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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4237, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530873

RESUMO

The codling moth Cydia pomonella, a major invasive pest of pome fruit, has spread around the globe in the last half century. We generated a chromosome-level scaffold assembly including the Z chromosome and a portion of the W chromosome. This assembly reveals the duplication of an olfactory receptor gene (OR3), which we demonstrate enhances the ability of C. pomonella to exploit kairomones and pheromones in locating both host plants and mates. Genome-wide association studies contrasting insecticide-resistant and susceptible strains identify hundreds of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) potentially associated with insecticide resistance, including three SNPs found in the promoter of CYP6B2. RNAi knockdown of CYP6B2 increases C. pomonella sensitivity to two insecticides, deltamethrin and azinphos methyl. The high-quality genome assembly of C. pomonella informs the genetic basis of its invasiveness, suggesting the codling moth has distinctive capabilities and adaptive potential that may explain its worldwide expansion.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2202, 2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778089

RESUMO

Parasitoids are insects (usually wasps or flies) that lay eggs within or on other insects (their hosts). Host-feeding parasitoids lay eggs to parasitize the host and feed directly on the host for nourishment. Temperature is the most critical factor affecting insect behavioral responses. Few studies have focused on the impacts of variable temperatures across different life stages on the behaviors of host-feeding parasitoids. This study investigated the effects of temperature experienced during the preadult and adult stages on the life history traits and life table parameters of females of a host-feeding parasitoid, Eretmocerus hayati. Our results show that the temperatures experienced during the preadult and adult stages significantly change life history traits (immature development, adult longevity, host feeding and fecundity). Increasing the preadult temperature resulted in shorter development times for immature stages of the parasitoid, and decreasing the temperature during the adult stage increased reproduction and longevity. Most importantly, we found that host-feeding events changed with temperature rather than life stage. The daily host-feeding ability of the parasitoid increased with increasing temperature at all temperatures except the stress temperature (34 °C). Furthermore, switching temperatures at the immature stage and adult stage can increase the values of life table parameters, with the highest intrinsic rate of increase (r) occurring in the 30/26 °C treatment. This study provides new insight into the mass rearing of parasitic natural enemies.

3.
FEBS Lett ; 592(20): 3446-3459, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30238451

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanism of iron (Fe)-deficiency responses is crucial for improving plant Fe bioavailability. Here, we found that the Arabidopsis Rho-like GTPase 6 mutant (rop6) is less sensitive to Fe-deficiency responses and has reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared to wild-type (WT), while AtROP6-overexpressing seedlings exhibit more sensitivity to Fe-deficiency responses and has higher levels of ROS compared to WT. Moreover, treatment with H2 O2 improves the sensitivity to Fe-deficiency responses in rop6 mutants. By using the yeast two-hybrid system, we further demonstrate the direct interaction between AtROP6 and Arabidopsis respiratory burst oxidase homolog D (AtRBOHD), which controls the generation of ROS. Overall, we suggest that AtROP6 is involved in AtRBOHD-mediated ROS signaling to modulate Fe-deficiency responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

4.
J Econ Entomol ; 111(5): 2120-2128, 2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060026

RESUMO

The Jack Beardsley mealybug, Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel & Miller (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), a globally devastating, invasive polyphagous insect, causes great damage to many fruits, ornamentals, vegetables, and food crops worldwide. It is of Neotropical origin and has invaded throughout America and in parts of Asia, Africa and Oceania, and is still expanding its invasion ranges. Therefore, a method for quick and correct identification of this invasive species is crucial for quarantine and spreading interruption of it. In present study, we report the first record of P. jackbeardsleyi on the Chinese mainland, which would cause great damage to many crops. The identification of P. jackbeardsleyi was verified via morphological characters and DNA barcoding. One pair of species-specific polymerase chain reaction (SS-PCR) primers was designed based on variations in the sequences of the mitochondrial cytochromecoxidasesubunitI gene among P. jackbeardsleyi and 28 other mealybug species. No cross-reaction was detected among 21 closely related species using this SS-PCR assay, demonstrating the specificity of this marker. Furthermore, this method was successfully applied to detect individuals from different developmental stages and adult debris across four geographic populations of P. jackbeardsleyi, showing the high stability of the assay. Additionally, the detection limit of the marker was 55.94 ± 5.05 pg/µl of P. jackbeardsleyi DNA, illustrating the high sensitivity of the assay. The SS-PCR assay developed in this study provides a rapid, simple and reliable method for the identification of P. jackbeardsleyi, which should be crucial in the plant quarantine, early detection and sustainable management of this globally invasive pest.

