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1.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 628: 64-67, 2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081280

RESUMO

Halogenated compounds are particularly important in pharmaceutical and agrochemical products. Biochemical halogenation with halogenases are environmental friendly reactions with high efficiency. Recently, the two new chlorinases (ClA1 and ClA2) were discovered from soil bacteria. However, the protein structure of ClA2 was not identified. Here, we determined the high-resolution crystal structure of ClA2. This structure will help us to understand the catalytic mechanism of chlorinase, and explain the catalytic process of the coupled chlorinase-fluorinase system, which offers the prospect of arising rapid radiolabeling protocols under mild conditions.


Assuntos
Halogenação , Solo , Agroquímicos , Preparações Farmacêuticas
2.
ACS Chem Biol ; 17(9): 2483-2494, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048451

RESUMO

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels widely distributed in the central peripheral nervous system and muscles which participate in rapid synaptic transmission. The α9α10 nAChR is an acetylcholine receptor subtype and is involved in chronic pain. In the present study, a new A-superfamily conotoxin Bt14.12 cloned from Conus betulinus was found to selectively inhibit α9α10 nAChRs with an IC50 of 62.3 nM. Unlike α-conotoxins and other A-superfamily conotoxins, Bt14.12 contains a four Cys (C-C-C-C) framework with a unique disulfide bond connection "C1-C4, C2-C3". The structure-activity studies of Bt14.12 demonstrate that all amino acid residues contribute to its potency. Interestingly, mutation experiments show that the deletion of Asp2 or the addition of three Arg residues at the N-terminus of Bt14.12 significantly enhances its inhibitory activity (IC50 is 21.9 nM or 12.7 nM, respectively) by 2- or 4-fold compared to the wild-type Bt14.12. The NMR structure of Bt14.12 shows that it contains α-helix- and ß-turn-like elements, and further computational modelings of the interaction between Bt14.12 and the α9α10 nAChR demonstrate that Bt14.12 possesses a distinctive mode of action and displays a different structure-activity relationship from known α9α10 nAChR targeting α-conotoxins. Our findings provide a novel conotoxin that potently targets α9α10 nAChRs and a new motif for designing potent inhibitors against α9α10 nAChRs.


Assuntos
Conotoxinas , Caramujo Conus , Receptores Nicotínicos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Aminoácidos , Animais , Conotoxinas/química , Conotoxinas/farmacologia , Caramujo Conus/química , Caramujo Conus/metabolismo , Dissulfetos/metabolismo , Antagonistas Nicotínicos/química , Antagonistas Nicotínicos/farmacologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo
3.
Orthop Surg ; 2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pre-implantation sterilization procedures for tendons are important measures to reduce the risk of disease transmission, however these procedures may compromise tendon microarchitecture and biomechanical properties to varying degrees. We explore the effects of different sterilization procedures on the micro-histology, biomechanical strength and biochemical properties of human tendon allografts in vitro study. METHODS: The tendon allografts were harvested from cadaveric donors after the donors were serologically screened by antibody or nucleic acid testing of infectious agents. All samples were divided into five groups, which were fresh-frozen group (control group), 15 kGy gamma irradiation group, 25 kGy gamma irradiation group, 70% ethanol group, and peracetic acid-ethanol group. Each group included 10 tendons for testing. Histological staining and transmission electron microscopy were applied to observe the internal structure and arrangement of tendon collagen fibers, while the machine learning classifier was trained to distinguish the darker cross-sections of collagen fibers and brighter backgrounds of the electron micrograph to detect the distribution of diameters of tendon collagen fibers. The viscoelasticity, mechanical properties and material properties of tendon allografts were examined to detect the influence of different intervention factors on the biomechanical properties of tendons. RESULTS: Histological staining and transmission electron microscopy showed that the structure of fresh-frozen tendons was similar to the structures of other experimental groups, and no obvious fiber disorder or delamination was observed. In the uniaxial cyclic test, the cyclic creep of 25 kGy irradiation group (1.5%) and peracetic acid-ethanol group (1.5%) were significantly lower than that of the control group (3.6%, F = 1.52, P = 0.039) while in the load-to-failure test, the maximum elongation and maximum strain of the peracetic acid-ethanol group were significantly higher than those of the control group (F = 4.60, P = 0.010), and there was no significant difference in other biomechanical indicators. According to the experimental results of denatured collagen, it could be seen that no matter which disinfection procedure was used, the denaturation of the tendon sample would be promoted (F = 1.97, P = 0.186), and high-dose irradiation seemed to cause more damage to collagen fibers than the other two disinfection procedures (296.2 vs 171.1 vs 212.9 µg/g). CONCLUSION: Biomechanical experiments and collagen denaturation tests showed that 15 kGy gamma irradiation and 70% ethanol can preserve the biomechanical strength and biochemical properties of tendons to the greatest extent, and these two sterilization methods are worthy of further promotion.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047844

