for the future molecular breeding of Chinese beef cattle.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Anim Biotechnol ; 30(1): 30-35, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29540101

RESUMO

As a member of MYLK family, MYLK4 gene may play a vital role in muscle development. In this study, one novel single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was identified the bovine MYLK4 by sequencing pooled DNA samples (pool-Seq) and forced polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (forced PCR-RFLP) methods. Overall, we reported one mutation (SNP1) in the intron 10 region within the bovine MYLK4 gene in 559 individuals representing five main cattle breeds from China (Nanyang, NY; Qinchuan; Jiaxian, JX; Pinan cattle; and Caidamu cattle, CDM). Genotype AA and allele A were predominant in the QC, PN, and XN populations. Association analysis with growth traits in the QC breed showed that the animals with genotype GG had significantly greater chest breadth and hip width (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the genotype GG was strongly associated with withers height and body length than those with genotype AA (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) at 12 months in the NY breed. These statistical results exhibited that the MYLK4 gene might be a potential candidate gene to improve cattle's growth traits, and the SNP could be used as molecular markers in early marker-assisted selection (MAS) in beef cattle breeding program.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Alelos , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
15.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 1077, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319414

RESUMO

Arctium lappa (burdock) is the most popular daily edible vegetable in China and Japan because of its general health tonic effects. Previous studies focused on the beneficial role of Arctigenin but neglected its potential side-effects and toxicities. In the present study, the sub-chronic toxicity profile of Arctigenin following 28 days of consecutive exposure was investigated in rats. The results showed that during the drug exposure period, Arctigenin-12 mg/kg administration resulted in focal necrosis and lymphocytes infiltration of heart ventricular septal muscle cells. In the kidney cortical zone, the renal tubular epithelial cells were swollen, mineralized, and lymphocyte infiltrated. In the liver, the partial hepatocyte cytoplasm showed vacuolation and fatty changes, focal necrosis, and interstitial lymphocyte infiltration. In the rats that underwent 36 mg/kg/day administration, there was bilateral testis and epididymis atrophy. In the lung and primary bronchus, erythrocytes and edema fluid were observed. Changes of proestrus or estrus were observed in the uterus, cervix, and vagina intimal epithelial cells. Lymphocytic focal infiltration occurred in the prostate mesenchyme. The high dosage of Arctigenin only decreased the body weight at day 4. At the end of the recovery period, histopathological changes were irreversible, even after withdrawal of the drug for 28 days. Focal necrosis still existed in the heart ventricular septal muscle cells and hepatocytes. Lymphocyte infiltrations were observed in the heart, renal cortex, hepatocyte, and pancreas exocrine gland. Meanwhile, atrophy occurred in the testicles and pancreas. In addition, in the Arctigenin-12 mg/kg group, creatinine (CREA) and brain weight were both significantly increased. The toxicokinetical study demonstrated that Arctigenin accumulated in the organs of rats. The food consumption, hematological, and biochemical parameters were not associated with the above results. These contradictory results might result from the lesions induced by Arctigenin, which were not sufficiently serious to change the parameters. These results suggest that Arctium lappa should be consumed daily with caution because of the potential toxicity induced by Arctigenin. According to all results, the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) was induced by 12 mg/kg daily exposure to Arctigenin, and the No-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) should be lower than 12 mg/kg.

16.
Gene ; 676: 243-248, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031031

RESUMO

As an important epigenetic modification DNA methylation is catalyzed by DNA methylation transferases (DNMTs) and occurs mainly in CpG islands. DNA methylation plays an important role in regulates gene expression, cell differentiation, genetic imprinting and tumor therapy. Retinoic acid-binding proteins (RAC) is vital for the absorption, transport, metabolism and maintenance of homeostasis of retinoic acid, which in turn regulates the differentiation and proliferation of cells by regulating the transcription of many target genes, therefore, these proteins influence differentiation and proliferation of adipocytes and muscle fibroblasts. Thus, cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2 (CRABP2) may be a candidate gene which affects beef quality, yield and fat deposition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression and the methylation pattern on the differentially methylated region (DMR) of the promoter of CRABP2. The DNA methylation pattern was tested by bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BSP), the quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to analysis the expression of CRABP2 gene. The results showed that the DNA methylation level was higher in purebred cattle breed than that in hybrid cattle breeds which was negative correlation with the expression of the gen. These results indicate that the methylation status of the CRABP2 DMR can regulate mRNA expression. What's more, there are different methylation and expression patterns in different breeds and tissues which may influence the phenotype, and the results may be a useful parameter to investigate the function of CRABP2 in muscle and fat developmental in Chinese cattle.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Regulação para Baixo , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Gene ; 675: 144-149, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29913240

RESUMO

Polymorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) is a member of the pleomorphic adenoma gene family. PLAG family of proteins as a nuclear transcription factor mainly play a role in regulating a variety of important genes in the body. The aim of this study was to examine the association of the PLAG1 polymorphism with growth traits in 566 cattle. A novel 19-bp indel mutation was identified in the PLAG1 by sequencing pooled DNA samples (Pool-Seq) and agarose gel electrophoresis methods. The PCR products of PLAG1 exhibited 3 genotypes and 2 alleles: 142 bp (denoted as W) and 123 bp (denoted as D). Genotype WW and allele W were predominant in the studied populations. In addition, the 19-bp indel was significantly associated with the growth traits in cattle breeds, with the hip width and rump length of Pinan cattle (P < 0.05), heart girth and cannon bone circumference of Xianan cattle (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), as well as the heart girth, hip width, hucklebone width, rump length, height at sacrum and chest depth of the Jiaxian cattle (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that the Indel marker of PLAG1 gene can be used as candidate molecular markers for the breeding in cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação INDEL , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Crescimento/genética , Fenótipo , Deleção de Sequência
18.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 268, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29636686