5.
Plant Cell Environ ; 2018 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29989184

RESUMO

Plants experiencing salt-induced stress often reduce cytokinin levels during the early phases of stress-response. Interestingly, we found that the cytokinin content in the apple rootstock "robusta" was maintained at a high level under salt stress. Through screening genes involved in cytokinin biosynthesis and catabolism, we found that the high expression levels of IPT5b in robusta roots were involved in maintaining the high cytokinin content. We identified a 42 bp deletion in the promoter region of IPT5b, which elevated IPT5b expression levels, and this deletion was linked to salt tolerance in robusta×M.9 segregating population. The 42 bp deletion resulted in the deletion of a Proline Response Element (ProRE), and our results suggest that ProRE negatively regulates IPT5b expression in response to proline. Under salt stress, the robusta cultivar maintains high cytokinin levels as IPT5b expression cannot be inhibited by proline due to the deletion of ProRE, leading to improve salt tolerance.

6.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3636, 2018 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483532

RESUMO

Lignin content and composition are crucial factors affecting biomass digestibility. Exploring the genetic loci simultaneously affecting lignin-relevant traits and biomass digestibility is a precondition for lignin genetic manipulation towards energy crop breeding. In this study, a high-throughput platform was employed to assay the lignin content, lignin composition and biomass enzymatic digestibility of a rice recombinant inbred line population. Correlation analysis indicated that the absolute content of lignin monomers rather than lignin content had negative effects on biomass saccharification, whereas the relative content of p-hydroxyphenyl unit and the molar ratio of p-hydroxyphenyl unit to guaiacyl unit exhibited positive roles. Eight QTL clusters were identified and four of them affecting both lignin composition and biomass digestibility. The additive effects of clustered QTL revealed consistent relationships between lignin-relevant traits and biomass digestibility. Pyramiding rice lines containing the above four positive alleles for increasing biomass digestibility were selected and showed comparable lignin content, decreased syringyl or guaiacyl unit and increased molar percentage of p-hydroxyphenyl unit, the molar ratio of p-hydroxyphenyl unit to guaiacyl unit and sugar releases. More importantly, the lodging resistance and eating/cooking quality of pyramiding lines were not sacrificed, indicating the QTL information could be applied to select desirable energy rice lines.

7.
PLoS One ; 10(6): e0128892, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26057559

RESUMO

The transformer (tra) gene appears to act as the genetic switch that promotes female development by interaction with the transformer2 (tra-2) gene in several dipteran species including the Medfly, housefly and Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, we describe the isolation, expression and function of tra and tra-2 in the economically important agricultural pest, the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Bdtra and Bdtra-2 are similar to their homologs from other tephritid species. Bdtra demonstrated sex-specific transcripts: one transcript in females and two transcripts in males. In contrast, Bdtra-2 only had one transcript that was common to males and females, which was transcribed continuously in different adult tissues and developmental stages. Bdtra-2 and the female form of Bdtra were maternally inherited in eggs, whereas the male form of Bdtra was not detectable until embryos of 1 and 2 h after egg laying. Function analyses of Bdtra and Bdtra-2 indicated that both were indispensable for female development, as nearly 100% males were obtained with embryonic RNAi against either Bdtra or Bdtra-2. The fertility of these RNAi-generated males was subsequently tested. More than 80% of RNAi-generated males could mate and the mated females could lay eggs, but only 40-48.6% males gave rise to progeny. In XX-reversed males and intersex individuals, no clear female gonadal morphology was observed after dissection. These results shed light on the development of a genetic sexing system with male-only release for this agricultural pest.