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused millions of deaths around the world and revealed the need for data-driven models of pandemic spread. Accurate pandemic caseload forecasting allows informed policy decisions on the adoption of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to reduce disease transmission. Using COVID-19 as an example, we present PAN-cODE, a deep learning method to forecast daily increases in pandemic infections and deaths. By using a deep conditional latent variable model, PAN-cODE can generate alternative caseload trajectories based on alternate adoptions of NPIs, allowing stakeholders to make policy decisions in an informed manner. PAN-cODE also allows caseload estimation for regions that are unseen during model training. We demonstrate that, despite using less detailed data and having fully automated training, PAN-cODE's performance is comparable to state-of-the-art methods on four-week-ahead and six-week-ahead forecasting. Finally, we highlight the ability of PAN-cODE to generate realistic alternative outcome trajectories on select US regions.

5.
Life (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36143481

RESUMO

Intracellular fatty acid-binding proteins are evolutionarily highly conserved proteins. The major functions and responsibilities of this family are the regulation of FA uptake and intracellular transport. The structure of the H-FABP ortholog from mouse (Mus musculus) had not been revealed at the time this study was completed. Thus, further exploration of the structural properties of mouse H-FABP is expected to extend our knowledge of the model animal's molecular mechanism of H-FABP function. Here, we report the high-resolution crystal structure and the NMR characterization of mouse H-FABP. Our work discloses the unique structural features of mouse H-FABP, offering a structural basis for the further development of small-molecule inhibitors for H-FABP.

6.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 20: 4930-4941, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36147660

RESUMO

The unnatural amino acid (UAA) incorporation technique through genetic code expansion has been extensively used in protein engineering for the last two decades. Mutations into UAAs offer more dimensions to tune protein structures and functions. However, the huge library of optional UAAs and various circumstances of mutation sites on different proteins urge rational UAA incorporations guided by artificial intelligence. Here we collected existing experimental proofs of UAA-incorporated proteins in literature and established a database of known UAA substitution sites. By program designing and machine learning on the database, we showed that UAA incorporations into proteins are predictable by the observed evolutional, steric and physiochemical factors. Based on the predicted probability of successful UAA substitutions, we tested the model performance using literature-reported and freshly-designed experimental proofs, and demonstrated its potential in screening UAA-incorporated proteins. This work expands structure-based computational biology and virtual screening to UAA-incorporated proteins, and offers a useful tool to automate the rational design of proteins with any UAA.

7.
Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr ; 32(8): 55-67, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36017916

RESUMO

Long noncoding RN (IncRNA) placenta-specific 2 (PLAC2) plays a critical role in many cancer types. A previous study found that PLAC2 expression dysregulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, its function in LSCC is not entirely known. The present study enrolled 68 lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC, a major subtype of NSCLC) patients (gender: 39 males and 29 females; age: 36 to 67 years old; mean age: 53.2 ± 5.5 years old). The expression levels of PLAC2 in two types of tissue (non-tumor and LSCC) were measured by quantitative PCR. LSCC cells H1581 and H1993 were transfected with PLAC2 and cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) expression vectors and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), as well as microRNA-29C (miR-29C) mimic and inhibitor to perform overexpression and knock-down experiment, respectively. PLAC2 was upregulated in LSCC and positively correlated with CDK6 but negatively correlated with miR-29C. During a 5-year follow-up, high expression levels of PLAC2 were found to be closely associated with poor survival. PLAC2 and CDK6 were significantly upregulated in LSCC cells, while miR-29C was remarkably downregulated. miR-29C was predicted to be a potential target of PLAC2, and RNA pull-down assay confirmed their direct interaction. Overexpression of PLAC2 led to upregulation of CDK6 and downregulation of miR-29C, while knock-down of PLAC2 showed opposite effects. Overexpression of miR-29C downregulated CDK6, while knock-down of miR-29C increased the expression levels of CDK6. However, the expression of PLAC2 was not affected by overexpression or knock-down of miR-29C. Overexpression of PLAC2 and CDK6 enhanced LSCC cell proliferation and cell cycle progression, while knock-down showed opposite effects. In addition, overexpression of miR-29C inhibited cell proliferation and cell cycle progression, while its knockdown display opposite effects. Moreover, overexpression of miR-29C suppressed the role of overexpression of PLAC2 in cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. In conclusion, PLAC2 upregulates CDK6 by downregulating miR-29C to promote LSCC cell proliferation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética
8.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 128: 228-237, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35940536