RESUMO

Burdock (Arctium lappa) is a popular vegetable in China and Japan that is consumed for its general health benefits. The principal active component of burdock is arctigenin, which shows a range of bioactivities in vivo and in vitro. Here, we investigated the potential anti-tumor effects of arctigenin using two human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B, and sought to elucidate its potential mechanisms of action. Our results showed that arctigenin treatment inhibited cell growth in both HepG2 and Hep3B cell lines (IC50 of 4.74 nM for HepG2 cells, and of 59.27 nM for Hep3B cells). In addition, migration, invasion, and colony formation by HepG2 cells were significantly inhibited by arctigenin. By contrast, treatment of Hep3B cells with arctigenin did not alter these parameters. Arctigenin also significantly reduced the levels of gankyrin mRNA and protein in HepG2 cells, but not in Hep3B cells. A luciferase assay indicated that arctigenin targeted the -450 to -400 region of the gankyrin promoter. This region is also the potential binding site for both C/EBPα and PPARα, as predicted and confirmed by an online software analysis and ChIP assay. Additionally, a co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay showed that binding between C/EBPα and PPARα was increased in the presence of arctigenin. However, arctigenin did not increase the expression of C/EBPα or PPARα protein. A binding screening assay and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were performed to identify the mechanisms by which arctigenin regulates gankyrin expression. The results suggested that arctigenin could directly increase C/EBPα binding to the gankyrin promoter (-432 to -422 region), but did not affect PPARα binding. Expression of gankyrin, C/EBPα, and PPARα were analyzed in tumor tissues of patients using real-time PCR. Both C/EBPα and PPARα showed negative correlations with gankyrin. In tumor-bearing mice, arctigenin had a significant inhibitory effect on HCC growth. In conclusion, our results suggested that arctigenin could inhibit liver cancer growth by directly recruiting C/EBPα to the gankyrin promoter. PPARα subsequently bound to C/EBPα, and both had a negative regulatory effect on gankyrin expression. This study has identified a new mechanism of action of arctigenin against liver cancer growth.

19.
Gene ; 647: 101-106, 2018 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29325733

RESUMO

Copy number variations (CNVs) recently have been recognized as another important genetic variability followed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The guanylate binding protein 2 (GBP2) gene plays an important role in cell proliferation. This study was performed to determine the presence of GBP2 CNV (relative to Angus cattle) in 466 individuals representing six main cattle breeds from China, identify its relationship with growth, and explore the biological effects of gene expression. There were two CNV regions in the GBP2 gene, for three types, CNV1 loss type (relative to Angus cattle) was more frequent in XN than other breeds, and CNV2 loss type (relative to Angus cattle) was more frequent in XN and CDM than other breeds. Though the GBP2 gene copy number presented no correlation with the transcriptional expression of JX (P > .05), but the transcriptional expression in heart is higher than other tissues, and the copy number in muscles and fat of JX is higher than others breeds. Statistical analysis revealed that the GBP2 gene CNV1 and CNV2 were significantly associated with growth traits (P < .05). In conclusion, this research established the correlations between CNVs of GBP2 gene and growth traits in different cattle breeds, and our results suggested that the CNVs in GBP2 gene may be considered markers for the molecular breeding of Chinese beef cattle.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Dosagem de Genes/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Bovinos , China , Expressão Gênica/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
20.
Front Pharmacol ; 8: 376, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28659807

RESUMO

Although arctigenin (AG) has diverse bioactivities, such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, immunoregulatory and neuroprotective activities, its pharmacokinetics have not been systematically evaluated. The purpose of this work was to identify the pharmacokinetic properties of AG via various experiments in vivo and in vitro. In this research, rats and beagle dogs were used to investigate the PK (pharmacokinetics, PK) profiles of AG with different drug-delivery manners, including intravenous (i.v), hypodermic injection (i.h), and sublingual (s.l) administration. The data shows that AG exhibited a strong absorption capacity in both rats and beagle dogs (absorption rate < 1 h), a high absorption degree (absolute bioavailability > 100%), and a strong elimination ability (t1/2 < 2 h). The tissue distributions of AG at different time points after i.h showed that the distribution of AG in rat tissues is rapid (2.5 h to reach the peak) and wide (detectable in almost all tissues and organs). The AG concentration in the intestine was the highest, followed by that in the heart, liver, pancreas, and kidney. In vitro, AG were incubated with human, monkey, beagle dog and rat liver microsomes. The concentrations of AG were detected by UPLC-MS/MS at different time points (from 0 min to 90 min). The percentages of AG remaining in four species' liver microsomes were human (62 ± 6.36%) > beagle dog (25.9 ± 3.24%) > rat (15.7 ± 9%) > monkey (3.69 ± 0.12%). This systematic investigation of pharmacokinetic profiles of arctigenin (AG) in vivo and in vitro is worthy of further exploration.

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