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1.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 289, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus(DM) is an indicator affects postoperative mortality and morbidity after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the frequent postoperative complications after CABG. This multi-centre register study designed to investigate the impact of DM on postoperative AKI in primary isolated CABG patients. METHODS: We included all patients (n = 4325) from Jiangsu Province CABG register who underwent primary isolated CABG from September 2017 to August 2019. The patients were divided into 3 groups: No-DM group(n = 3067), DM-oral group (DM with oral hypoglycemic agents, n = 706) and DM-insulin group (DM with insulin treatment, n = 552). The development and severity of AKI were based on Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. RESULTS: There were totally 338, 108 and 145 patients developed AKI in No-DM, DM-oral and DM-insulin group respectively. Comparing with No-DM group, DM-oral group had a higher rate of AKI(χ2 = 10.071, p = 0.002), DM-insulin group had a higher rate(χ2 = 94.042, p<0.001) and severity of AKI(χ2 = 10.649, p = 0.005). The adjusted odds ratio for AKI was 1.26 (95% CI 1.03-1.57) in DM-oral group and 3.92 (95% CI 3.27-5.16) in DM-insulin group, in comparison with No-DM group. CONCLUSIONS: Independent of baseline renal function or cardiac function, DM was associated with an increased risk of AKI after CABG, especially in patients with insulin treatment, who also had a higher severity of AKI.

2.
Biosci Rep ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026076

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells which can be a useful source of cells for the treatment of many diseases, including neurologic diseases. The curative effect of MSCs relies mostly on cell's capacity of migration, proliferation and differentiation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs which play important roles on regulating various cell behaviors. Here, we report that miRNA-124 (miR124) and miRNA-21-5p (miR21-5p) display different regulatory roles on migration, proliferation and neuron differentiation of MSCs. MiR124 was shown greatly promoting MSCs migration and neuronal differentiation. MiR21-5p could significantly enhance the proliferation and neuronal differentiation ability of MSCs. MiR124 and miR21-5p synergistically promote differentiation of MSCs into neurons. Collectively, miR124 and miR21-5p can functionally regulate cell migration, proliferation and neuronal differentiation of MSCs. Therefore, miR124 and miR21-5p may be promising tools to improve transplantation efficiency for neural injury.

3.
Med Res Rev ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047304

RESUMO

Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains one of the major impediments for efficacious cancer chemotherapy. Increased efflux of multiple chemotherapeutic drugs by transmembrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily is considered one of the primary causes for cancer MDR, in which the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) has been most well-established. The clinical co-administration of P-gp drug efflux inhibitors, in combination with anticancer drugs which are P-gp transport substrates, was considered to be a treatment modality to surmount MDR in anticancer therapy by blocking P-gp-mediated multidrug efflux. Extensive attempts have been carried out to screen for sets of nontoxic, selective, and efficacious P-gp efflux inhibitors. In this review, we highlight the recent achievements in drug design, characterization, structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, and mechanisms of action of the newly synthetic, potent small molecules P-gp inhibitors in the past 5 years. The development of P-gp inhibitors will increase our knowledge of the mechanisms and functions of P-gp-mediated drug efflux which will benefit drug discovery and clinical cancer therapeutics where P-gp transporter overexpression has been implicated in MDR.

4.
BMC Urol ; 20(1): 161, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tubularized incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty is the most commonly performed procedure for hypospadias. Several flap procedures have been recommended to decrease the postoperative complication rate in TIP repair, but no single flap procedure is ideal. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of dartos fascia (DF) and tunica vaginalis fascia (TVF) as intermediate layers in TIP urethroplasty. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, clinicaltrials.gov, and other sources for comparative studies up to April 16, 2020. Studies were selected by the predesigned inclusion criteria. The primary outcomes were postoperative complications. The secondary outcomes were functional and cosmetic outcomes. RESULTS: The pooled RR with 95% CI were calculated. We extracted the relevant information from the included studies. Only 6 comparative studies were included. No secondary outcomes were reported. The RR of the total complications rate for DF was 2.41 (95% CI 1.42-4.07, P = 0.0001) compared with TVF in TIP repair. For each postoperative complication, the RRs were 6.48 (2.20-19.12, P = 0.0007), 5.95 (1.13-31.30, P = 0.04), 0.62 (0.25-1.52, P = 0.29), and 0.75 (0.23-2.46, P = 0.64) for urethrocutaneous fistula, prepuce-related complications, meatal/urethral stenosis, and wound-related complications, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis reveals that compared to DF, TVF is a better option in TIP repair in terms of decreasing the incidence of the total postoperative complications, urethrocutaneous fistula, and prepuce-related complications. However there is limited evidence for functional and cosmetic outcomes. Overall, larger prospective studies and long-term follow-up data are required to further demonstrate the superiority of TVF over DF. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019148554.