RESUMO

2,2,4,4-tetra-brominated diphenyl ether (PBDE-47)-the dominant homologue of polybrominated diphenyl ethers-is a toxic environmental pollutant in the aquatic environment that continuously exists and bioaccumulates in the aquatic food chain. In experimental disease models, melatonin (MEL) has been reported to attenuate necroptosis and inflammatory responses. To further explore the mechanism underlying PBDE-47 toxicity and the mitigative impact of MEL detoxification, in this study, fish kidney cell models of PBDE-47 poisoning and/or MEL treatment were developed. The Ctenopharyngodon idellus kidney (CIK) cell line was treated with PBDE-47 (100 µM) and/or MEL (60 µM) for 24 h. Experimental data suggest that PBDE-47 exposure resulted in the enhancement of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration, induction of calcium dysmetabolism, decrease in the miR-140-5p miRNA level, upregulation of Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), triggering of receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase-induced necroptosis, and NF-κB pathway mediated secretion of inflammatory factors in CIK cells. PBDE-47-induced CIK cell damage could be mitigated by MEL through the regulation of calcium channels and the restoration of disorders of the miR-140-5p/TLR4/NF-κB axis. Overall, MEL relieved PBDE-47-induced necroptosis and the secretion of inflammatory factors through the miR-140-5p/TLR4/NF-κB axis. These findings enrich the current understanding of the toxicological molecular mechanisms of the PBDE-47 as well as the detoxification mechanisms of the MEL.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Melatonina , MicroRNAs , Bifenil Polibromatos , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio , Éter , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Rim/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Necroptose , Bifenil Polibromatos/toxicidade , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Serina , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
9.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 218: 112720, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35981472

RESUMO

A novel pulluanase@chitosan porous beads/Poly (m-phthaloyl-m-phenylenediamine) (PULL@CPB/PMIA) membrane with good separation and biocatalysis properties was prepared by a self-adhesive method by introducing an immobilized enzyme (PULL@CPB) onto the PMIA membrane. The combination of PULL@CPB and PMIA could increase the one-step refining of protoplasmic beer as well as the ability of biocatalysis to lower the alcohol-to-ester ratio. The experimental results showed that the addition of PULL@CPB and the increase in the ratio of EtOH/water in the coagulation bath both increased the load of pullulanase on the membrane surface, while excessive addition decreased the activity of pullulanase. Under the amount of PULL@CPB is 0.5 g·L-1 and the ratio of EtOH/water is 60%, the relative activity of pullulanase in PULL@CPB modified PMIA membrane was the highest, which was 91.7% of the initial activity. The interception rates of protein and macromolecular ß-glucan were 92.2% and 87.3%, respectively, under the condition of beer flux (162.3 L·m-2·h-1). At the same time, the PULL@CPB/PMIA membrane has strong antibacterial performance and thus plays a role in extending the shelf life of beer. Compared with free pullulanase, the thermal stability, pH stability, organic solvent stability, and storing stability of immobilized pullulanase were significantly improved. The effects of PULL@CPB dosage and operating temperature on biocatalysis efficiency were discussed. The immobilized pullulanase activity on the membrane remained at 70.8% after 10 continuous uses. Therefore, the PMIA membrane is an excellent carrier of pullulanase, so its bioactive membrane has a wide range of prospects in food, medicine, and other fields.


