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1.
Food Chem ; 368: 130795, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411861

RESUMO

α-Amylase plays an important role in food processing and in-vivo digestion. Many biological functions of α-amylase are affected by unfolding. The pre-steady-state rapid unfolding kinetics of α-amylase remains unknown. In this study, the rapid unfolding kinetics of porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA) with guanidine hydrochloride (GdmHCl) were investigated by stopped-flow spectroscopy. Structural characterization of PPA by fluorescence spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulation showed that the unfolding process of PPA might start from the internal active center, where the ß-sheet structure was destroyed, followed by the exposure of hydrophobic amino acid residues. Further research revealed that GdmHCl denaturized PPA not by complexing with PPA. The surrounding H-bond network of water was changed by GdmHCl. This research improves our understanding of the unfolding kinetics of the PPA on the microsecond scale. It also provides the evidence experimentally of the surrounding water contribution to protein denaturization.


Assuntos
alfa-Amilases Pancreáticas , alfa-Amilases , Animais , Guanidina , Cinética , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Desnaturação Proteica , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Suínos , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 150962, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656593

RESUMO

The sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization to temperature could affect the future atmospheric CO2 levels under global warming. Sieved soils are widely used to assess SOC mineralization and its temperature sensitivity (Q10) via laboratory incubation. However, sieved soils cause a temporary increase in mineralization due to the destruction of soil structure, which can affect estimates of SOC mineralization, especially in soils managed with no-till (NT). To identify the effects of soil sieving on SOC mineralization and Q10, soil was collected from an 11-year field experiment under a wheat-maize cropping system managed with a combination of tillage [NT and plow tillage (PT)] and residue [residue returning (RR) and residue removal (R0)]. Soil was either sieved or left in an undisturbed state and incubated at 15 °C and 25 °C. SOC mineralization in sieved soils at 25 °C was 47.28 g C kg-1 SOC, 160.1% higher than SOC mineralization in undisturbed soils (P < 0.05). Interestingly, Q10 values in sieved soils were 1.29, 77.6% lower than Q10 in undisturbed soils (P < 0.05). Highly significant correlations (P < 0.01) were observed between sieved and undisturbed soils for SOC mineralization (r = 0.85-0.98) and Q10 (r = 0.78-0.87). Soil macro-aggregates had lower SOC mineralization by 6.1-21.9%, but higher Q10 values by 4.7-6.5% compared with micro-aggregates, contributing to lower mineralization and higher Q10 under NT and RR. Furthermore, structure equation and random forest modelling showed that increased SOC contents in NT and RR could not only reduce SOC mineralization, but also constrained the improvement of Q10 in NT and RR. Overall, these results indicated that although sieved soils overestimated SOC mineralization and underestimated Q10 due to the destruction of macro-aggregates, the patterns between treatments were similar and sieving soil for incubation is considered as a suitable approach to evaluate the relative impacts of NT and RR on SOC mineralization and Q10.

3.
J Inorg Biochem ; 226: 111656, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798307

RESUMO

A multifunctional nanoplatform APIPB-MnCO@TPP@N,P-GQDs (APIPB = N-(2-aminophen-yl)-4-(1H-imidazo[4,5-f] [1, 10] phenanthrolin-2-yl) benzamide, TPP = triphenylphosphine, Mn = manganese, CO = carbon monoxide, and GQDs = graphene quantum dots), nanoplatform (1), was synthesized, which consists of a fluorescent N, P-doped GQDs carrier with its surface covalently functionalized by an CO donor APIPB-MnCO with histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitory property and a TPP derivative directing group. Nanoplatform (1) selectively localized in the mitochondria of HeLa cells to inhibit HDAC activity, and released CO upon 808 nm near-infrared light irradiation, destroying the mitochondria and thus inducing cancer cells apoptosis. The targeted subcellular mitochondrial CO delivery combined with inhibitory HDAC activity maximized the cytotoxicity of the nanoplatform which may provide new insights for CO-mediated multimodal therapies for cancer treatment.