5.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006440

RESUMO

AIMS: In patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the involvement of the cardiovascular system significantly relates to poor prognosis. However, the risk factors for acute myocardial injury have not been sufficiently studied. Thus, we aimed to determine the characteristics of myocardial injury and define the association between routine blood markers and cardiac troponin I, in order to perform a predictive model. METHODS AND RESULTS: This retrospective cohort study included patients with confirmed COVID-19 from Wuhan Tongji Hospital (Wuhan, China). Data were compared between those with and without myocardial injury. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models were used to describe the association between myocardial injury and poor prognosis. Simple correlation analyses were used to find factors associated with high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I levels. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods were used to explore the risk factors associated with myocardial injury. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the predictive value of the model. Of 353 patients included in the study, 79 presented myocardial injury. Patients with myocardial injury had higher levels of inflammation markers, poorer liver and kidney function, and more complications compared with patients without myocardial injury. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I levels were significantly associated with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, creatinine, d-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, and inflammatory cytokines and negatively associated with oxygen saturation. It was significantly associated with poor prognosis after adjusting for age, sex, and complications. Multivariate regression showed that myocardial injury was associated with a high neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (odds ratio 2.30, 95% CI 1.11-4.75, per standard deviation increase, P = 0.02), creatinine (3.58, 1.35-8.06, P = 0.01), and lactate dehydrogenase (3.39, 1.42-8.06, P = 0.01) levels. Using a predictive model, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.92 (0.88-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COVID-19, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, creatinine, and lactate dehydrogenase are blood markers that could help identify patients with a high risk of myocardial injury at an early stage.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030398

RESUMO

Background: Association between time-to-appendectomy and clinical outcomes is controversial with conflicting data regarding risk of perforation. The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between in-hospital delay in treatment of simple appendicitis with the incidence of complicated appendicitis discovered at appendectomy. Methods: The Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST) Multicenter Study of the Treatment of Appendicitis in America: Acute, Perforated, and Gangrenous (MUSTANG) database was queried and patients with acute appendicitis diagnosed on imaging were included. Upgrade was defined as gangrenous or perforated finding at appendectomy. Time intervals from emergency department (ED) triage to appendectomy were recorded in six-hour groups. Upgrade percentage for each group was presented and rates of a composite end point (30-day incidence of surgical site infection, abscess, wound complication, Clavien-Dindo complication, secondary intervention, ED visit, hospital re-admission, and mortality) were compared with Bonferroni correction to determine statistical significance (p = 0.05/9 = 0.005). Results: Of 3,004 included subjects, 484 (16%) experienced upgrade at appendectomy. Upgrade rates (%, 95% confidence interval [CI]) were: group 0-6 hours, 17% (95% CI, 14-19); group 6-11 hours, 15% (95% CI, 13-17%); group 12-17 hours, 16% (95% CI, 13-19); group 18-23 hours, 17% (95% CI, 12-23); group 24-29 hours, 30% (95% CI, 20-43); and group 30+ hours, 24% (95% CI, 14-37) (p = 0.014, NS by Bonferroni). Of 484 subjects with upgrade, 200 (41%; 95% CI, 37-46) had a worse composite outcome compared with 518 (21%; CI, 19-22) of 2,520 subjects with no upgrade (p < 0.001). The upgrade group was older (49 ± 17 years vs 39 ± 16 years), had a higher Charlson comorbidity index (CCI; 1.6 ± 1.9 vs 0.7 ± 1.4) and was more likely to have positive smoking history (20% vs 14%), and prior surgery (30% vs 22%; p < 0.001). Conclusions: We propose that ≥24-hour delay from ED triage to appendectomy is not associated with increased rate of severity upgrade from simple to complicated appendicitis. When upgrade occurs, it is correlated with older age, higher CCI, smoking history, and prior surgery and is associated with worse clinical outcomes.