Assuntos
Dípteros/genética , Inativação Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Processos de Determinação Sexual/genética , Diferenciação Sexual/genética , Animais , Dípteros/fisiologia , Feminino , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética
8.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 25(14): 2809-12, 2015 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25987372
9.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun ; 70(Pt 2): 173-81, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24637750

RESUMO

Tau-tubulin kinase 1 (TTBK1) is a dual-specificity (serine/threonine and tyrosine) kinase belonging to the casein kinase 1 superfamily. TTBK1 is a neuron-specific kinase that regulates tau phosphorylation. Hyperphosphorylation of tau is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Two kinase-domain constructs of TTBK1 were expressed in a baculovirus-infected insect-cell system and purified. The purified TTBK1 kinase-domain proteins were crystallized using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data were collected and the structure of TTBK1 was determined by molecular replacement both as an apo structure and in complex with a kinase inhibitor.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Animais , Baculoviridae/genética , Cristalização , Cristalografia por Raios X , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Conformação Proteica , Células Sf9 , Especificidade por Substrato
10.
Pest Manag Sci ; 70(12): 1797-807, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24343857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The two common whitefly species, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) MEAM1 and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), often co-occur on their host plants. The effect of host plant occupation by one species on later-arriving conspecific individuals or on the other competing species was examined. RESULTS: Resource preoccupied by T. vaporariorum had mostly negative effects on the life history parameters of later-arriving conspecifics. Red-eyed nymph and immature survival of T. vaporariorum decreased when resource was preoccupied by conspecifics, irrespective of the previous occupation scenario. However, resource preoccupied by T. vaporariorum had only minor detrimental effects on the performance of later-arriving B. tabaci MEAM1. In the opposite colonisation sequence, previous occupation by B. tabaci MEAM1 had no significant effects on the life history parameters of later-arriving conspecifics, but severe detrimental effects were observed on the performance of later-arriving T. vaporariorum. Total immature survival of T. vaporariorum decreased in both weak and strong previous occupation situations by B. tabaci MEAM1. CONCLUSION: The interspecific interactions between B. tabaci MEAM1 and T. vaporariorum were asymmetric, with B. tabaci MEAM1 being the superior competitor. This superiority could partially explain the rapid spread of B. tabaci MEAM1 in China.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Animais , China , Feminino , Fertilidade , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Longevidade , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Masculino , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Environ Entomol ; 41(5): 1125-30, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23068168

RESUMO

The suitability of tomato leaves of different ages for Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) B biotype and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) was characterized by development time, stage-specific survival, sex ratio, longevity, and fecundity. Three categories of leaf ages were tested (young: expanding leaves <2 wk old; mature: fully expanded, 4-5-wk-old leaves; old: fully expanded, 6-7-wk-old leaves). There was no significant variation in the duration of development of the two species among the three classes of leaf ages, but total survival and ratio of females to males on mature and old leaves were higher than on young leaves. For egg hatch, the reverse tendency was found. Longevity of both species was higher on mature than on young leaves, and fecundity during the first 2 wk of adult life was higher on mature than on young or old leaves. The B. tabaci B biotype developed faster through the quiescent fourth nymphal instar, had higher ratio of females to males, survived longer, and produced more eggs (in the first 2 wk of adult life) than T. vaporariorum on leaves of the same age; although on young leaves, B. tabaci B biotype survivorship was lower than that of T. vaporariorum. The index of host suitability of B. tabaci B biotype was higher on mature and old leaves than on young leaves. In T. vaporariorum, no such differences were found among these three leaf ages. The results could provide some cues why B. tabaci B biotype is spreading so vigorously.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Longevidade , Masculino , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Razão de Masculinidade
12.
Org Biomol Chem ; 10(16): 3185-8, 2012 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22407032

RESUMO

A calix[4]arene acetylene (C4AE)-modified gold surface is successfully constructed in situ via click chemistry. The functionalized surface is used for selective recognition of paraquat by a wettability switch. Impedance measurements showed that the surface also expresses recognition for paraquat with a high sensitivity of 10 pM. The recognition mode, based on host-guest inclusion, is studied by computational calculations and the possible mechanism is analyzed.