4.
J Affect Disord ; 297: 53-61, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Altered global signal (GS) topography features in the resting-state fMRI of major depressive disorder (MDD), showing abnormally strong global signal representation in the default-mode network (DMN). Whether the abnormal local to global change also shapes activity during task states, and how it relates to psychopathological symptoms, e.g., abnormally slow time speed of motor, cognitive, and affective symptoms, remains unknown. METHODS: We investigated fMRI-based GS with its topographical representation during task states in unmedicated 51 MDD subjects and 28 healthy subjects. Task-related global signal correlation (GSCORR) was probed by a novel paradigm testing the processing of negative/neutral emotions during different time speeds, i.e., slow and fast. RESULTS: We observed a significant interaction between time speed and emotion of GSCORR in various DMN regions in healthy subjects. Next, we showed that MDD exhibits reduced task-related GSCORR in various DMN regions during specifically the fast processing of negative emotions. Finally, we demonstrated that GSCORR in DMN and other brain regions (motor-related regions, inferior frontal cortex) correlated with the degree of psychomotor retardation especially during the fast emotional stimuli. LIMITATIONS: The measurement of interoceptive variables like respiration rate or heart rate were not included in our fMRI acquisition. CONCLUSION: Together, we demonstrated the functional relevance of GS topography by showing reduced GSCORR in DMN during specifically the fast processing of negative emotions in MDD, suggesting the abnormal slowness, i.e., reduced time speed, to be a key feature of both brain and symptoms in MDD.

5.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(6): 1357-1363, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782582

RESUMO

Autophagy has been shown to play an important role in Parkinson's disease. We hypothesized that skin-derived precursor cells exhibit neuroprotective effects in Parkinson's disease through affecting autophagy. In this study, 6-hydroxydopamine-damaged SH-SY5Y cells were pretreated with a culture medium containing skin-derived precursors differentiated into Schwann cells (SKP-SCs). The results showed that the SKP-SC culture medium remarkably enhanced the activity of SH-SY5Y cells damaged by 6-hydroxydopamine, reduced excessive autophagy, increased tyrosine hydroxylase expression, reduced α-synuclein expression, reduced the autophagosome number, and activated the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Autophagy activator rapamycin inhibited the effects of SKP-SCs, and autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine had the opposite effect. These findings confirm that SKP-SCs modulate the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway to inhibit autophagy, thereby exhibiting a neuroprotective effect in a cellular model of Parkinson's disease. This study was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Laboratory Animal Center of Nantong University (approval No. S20181009-205) on October 9, 2018.

6.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 401, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848680

RESUMO

Met tyrosine kinase, a receptor for a hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), plays a critical role in tumor growth, metastasis, and drug resistance. Mitochondria are highly dynamic and undergo fission and fusion to maintain a functional mitochondrial network. Dysregulated mitochondrial dynamics are responsible for the progression and metastasis of many cancers. Here, using structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and high spatial and temporal resolution live cell imaging, we identified mitochondrial trafficking of receptor tyrosine kinase Met. The contacts between activated Met kinase and mitochondria formed dramatically, and an intact HGF/Met axis was necessary for dysregulated mitochondrial fission and cancer cell movements. Mechanically, we found that Met directly phosphorylated outer mitochondrial membrane protein Fis1 at Tyr38 (Fis1 pY38). Fis1 pY38 promoted mitochondrial fission by recruiting the mitochondrial fission GTPase dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) to mitochondria. Fragmented mitochondria fueled actin filament remodeling and lamellipodia or invadopodia formation to facilitate cell metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells both in vitro and in vivo. These findings reveal a novel and noncanonical pathway of Met receptor tyrosine kinase in the regulation of mitochondrial activities, which may provide a therapeutic target for metastatic HCC.