Assuntos
Quitosana , beta-Glucanas , Adesivos , Antibacterianos , Cerveja , Quitosana/química , Estabilidade Enzimática , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Ésteres , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Porosidade , Cimentos de Resina , Solventes , Temperatura , Água
10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202209029, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939056

RESUMO

Direct C-H trifluoromethylation of arenes and heteroarenes poses an important synthetic challenge that is highly desirable. High-valent CuIII -CF3 compounds have often been invoked in copper-mediated trifluoromethylation reactions, but the fundamental reactivity toward arenes is elusive. Herein, direct C-H trifluoromethylation of arenes/heteroarenes by a high-valent CuIII -CF3 compound is disclosed for the first time. The CuIII -CF3 compound serves CF3 radical and a CuII oxidant by homolytic cleavage of a CuIII -CF3 bond, which engage synergistically in a SE Ar type reaction with arenes. The presence of K2 S2 O8 co-oxidant can significantly improve the reaction yields. This reaction shows good efficiency, broad functional group tolerance, and the potential in late-stage functionalization. The reactivity of high-valent CuIII -CF3 compounds disclosed in this study represents an important progress in organofluorine and CuIII chemistry.

11.
Synth Syst Biotechnol ; 7(4): 1108-1116, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36017332

RESUMO

Androgen receptor (AR) mutation is closely associated with prostate cancer (PCa) and is one of the mechanisms of resistance to PCa therapies such as AR antagonists. Although sequencing technologies like next-generation sequencing (NGS) contributes to the high-throughput and precise detection of AR mutations carried by PCa patients, the lack of interpretations of these clinical genetic variants has still been a roadblock for PCa-targeted precision medicine. Here, we established a designer yeast reporter assay to simulate natural androgen receptor (AR) selection using AR antagonists. Yeast HIS3 gene transactivation was associated with the ligand-induced recruitment of steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) by AR mutants, where yeast growth in histidine-free medium was determined as the outcome. This assay is applicable to determine a wide range of clinical AR mutants including those with loss of function relating to androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), and those associated with PCa conferring resistance to AR antagonists such as enzalutamide (ENZ), bicalutamide (BIC), and cyproterone acetate (CPA). One clinical AR mutant previously reported to confer ENZ-resistance, F877L, was found to confer partial resistance to CPA as well using designer yeast. Our simple and efficient assay can enable precise one-pot screening of AR mutants, providing a reference for tailored medicine.

12.
J Mater Chem B ; 10(34): 6433-6442, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35984665

RESUMO

As a special type of biomass, herbal medicine often contains a variety of biologically active substances, and taking it as a carbon source, it is expected to produce various types of biologically functional carbon dots (CDs). However, there are few reports in this field, especially in achieving enhanced performance of CDs by improving the utilization efficiency of active substances in medicinal materials. In this work, by adding glycine as an auxiliary agent in the preparation of CDs from herbal medicine (Exocarpium Citri Grandis), the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjuvant provided more reactive sites, which greatly improved the yield of CDs (about 6 times). More importantly, the antioxidant and biological activities of herbal CDs were also improved. By controlling the functional groups of adjuvants, the effects of carboxyl and amino groups in adjuvants on the synthesis of herbal CDs were compared. The results reveal that both carboxyl and amino groups can react with the substances in the carbon source, and the influence of amino groups was greater. After adding glycine, the size of the CDs became larger, resulting from the more abundant functional groups on the carbon skeleton, which was the main reason for the improved performance of the CDs. Finally, the biological activity experiment demonstrated that CDs derived from Exocarpium Citri Grandis and glycine could greatly enhance the vitality of cells and activate immune cells, which are expected to be applied in the field of cell reproduction and biological immunity. The method proposed in this work provides a potential strategy for high-yield preparation of CDs from biomass.