7.
J Dairy Res ; 87(3): 344-348, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893769

RESUMO

We determined the effects of a combination of C18 unsaturated fatty acids (C18-UFAs) consisting of oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids on milk lipogenesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). By orthogonal experiments to determine cellular triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation, a combination of 200 µmol/l C18 : 1, 50 µmol/l C18 : 2, and 2 µmol/l C18 : 3 was selected as C18-UFAs combination treatment, and culture in medium containing fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin was used as the control. The expression of genes related to milk lipid synthesis and intracellular FA composition was measured. The results showed that cytosolic TAG formation was higher under C18-UFAs treatment than under control treatment. The mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-α (ACACA), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) did not differ between treatments. The abundance of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1) was higher, whereas that of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF-1) was lower after C18-UFAs treatment compared to control treatment. The C16 : 0 and SFA content was decreased following C18-UFAs treatment compared to control treatment, while the cis-9 C18 : 1 and UFA content was increased. In conclusion, C18-UFAs could stimulate triglyceride accumulation, increase the cellular UFA concentration, and regulate lipogenic genes in BMECs.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141869, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882542

RESUMO

Black bloom occurs frequently in eutrophic waters. We investigated the conditions promoted the formation of black bloom via in-situ measurement in two aquatic microcosms and the effects of black bloom on the bacterial community composition. Although larger changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) were detected in the Hydrilla verticillata-dominated microcosm over the 90-day simulation, black bloom occurred more readily in the phytoplankton-dominated than macrophyte-dominated microcosm under conditions of O2 depletion and temperature above 30 °C. The sediment bacterial community composition shifted after black bloom; the relative abundance of Thiobacillus and Sideroxydans, which oxidize iron (Fe) and sulfur (S), decreased by 47% and 48%, respectively, in the phytoplankton-dominated microcosm and by 18% and 20% in the macrophyte-dominated microcosm. By contrast, Desulfatiglans increased by 13% and 19%, respectively, after black bloom. Furthermore, inter-taxa correlations remarkably changed according to co-occurrence network analysis. Thirty-six different taxa from the phylum to the genus level were identified as biomarkers of sediments collected before and after the black bloom event. Most of these biomarkers are related to Fe/S cycling in aquatic ecosystems.

10.
Cancer Cell ; 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888432

RESUMO

We integrate the genomics, proteomics, and phosphoproteomics of 480 clinical tissues from 146 patients in a Chinese colorectal cancer (CRC) cohort, among which 70 had metastatic CRC (mCRC). Proteomic profiling differentiates three CRC subtypes characterized by distinct clinical prognosis and molecular signatures. Proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling of primary tumors alone successfully distinguishes cases with metastasis. Metastatic tissues exhibit high similarities with primary tumors at the genetic but not the proteomic level, and kinase network analysis reveals significant heterogeneity between primary colorectal tumors and their liver metastases. In vivo xenograft-based drug tests using 31 primary and metastatic tumors show personalized responses, which could also be predicted by kinase-substrate network analysis no matter whether tumors carry mutations in the drug-targeted genes. Our study provides a valuable resource for better understanding of mCRC and has potential for clinical application.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946386

RESUMO

Computational surface modeling that underlies material recognition has transitioned from reflectance modeling using in-lab controlled radiometric measurements to image-based representations based on internet-mined single-view images captured in the scene. We take a middle-ground approach for material recognition that takes advantage of both rich radiometric cues and flexible image capture. A key concept is differential angular imaging, where small angular variations in image capture enables angular-gradient features for an enhanced appearance representation that improves recognition. We build a large-scale material database, Ground Terrain in Outdoor Scenes (GTOS) database, to support ground terrain recognition for applications such as autonomous driving and robot navigation. The database consists of over 30,000 images covering 40 classes of outdoor ground terrain under varying weather and lighting conditions. We develop a novel approach for material recognition called texture-encoded angular network (TEAN) that combines deep encoding pooling of RGB information and differential angular images for angular-gradient features to fully leverage this large dataset. With this novel network architecture, we extract characteristics of materials encoded in the angular and spatial gradients of their appearance. Our results show that TEAN achieves recognition performance that surpasses single view performance and standard (non-differential/large-angle sampling) multiview performance.