7.
J Asthma Allergy ; 14: 1399-1410, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848975

RESUMO

Purpose: CpG-ODN has been found to attenuate allergic airway inflammation in our previous study. Here, we aimed to further investigate whether CpG-ODN exerts such effect via regulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and revealed the underlying mechanism. Methods: Five-week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly grouped and treated with or without CpG-ODN or/and SP600125. Meantime, RAW264.7 cells were used to investigate the effect of CpG-ODN on OVA-induced ER stress in vitro. The cellularity of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was classified and counted after Wright-Giemsa staining. HE and PAS staining methods were applied to analyze airway inflammation. The protein levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, p-JNK, JNK, CHOP, XBP1, ATF6α and GRP78 in lung tissues were detected by Western blotting. Correspondingly, the ER stress markers were detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence in RAW264.7 cells. Results: In OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation, CpG-ODN significantly suppressed inflammatory cells infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia and the protein expression of Th2 cytokines. Moreover, OVA exposure strongly increased the activation of ER stress with higher protein expressions of CHOP, XBP1, ATF6α and GRP78. However, these OVA-induced increase of ER stress markers were markedly suppressed by CpG-ODN treatment. In addition, exposure to OVA significantly increased the phosphorylation of JNK, which was significantly reduced by CpG-ODN treatment. Remarkably, single treatment of SP600125, an antagonist of JNK, functioned similarly as CpG-ODN in mitigating allergic airway inflammation and suppressing OVA-induced activation of ER stress; however, no significant synergistic effect was evidenced by combined treatment of SP600125 and CpG-ODN. Furthermore, in OVA-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, we also found that OVA stimulation increased the expressions of ER stress markers, and CpG-ODN significantly reduced their expression levels via suppressing the phosphorylation of JNK. Conclusion: These results indicated that CpG-ODN mitigates allergic airway inflammation via suppressing the activation of JNK-medicated ER stress.

8.
Cancer Cell Int ; 21(1): 587, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727945

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the roles of AT1R, PLC-ß1, CaM and other related signal molecules in the formation and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and their correlation. METHODS: ELISA and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expressions of target proteins in serum and liver tissue of HCC patients, and the correlation between AT1R, PLC-ß1 and CaM and postoperative survival status of patients was followed up and determined. CCK-8 method was used to screen the doses of Ang II and candesartan sensitive to HepG2 and HCCLM3 cells. Transwell experiment was used to observe the effects of different drugs on the migration and invasion activity of HCC cells. Meanwhile, flow cytometry and Western blot were used to detect the expression levels of AT1R, PLC-ß1 and CaM in the cells. Then PLC-ß1 siRNA was selected to transfect HCC cells, so as to further clarify the mechanism of the above signal proteins. HepG2 cells were inoculated under the hepatic capsule of mice to induce the formation of HCC in situ. Ang II and candesartan were used to stimulate HCC mice to observe the difference in liver appearance and measure the liver index. Finally, ELISA and immunofluorescence experiments were selected to analyze the levels of target proteins in mouse serum and liver tissue. RESULTS: The expression levels of target proteins in serum and liver tissue of HCC patients were significantly increased, and the postoperative survival time of patients with high expression of AT1R, PLC-ß1 or CaM was obviously shortened. Ang II and candesartan could significantly promote and inhibit the motility of HCC cells, and had different effects on the levels of AT1R, PLC-ß1 and CaM in cells. However, in hepatocellular carcinoma cells transfected with PLC-ß1 siRNA, the intervention ability of drugs was obviously weakened. Ang II could significantly promote the formation and progression of mouse HCC, while candesartan had the opposite effect. Meanwhile, medications could affect the expressions of target proteins in mouse serum and liver tissue. CONCLUSION: AT1R, PLC-ß1 and CaM may be risk factors affecting the formation and prognosis of HCC, and the PLC-ß1/CaM signaling pathway mediated by AT1R is an important way to regulate the migration and invasion activity of HCC cells.

9.
Front Oncol ; 11: 762547, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746004

RESUMO

Background: Percutaneous cryoablation (PCA) has emerged as an alternative to extirpative management of small renal masses in select patients. In recent years, the use of targeted therapies has become mainstream, while the role of PCA in treating primary tumor is not well established among patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). We sought to evaluate how mRCC patients react to PCA in combination with sunitinib. Methods: We retrospectively identified patients with mRCC (primary tumor diameter ≤ 7 cm) treated with sunitinib between 2013 and 2019. These patients were categorized by initial treatment (cryoablation followed by sunitinib versus sunitinib only). Oncological outcomes and rate of adverse events were compared. Results: Of the 178 patients analyzed, 65 underwent PCA prior to sunitinib. The median overall survival (OS) in the PCA-sunitinib group was 31.7 months (95% CI; 26.1-37.3), better than the sunitinib-only group, which reported a median OS of 19.8 months (95% CI; 17.1-22.4) (p < 0.001). The median progression-free survival (PFS) in patients treated with PCA-sunitinib versus sunitinib alone was 13.8 months (95% CI; 10.0-17.6) versus 7.2 months (95% CI: 6.1-8.3) (p < 0.005). No significant differences in adverse events were observed (p > 0.05). Conclusions: PCA combined with sunitinib is associated with better survival outcomes than sunitinib alone in patients with mRCC. Careful patient selection remains warranted. These results should inform future prospective trials.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748989