Assuntos
Carbono , Glicina , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomassa , Carbono/química
13.
FASEB J ; 36(9): e22499, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35969149

RESUMO

As a key approach to mediate cholesterol metabolism, the role of the CYP27A1/27-HC axis in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains unclear. Analysis of CYP27A1 expression from public databases and metastatic cases in our center suggested that CYP27A1 was obviously downregulated in RCC tissues, and survival analysis further showed its correlation with favorable clinicopathological features and prognosis. In vitro, up and downregulation of CYP27A1 expression in RCC cell lines could definitely illustrate its anticipation involving apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, migration, and clonality. This could be achieved through upregulation of 27-HC concentration, which mediates the activation of signaling pathways of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Further, recovery of CYP27A1 expression could definitely inhibit the proliferation of RCC tumors in vivo. This is the first study to explore the role of the CYP27A1/27-HC axis in RCC. Attempts to maintain the normal function of the axis may be a potential strategy in the treatment of RCC, and the predictive value of CYP27A1 detection on the efficacy of targeted therapy in metastatic RCC is also worthy of attention.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase , Colesterol , Neoplasias Renais , Apoptose , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia
14.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 892630, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937318

RESUMO

Callose synthase plays an essential role in plant growth and development and in response to all sorts of stresses through regulating callose formation. However, few research about the function and mechanism of the insect resistance of callose synthase genes have been reported in cotton. In this study, a cotton callose synthase gene GhCalS5 was cloned, and its function and mechanism of resistance to cotton aphids were analyzed. The expression of GhCalS5 was significantly upregulated in both, leaves and stems of cotton plants at 48 h after cotton aphid infestation and in the leaves of cotton plants at 24 h after salicylic acid treatment. The overexpression of GhCalS5 enhanced cotton resistance to cotton aphids. Expectedly silencing of GhCalS5 reduced cotton resistance to cotton aphids. Overexpression of GhCalS5 enhanced callose formation in cotton leaves. Our results suggest that GhCalS5 is involved in cotton resistance against cotton aphids by influencing callose formation.

15.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 934716, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35935235

RESUMO

Background: Identifying host plasma exosome proteins associated with host response to latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) treatment might promote our understanding of tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis and provide useful tools for implementing the precise intervention. Methods: Based on an open-label randomized controlled trial (RCT) aiming to evaluate the short-course regimens for LTBI treatment, plasma exosomes from pre- and post-LTBI treatment were retrospectively detected by label-free quantitative protein mass spectrometry and validated by a parallel reaction monitoring method for participants with changed or not changed infection testing results after LTBI treatment. Eligible participants for both screening and verification sets were randomly selected from the based-RCT in a 1:1 ratio by age and gender. Reversion was defined as a decrease in IFN-γ levels from >0.70 IU/ml prior to treatment to 0.20 IU/ml within 1 week of treatment. The predictive ability of the candidate proteins was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: Totally, two sample sets for screening (n = 40) and validation (n = 60) were included. Each of them included an equal number of subjects with persistent positive or reversed QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) results after LTBI. A total of 2,321 exosome proteins were detected and 102 differentially expressed proteins were identified to be associated with QFT reversion. Proteins with high confidence and original values intact were selected to be further verified. Totally, 9 downregulated proteins met the criteria and were validated. After verification, C4BPA and S100A9 were confirmed to be still significantly downregulated (fold change <0.67, p < 0.05). The respective areas under the ROC curve were 0.73 (95% CI: 0.57-0.89) and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.52-0.86) for C4BPA and S100A9, with a combined value of 0.78 (95% CI: 0.63-0.93). The positive and negative predictive values for combined markers were 70.10% (95% CI: 50.22-86.30%) and 55.63% (95% CI: 29.17-61.00%). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that downregulated C4BPA and S100A9 in plasma exosomes might be associated with a host positive response to LTBI treatment. Further studies are warranted to verify the findings and potential underlying mechanisms in varied populations with a larger sample size.