Assuntos
Calixarenos/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Herbicidas/análise , Paraquat/análise , Fenóis/química , Acetileno/síntese química , Acetileno/química , Calixarenos/síntese química , Química Click , Impedância Elétrica , Ouro/química , Fenóis/síntese química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Propriedades de Superfície , Molhabilidade
13.
Environ Entomol ; 40(1): 140-50, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22182623

RESUMO

Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) are invasive whitefly species that often co-occur on greenhouse-grown vegetables in northern China. Although B. tabaci biotype B has been present in China for a relatively short period of time, it has become dominant over T. vaporariorum. We studied the interspecific competitive interactions between the two species in single or mixed cultures at 24 ± 1 °C, 40 ± 5% RH, and L14:D10 h photoperiod. Female longevity on tomato was not significantly different between species, but B. tabaci reproduced 4.3 to 4.9 fold more progeny. The ratio of female to male progeny in both instances was greater for B. tabaci. When cultured on tomato, cotton, and tobacco, B. tabaci developed 0.8, 3.3, and 4.7 d earlier in single culture, and 1.8, 3.9, and 4.3 d earlier in mixed culture. B. tabaci displaced T. vaporariorum in four, five and six generations when the initial ratios of B. tabaci to T. vaporariorum were 15:15, 20:10, or 10:20 on tomato. Populations of B. tabaci were 2.3 fold higher than that of T. vaporariorum on tomato plants for seven consecutive generations in single culture. B. tabaci performed better in development, survival, fecundity, and female ratio. We conclude that B. tabaci could displace T. vaporariorum in as short as four generations in a controlled greenhouse environment when they start at equal proportions. Warmer greenhouse conditions and an increase in total greenhouse area could be contributing factors in the recent dominance of B. tabaci.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , China , Comportamento Competitivo , Feminino , Gossypium , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum , Masculino , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/fisiologia , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Especificidade da Espécie , Tabaco
14.
Org Lett ; 13(13): 3392-5, 2011 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21630700

RESUMO

A calix[4]arene lipoic acid (C4LA) was synthesized by click chemistry in 62% yield. It was immobilized on Au surfaces via self-assembly to offer C4LA Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs). The SAMs show wettability and electrochemical impedance dual-signal response for methomyl with highly sensitivity and selectivity.


Assuntos
Calixarenos/química , Carbamatos/química , Praguicidas/química , Ácido Tióctico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Tióctico/química , Molhabilidade , Impedância Elétrica , Ouro/química , Estrutura Molecular , Propriedades de Superfície
16.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 21(3): 801-6, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20560342

RESUMO

Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Olethreutidae) is the most serious pest of orchards, and one of the most important quarantine pests in China. This paper studied the effects of the color, shape, placement location, lure color, and lure number of sex pheromone traps on the capture efficacy for C. pomonella L. male moth. It was found that the capture efficacy of white and green traps was two times higher than that of blue trap (P < 0.05), and water bottle and triangle traps had no significant difference in their trapping effect. The traps hung in the middle of crown gave two times higher catches than those hung in the upper portion of crown (P < 0.05). Lure color and number had no significant effect on the capture efficacy. The present results could be used in better monitoring C. pomonella by using its sex pheromones.


Assuntos
Frutas/parasitologia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Atrativos Sexuais/farmacologia , Animais , Controle de Insetos/instrumentação , Malus/parasitologia , Feromônios/farmacologia , Feromônios/fisiologia , Atrativos Sexuais/fisiologia
17.
J Med Chem ; 52(23): 7360-3, 2009 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19778024
18.
Sci China C Life Sci ; 52(1): 88-95, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19152088