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by SARS-CoV-2, varies with regard to symptoms and mortality rates among populations. Humoral immunity plays critical roles in SARS-CoV-2 infection and recovery from COVID-19. However, differences in immune responses and clinical features among COVID-19 patients remain largely unknown. Here, we report a database for COVID-19 specific IgG/IgM immune responses and clinical parameters (COVID-ONE-hi). COVID-ONE-hi is based on the data that contain the IgG/IgM responses to 21 of 28 known SARS-CoV-2 proteins and 197 spike protein peptides against 2,360 serum samples collected from 783 COVID-19 patients. In addition, 96 clinical parameters for the 2,360 serum samples and information for the 783 patients are integrated into the database. Furthermore, COVID-ONE-hi provides a dashboard for defining samples and a one-click analysis pipeline for a single group or paired groups. A set of samples of interest is easily defined by adjusting the scale bars of a variety of parameters. After the "START" button is clicked, one can readily obtain a comprehensive analysis report for further interpretation. COVID-ONE-hi is freely available at www.COVID-ONE.cn.

12.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(11): 1052, 2021 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741044

RESUMO

STEAP3 (Six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 3, TSAP6, dudulin-2) has been reported to be involved in tumor progression in human malignancies. Nevertheless, how it participates in the progression of human cancers, especially HCC, is still unknown. In the present study, we found that STEAP3 was aberrantly overexpressed in the nuclei of HCC cells. In a large cohort of clinical HCC tissues, high expression level of nuclear STEAP3 was positively associated with tumor differentiation and poor prognosis (p < 0.001), and it was an independent prognostic factor for HCC patients. In HCC cell lines, nuclear expression of STEAP3 significantly promoted HCC cells proliferation by promoting stemness phenotype and cell cycle progression via RAC1-ERK-STAT3 and RAC1-JNK-STAT6 signaling axes. Through upregulating the expression and nuclear trafficking of EGFR, STEAP3 participated in regulating EGFR-mediated STAT3 transactivity in a manner of positive feedback. In summary, our findings support that nuclear expression of STEAP3 plays a critical oncogenic role in the progression of HCC via modulation on EGFR and intracellular signaling, and it could be a candidate for prognostic marker and therapeutic target in HCC.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To combat the COVID-19 pandemic, nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPI) were implemented worldwide, which impacted a broad spectrum of acute respiratory infections (ARI). METHODS: Etiologically diagnostic data from 142 559 cases with ARIs, who were tested for eight viral pathogens (influenza virus, IFV; respiratory syncytial virus, RSV; human parainfluenza virus, HPIV; human adenovirus; human metapneumovirus; human coronavirus, HCoV; human bocavirus, HBoV, and human rhinovirus, HRV) between 2012 and 2021, were analyzed to assess the changes of respiratory infections in China during the first COVID-19 pandemic year compared to pre-pandemic years. RESULTS: Test positive rates of all respiratory viruses decreased during 2020, compared to the average levels during 2012-2019, with changes ranging from -17·2% for RSV to -87·6% for IFV. Sharp decreases mostly occurred between February and August when massive NPIs remained active, although HRV rebounded to the historical level during the summer. While IFV and HMPV were consistently suppressed year round, RSV, HPIV, HCoV, HRV HBov resurged and went beyond historical levels during September, 2020-January, 2021, after NPIs were largely relaxed and schools reopened. Resurgence was more prominent among children younger than 18 years and in Northern China. These observations remain valid after accounting for seasonality and long-term trend of each virus. CONCLUSIONS: Activities of respiratory viral infections were reduced substantially in the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, and massive NPIs were likely the main driver. Lifting of NPIs can lead to resurgence of viral infections, particularly in children.