12.
Biochem Pharmacol ; : 114224, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956642

RESUMO

Epigenetic enzymes histone deacetylases (HDACs) are clinically validated anticancer drug targets which have been studied intensively in the past few decades. Although several drugs have been approved in this field, they are still limited to a subset of hematological malignancies (in particular T-cell lymphomas), with therapeutic potential not fully realized and the drug-resistance occurred after a certain period of use. To maximize the therapeutic potential of these classes of anticancer drugs, and to extend their application to solid tumors, numerous combination therapies containing an HDACi and an anticancer agent from other mechanisms are currently ongoing in clinical trials. Recently, dual targeting strategy comprising the HDACs component has emerged as an alternative approach for combination therapies. In this perspective, we intend to gather all HDACs-containing dual inhibitors related to cancer therapy published in literature since 2015, classify them into five categories based on targets' biological functions, and discuss the rationale why dual acting agents should work better than combinatorial therapies using two separate drugs. The article discusses the pharmacological aspects of these dual inhibitors, including in vitro biological activities, pharmacokinetic studies, in vivo efficacy studies, as well as available clinical trials. The review of the current status and advances should provide better analysis for future opportunities and challenges of this field.

13.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940038

RESUMO

As increasing demand for noncontact temperature sensing, the development of a high-performance optical thermometer probe is more and more urgent. In this work, an efficient dual-mode optical thermometry strategy based on the Pr3+/Dy3+ energy transfer (ET) in some typical double-perovskite oxides is presented, which offers a promising way to design FIR/lifetime dual-mode optical thermometry with excellent temperature-measuring sensitivity and signal discrimination. According to this strategy, double-perovskite La2MgTiO6:Pr3+/Dy3+ phosphors are successfully synthesized. On the basis of diverse thermal responses between Pr3+ and Dy3+, the FIR of Pr3+ to Dy3+ (four FIR mode) in this material displays outstanding optical thermometry performance from 298 to 548 K. The maximum absolute and relative sensitivities (Sa and Sr) of mode 1 are 0.09 and 2.357% K-1, being better than the current optical temperature measurement materials. For the fluorescence lifetime mode, the Sa-max and Sr-max values reach 2.85 × s 10-4 and 1.814% K-1. Furthermore, the dual-mode optical thermometry mechanism was presented and studied. It also demonstrated excellent optical thermometry performance in the other Pr3+/Dy3+ codoped double-perovskite oxides, such as LaMg0.598Nb0.402O3, NaLa(MoO4)2, NaGd(MoO4)2, and NaLa(WO4)2, proving the universality of the presented strategy. This article presents an effective Pr3+/Dy3+ ET pathway for developing new and highly sensitive FIR/lifetime dual-mode optical temperature sensing materials.

14.
Talanta ; 220: 121351, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928389

RESUMO

In studies on cell therapies, cells often need to be magnetically labeled and then tracked using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. To achieve good imaging performance on infused cells, the analysis of the sorted, labeled cells before infusion is necessary. Herein, we developed a microfluidic chip to quantitatively analyze magnetically labeled cells. The chip was equipped with a magnetophoresis-based cell sorting function and an impedance-based cell counting function. Using RAW264.7 macrophages, we confirmed the two functions of the chip, obtained the number and the magnetic loading distribution of the sorted, labeled cells, and ultimately demonstrated the broad applications of the chip in rapidly selecting a proper flow rate for the buffer solution in the cell sorting process, determining the total average magnetic loading of the labeled cells for the cell labeling process, and offering a necessary reference for the processing of the sorted cells for high performance in vivo imaging. This work provides an integrated lab-on-a-chip design for quantitatively analyzing magnetically labeled cells and thus can promote MRI-based cell-tracking studies.

15.
Interdiscip Sci ; 2020 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979147

RESUMO

Using Gaussian and Orca, UV and fluorescence spectra of three amino acids (Tyr: Tyrosine, Trp: Tryptophan, Phe: Phenylalanine) were calculated by different functionals (B3LYP, BP86, wB97X). The spectra calculated by BP86 are consistent with the experiments. UV spectra peak of Tyr is 255 nm (Exp. 275 nm, Δλ = 20 nm), Trp is 279 nm (Exp. 277 nm, Δλ = 2 nm), and Phe is 275 nm (Exp. 257 nm, Δλ = 18 nm). Fluorescence spectra peak of Trp is 341 nm (Exp. 350 nm, Δλ = 9 nm), Tyr is 295 nm (Exp. 306 nm, Δλ = 11 nm), and Phe is 285 nm (Exp. 302 nm, Δλ = 17 nm). Moreover, a theoretical model for calculating the excited states of biomolecules is established. Compared with Gaussian's results, Orca is more quickly and effectively for calculating excited state spectra with the same accuracy.