RESUMO

Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B, called a "superbug", is one of the most harmful biotypes of this species complex worldwide. In this report, the invasive mechanism and management of B. tabaci biotype B, based on our 5-year studies, are presented. Six B. tabaci biotypes, B, Q, ZHJ1, ZHJ2, ZHJ3 and FJ1, have been identified in China. Biotype B dominates the other biotypes in many regions of the country. Genetic diversity in biotype B might be induced by host plant, geographical conditions, and/or insecticidal application. The activities of CarE (carboxylesterase) and GSTs (glutathione-S-transferase) in biotype B reared on cucumber and squash were greater than on other host plants, which might have increased its resistance to insecticides. The higher activities of detoxification enzymes in biotype B might be induced by the secondary metabolites in host plants. Higher adaptive ability of biotype B adults to adverse conditions might be linked to the expression of heat shock protein genes. The indigenous B. tabaci biotypes were displaced by the biotype B within 225 d. The asymmetric mating interactions and mutualism between biotype B and begomoviruses via its host plants speed up widespread invasion and displacement of other biotypes. B. tabaci biotype B displaced Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) after 4-7 generations under glasshouse conditions. Greater adaptive ability of the biotype B to adverse conditions and its rapid population increase might be the reasons of its successful displacement of T. vaporariorum. Greater ability of the biotype B to switch to different host plants may enrich its host plants, which might enable it to better compete with T. vaporariorum. Native predatory natural enemies possess greater ability to suppress B. tabaci under field conditions. The kairomones in the 3rd and 4th instars of biotype B may provide an important stimulus in host searching and location by its parasitoids. The present results provide useful information in explaining the mechanisms of genetic diversity, evolution and molecular eco-adaptation of biotype B. Furthermore, it provides a base for sustainable management of B. tabaci using biological and ecological measures.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/genética , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Controle de Insetos , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , China , Hemípteros/classificação
19.
Environ Entomol ; 37(4): 1035-42, 2008 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18801270

RESUMO

Transgenic Bt cotton, engineered to continuously produce activated delta-endotoxins of the soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis, holds great promise in controlling Helicoverpa armigera and other lepidopteran pests. However, it also may impact the invertebrate community, which needs to be clarified. The effects of Bt cotton on two nontarget insects, Aphis gossypii and Orius sauteri, were assessed under semifield and laboratory conditions. Mean total duration of nymphal stages of A. gossypii was shorter (5.9 versus 6.3 d), and rm was higher (0.418 versus 0.394) on conventional Simian 3 (the most frequently planted non-Bt cotton in northern China) than on Bt transgenic NuCOTN 33B (the first Bt cotton commercially planted in China). Mean duration of fourth-instar O. sauteri was significantly longer on transgenic GK-12 (3.7 d) than on NuCOTN 33B (3.2 d), but no different from Simian 3. Mean total mortality was significantly lower on Simian 3 (3.7%) than on GK-12 (14.8%). During the fourth instar, the predator consumed a significantly higher number of prey on Simian 3 (202.3 prey) than on NuCOTN 33B (159.0), whereas the mean total number of A. gossypii prey consumed during the nymphal stage was significantly higher on Simian 3 (336.8 prey) and GK-12 (330.3 prey) than on NuCOTN 33B (275.7). No detrimental effects were detected on development (nymphs, adults, and progeny eggs), fecundity, longevity, and egg viability of O. sauteri on Bt cotton aphids compared with non-Bt cotton aphids. These results suggest that Bt cotton cultivars GK-12 and NuCOTN 33B have no direct effect on nontargets A. gossypii and O. sauteri. Germplasm divergence may account for the negative effects observed on A. gossypii and O. sauteri when reared on NuCOTN 33B or NuCOTN 33B-fed aphids. The biological meanings of the small difference observed between GK-12 and Simian 3 on survival of O. sauteri will require close monitoring over longer time periods.


Assuntos
Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Bactérias/toxicidade , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Gossypium/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/toxicidade , Heterópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Animais , Afídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Heterópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Ninfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinâmica Populacional
20.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 17(17): 4947-54, 2007 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17606372

RESUMO

Pyrrolotriazine dual EGFR/HER2 kinase inhibitors with a 5-((4-aminopiperidin-1-yl)methyl) solubilizing group were found to be superior to analogs with previously reported C-5 solubilizing groups. New synthetic methodology was developed for the parallel synthesis of C-4 analogs with the new solubilizing group. Interesting new leads were evaluated in tumor xenograft models and the C-4 aminofluorobenzylindazole, 1c, was found to exhibit the best antitumor activity. It is hypothesized that this solubilizing group extends into the ribose-phosphate portion of the ATP binding pocket and enhances the binding affinity of the inhibitor.


Assuntos
Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Receptores ErbB/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/síntese química , Pirróis/síntese química , Receptor ErbB-2/química , Triazinas/síntese química , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Desenho de Drogas , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Insetos , Modelos Químicos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Piperidinas/química , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/química , Pirróis/farmacologia , Triazinas/química , Triazinas/farmacologia
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