14.
Int J Hypertens ; 2021: 3976609, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796027

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to compare performances of China reference and different national references on high blood pressure (HBP). Methods: A cross-sectional study including 695,302 children and adolescents aged 7 to 17 years in Suzhou, China, was conducted to determine the prevalence of HBP based on U.S., international, Europe, and China references in 2016. Results: Different percentiles of height and blood pressure were found among four references. Referring to U.S. reference, the prevalence of HBP was the highest with 26.0%, followed by International reference with 20.0%, Europe reference with 19.5%, and China reference with 19.2%. McNemar tests indicated statistically significant differences between HBP prevalence comparing China reference with the other 3 references (P < 0.001). The area under the curve was 0.947, 0.851, and 0.949 for U.S., international, and Europe reference, respectively. U.S. reference showed the highest sensitivity (98.2%), but the lowest specificity (91.2%), and Europe reference showed the highest kappa value (0.893). Conclusions: The prevalence of HBP varied among these four references, and the appropriate choice of reference would be important to recognize high-risk children and judge the trends of HBP prevalence in the targeted population.

15.
Food Sci Anim Resour ; 41(6): 936-949, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796322

RESUMO

This study discriminated fatty acid profile and flavor characteristics of Beijing You Chicken (BYC) as a precious local breed and Dwarf Beijing You Chicken (DBYC) eggs. Fatty acid profile and flavor characteristics were analyzed to identify differences between BYC and DBYC eggs. Four classification algorithms were used to build classification models. Arachidic acid, oleic acid (OA), eicosatrienoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), hexadecenoic acid, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and 35 volatile compounds had significant differences in fatty acids and volatile compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (p<0.05). For fatty acid data, k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and support vector machine (SVM) got 91.7% classification accuracy. SPME-GC-MS data failed in classification models. For electronic nose data, classification accuracy of KNN, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), SVM and decision tree was all 100%. The overall results indicated that BYC and DBYC eggs could be discriminated based on electronic nose with suitable classification algorithms. This research compared the differentiation of the fatty acid profile and volatile compounds of various egg yolks. The results could be applied to evaluate egg nutrition and distinguish avian eggs.

16.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 133, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia (SFTS) caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV) was a tick-borne hemorrhagic fever that posed significant threat to human health in Eastern Asia. The study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of SFTSV antibody in healthy population residing in a high endemic region. METHODS: A cohort study was performed on healthy residents in Shangcheng County in Xinyang City from April to December in 2018, where the highest SFTS incidence in China was reported. Anti-SFTSV IgG was measured by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and neutralizing antibody (NAb) was detected by using PRNT50. The logistic regression models were performed to analyze the variables that were associated with seropositive rates. RESULTS: Totally 886 individuals were recruited. The baseline seroprevalence that was tested before the epidemic season was 11.9% (70/587) for IgG and 6.8% (40/587) for NAb, which was increased to 13.4% (47/350) and 7.7% (27/350) during the epidemic season, and further to 15.8% (80/508) and 9.8% (50/508) post epidemic. The IgG antibody-based seropositivity was significantly related to the patients aged ≥ 70 years old [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.440, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.334-4.461 compared to the group of < 50 years old, P = 0.004], recent contact with cats (adjusted OR = 2.195, 95% CI: 1.261-3.818, P = 0.005), and working in tea garden (adjusted OR = 1.698, 95% CI: 1.002-2.880, P = 0.049) by applying multivariate logistic regression model. The NAb based seropositivity was similarly related to the patients aged ≥ 70 years old (adjusted OR = 2.691, 95% CI: 1.271-5.695 compared to the group of < 50 years old, P = 0.010), and recent contact with cats (OR = 2.648, 95% CI: 1.419-4.941, P = 0.002). For a cohort of individuals continually sampled with 1-year apart, the anti-SFTSV IgG were maintained at a stable level, while the NAb level reduced. CONCLUSIONS: Subclinical infection might not provide adequate immunity to protect reinfection of SFTSV, thus highlighting the ongoing threats of SFTS in endemic regions, which called for an imperative need for vaccine development. Identification of risk factors might help to target high-risk population for public health education and vaccination in the future.