16.
J Voice ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Performing vocal warm-ups prior to singing repertoire has been shown to change the perceived quality and acoustic parameters of the voice. To date, there are no studies that specifically compare singers' and listeners' perceptions of vocal quality after various warm-up durations. OBJECTIVE: To determine if specific warm-up durations (0, 5, 10, or 15 minutes) change subjective and objective measures of voice. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Information related to demographics, singing practice, medical history, and vocal hygiene were collected. First- and second-year collegiate classical voice majors completed a series of four warm-up times, 1 week apart, prior to singing Caro mio ben in a standard key for their voice type. A modified Voice Range Profile (mVRP), and the Evaluation of the Ability to Sing Easily (EASE) scale were completed. Participants blindly rated 30-second recorded audio clips using the Auditory-Perceptual Rating Instrument for Operatic Singing. Four independent expert blinded listeners rated all audio clips for each participant in random order. RESULTS: Six first-year and three second-year classical vocal performance majors completed all measures. Results of the EASE scale showed decreased scores with 5- and 10-minute warm-up duration, compared to 0 and 15 minutes of warm-up (P = 0.029 for the total EASE score and P = 0.044 for Rasch score). Delayed perceptual analysis of voice yielded nearly equal medians between warm-up durations for both self and expert-listener ratings. The mVRP showed that both 5 and 10 minutes of warm-up duration led to increased highest fundamental frequency for females (P = 0.017). CONCLUSION: This pilot study demonstrates the immediate self-perceived benefit for all participants and increased frequency range for females after performing 5 and 10 minutes of vocal warm-up. No significant differences were found in delayed perceptual analyses completed by the participants or the expert raters after the different warm-up durations. Future investigations should include a larger population and different levels of education and genres of singing.

18.
Eur J Med Chem ; 205: 112629, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956956

RESUMO

With the development of positron emission tomography (PET) technology, a variety of PET imaging agents labeled with radionuclide 18F have been developed and widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of various clinical diseases in recent years. For example, they have showed a great value of study in the field of tumor detection, tumor treatment and evaluation of tumor therapy in a non-invasive, qualitative and quantitative way. In this review, we highlight the recent development in chemical synthesis, structure and characterization, imaging characterization, and potential applications of these 18F labeled small molecule PET imaging agents for the past five years. The development and application of 18F labeled small molecules will expand our knowledge of the function and distribution of diseases-related molecular targets and shed light on the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases including tumors.

19.
Cell Rep ; 32(5): 107990, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755583

RESUMO

The Hippo/Yes-associated protein (YAP) pathway has pivotal roles in innate immune responses against pathogens in macrophages. However, the role of YAP in macrophages during atherosclerosis and its mechanism of YAP activation remain unknown. Here, we find that YAP overexpression in myeloid cells aggravates atherosclerotic lesion size and infiltration of macrophages, whereas YAP deficiency reduces atherosclerotic plaque. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), a downstream effector of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), triggers YAP ubiquitination at K252, which interrupts the interaction between YAP and angiomotin and results in enhanced YAP nuclear translocation. The recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra reduces atherosclerotic lesion formation, which is abrogated by YAP overexpression. YAP level is increased in human and mouse atherosclerotic vessels, and plasma IL-1ß level in patients with STEMI is correlated with YAP protein level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These findings elucidate a mechanism of YAP activation, which might be a therapeutic target for atherosclerosis.

20.
Front Psychol ; 11: 1555, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765356

RESUMO

Reaction-time variability is a critical index of sustained attention. However, researchers still lack effective measures to establish the association between neurophysiological activity and this behavioral variability. Here, the present study recorded reaction time (RT) and cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) in healthy subjects when they continuously performed an alternative responding task. The frontal theta activity and reaction-time variability were examined trial by trial using the measures of standard deviation (SD) in the time domain and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in the frequency domain. Our results showed that the SD of reaction-time variability did not have any correlation with the SD of trial-by-trial frontal theta activity, and the ALFF of reaction-time variability has a significant correlation with the ALFF of trial-by-trial frontal theta activity in 0.01-0.027 Hz. These results suggested the methodological significance of ALFF in establishing the association between neurophysiological activity and reaction-time variability. Furthermore, these findings also support the low-frequency fluctuation as a potential feature of sustained attention.

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