Assuntos
Trombocitopenia , Animais , Gatos , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Febre , Humanos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
17.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 18(12): 2618-2631, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759371

RESUMO

Regulatory T cell (Treg) stability is necessary for the proper control of immune activity and tissue homeostasis. However, it remains unclear whether Treg stability must be continually reinforced or is established during development under physiological conditions. Foxp3 has been characterized as a central mediator of the genetic program that governs Treg stability. Here, we demonstrate that to maintain Foxp3 protein expression, Tregs require cell-to-cell contact, which is mediated by the CD147-CD98 interaction. As Tregs are produced, CD147, which is expressed on their surface, is stimulated by CD98, which is widely expressed in the physiological environment. As a result, CD147's intracellular domain binds to CDK2 and retains it near the membrane, leading to Foxp3 dephosphorylation and the prevention of Foxp3 degradation. In addition, the optimal distribution of Foxp3+ Tregs under both pathological and physiological conditions depends on CD98 expression. Thus, our study provides direct evidence that Foxp3-dependent Treg stability is reinforced in the periphery by the interaction between CD147 and CD98 in the surrounding environment. More importantly, Tregs with high CD147 expression effectively inhibit inflammatory responses and maintain Foxp3 stability, which has guiding significance for the application of Tregs in immunotherapy.

18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6923, 2021 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836947

RESUMO

Nationwide nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have been effective at mitigating the spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), but their broad impact on other diseases remains under-investigated. Here we report an ecological analysis comparing the incidence of 31 major notifiable infectious diseases in China in 2020 to the average level during 2014-2019, controlling for temporal phases defined by NPI intensity levels. Respiratory diseases and gastrointestinal or enteroviral diseases declined more than sexually transmitted or bloodborne diseases and vector-borne or zoonotic diseases. Early pandemic phases with more stringent NPIs were associated with greater reductions in disease incidence. Non-respiratory diseases, such as hand, foot and mouth disease, rebounded substantially towards the end of the year 2020 as the NPIs were relaxed. Statistical modeling analyses confirm that strong NPIs were associated with a broad mitigation effect on communicable diseases, but resurgence of non-respiratory diseases should be expected when the NPIs, especially restrictions of human movement and gathering, become less stringent.

19.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(19): 1500, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805362

RESUMO

Background: Schisandrin B (Sch B), the main ingredient of Schisandra chinensis, displays many bioactivities. This study aimed to identify the drug target of Sch B against liver fibrosis and describe the related molecular mechanisms. Methods: The effects of Sch B on liver fibrosis and macrophage polarization was investigated in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, we analyzed the regulatory effect of Sch B on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Results: Our data showed that Sch B dramatically alleviated liver inflammation and fibrosis and inhibited macrophage activation via PPARγ. Sch B binds with PPARγ by molecular docking. Immunofluorescence double staining showed that PPARγ was mainly expressed in macrophages rather than hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in liver fibrosis. Importantly, Sch B strongly inhibited macrophage polarization in fibrotic livers compared with the model group. Further, the results revealed that Sch B efficiently inhibited macrophage polarization and also decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines in vitro. Knockdown of PPARγ by small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited the effect of Sch B on macrophage polarization. Mechanistically, Sch B regulated macrophage polarization through inhibition of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway via PPARγ both in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions: These results suggested that Sch B alleviated carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver inflammation and fibrosis by inhibiting macrophage polarization via targeting PPARγ.

20.
iScience ; 24(11): 103352, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805800

RESUMO

Anthropology began in the late nineteenth century with an emphasis on kinship as a key factor in human evolution. From the 1960s, archaeologists attempted increasingly sophisticated ways of reconstructing prehistoric kinship but ancient DNA analysis has transformed the field, making it possible, to directly examine kin relations from human skeletal remains. Here, we retrieved genomic data from four Late Neolithic individuals in central China associated with the Late Neolithic Longshan culture. We provide direct evidence of consanguineous mating in ancient China, revealing inbreeding among the Longshan populations. By combining ancient genomic data with anthropological and archaeological evidence, we further show that Longshan society household was built based on the extended beyond the nuclear family, coinciding with intensified social complexity during the Longshan period, perhaps showing the transformation of large communities through a new role of genetic kinship-based extended family units.

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