16.
Life Sci ; 307: 120882, 2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35963300

RESUMO

AIMS: Obeticholic acid (OCA) was approved for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) patients, as it can significantly improve the level of serum alkaline phosphatase. However, OCA-induced liver injury in PBC patients puts them at risk of acute chronic liver failure, thus limiting the clinical application of OCA. Osteopontin (OPN), an extracellular cell matrix molecule, is highly induced in many cholestatic liver diseases. Herein we explored whether liver injury exacerbation by OCA was related to OPN. MAIN METHODS: Bile duct ligation (BDL) mice were treated with OCA (40 mg/kg) to evaluate its effect on liver injury and OPN involvement. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blot, immunohistochemistry, and other assays were used to detect OPN levels in serum and liver. Immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence, among other assays, were used to evaluate the extent of ductular reaction. The extent of fibrosis was also determined using various assays, such as immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and hydroxyproline assays. KEY FINDINGS: OPN was overexpressed in the liver of BDL mice treated with OCA. OCA induced overexpression of OPN exacerbated ductular reaction, fibrosis, and liver inflammation, and reduced hepatocyte proliferation. SIGNIFICANCE: Upon liver injury, OCA upregulates the expression of OPN in the liver and accelerates disease progression. This mechanism helps explain the risk of liver damage associated with OCA.

17.
J Proteomics ; 266: 104668, 2022 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35798256

RESUMO

The hemostatic effect of isinglass (dried swim bladder) in traditional Chinese medicine is well known. But its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, mice were gavaged with the dried swim bladder of the chu's croaker (Nibea coibor). The hemostatic effect of swim bladder was investigated, tandem mass tag (TMT)-based quantitative proteomics analysis was performed to screen differentially abundant proteins associated with hemostasis in mouse serum. Results indicated that isinglass significantly shorten bleeding time and promoted coagulation after acute trauma (cut out mouse tail). In total, 57 differentially expressed proteins were identified in the sera between control and swim bladder group, of which 31 were up-regulated and 26 were down-regulated in swim bladder group. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis further demonstrated that the Neutrophil extracellular trap formation pathway was significantly affected. Combined with RT-qPCR verification, our findings further suggested that five candidate proteins in the pathway may be involved in the onset of hemostasis after swim bladder gavage, indicating their important role during the hemostasis process promoting by swim bladder. SIGNIFICANCE: Serum proteomics after swim bladder gavage described differentially enriched proteins related to hemostasis, and enriched pathways were validated. This study revealed the possible pathways involved in the hemostatic effect of swim bladder, which may provide a new effector target for the development of new hemostatic drugs.


Assuntos
Hemostáticos , Perciformes , Animais , Hemostasia , Hemostáticos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Perciformes/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Bexiga Urinária
18.
Transl Oncol ; 24: 101473, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35905639

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To better understand immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) in cancer patients. DESIGN AND METHOD: We present a case of ICI-induced diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and conduct a systematic review of the PubMed and Web of Science databases up to September 2021 to identify all published cases of ICI-induced diabetes. RESULTS: In addition to our case, a total of 171 published cases were identified during the literature search. Summary and statistical analyzes were conducted for all 172 cases. The median onset time from ICI initiation to DM diagnosis was 12 weeks (range: 0-122). DKA was present in 67.4% (116/172) of the cases, and low C-peptide levels were detected in 91.8% (123/134), indicating an acute onset of diabetes. Patients with positive glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) had an earlier onset of ICI-induced diabetes (median time 7 weeks vs. 16 weeks for GADA-negative patients, p < 0.001) and a higher frequency of DKA development (82.8 vs. 62.1%, p = 0.006). All but two patients developed insulin-dependent diabetes permanently. Immunotherapy rechallenge was reported in 53 cases after glycemia was well controlled. CONCLUSION: ICI-induced DM is a serious adverse event that often presents with life-threatening ketoacidosis. GADA positivity is related to an earlier onset of ICI-induced diabetes and a higher frequency of DKA development. Close monitoring of glucose levels is needed in patients receiving ICI treatment. ICI-induced DM is usually insulin-dependent since damage to ß cells is irreversible. On the premise of well-controlled glycemia, immunotherapy rechallenge is feasible.

19.
Cell Tissue Bank ; 2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831637

RESUMO

At present, the commonly used allogeneic bone powder in the clinic can be divided into nondemineralized bone matrix and demineralized bone matrix (DBM). Commonly used demineralizers include acids and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). There may be some diversities between them. Also, the size of the bone particle can affects its cell compatibility and osteogenic ability. We produced different particle sizes i.e., < 75, 75-100, 100-315, 315-450, 450-650, and 650-1000 µm, and treated in three ways (nondemineralized, demineralized by EDTA, and demineralized by HCl). Scanning electron microscopy showed that the surface of the samples in each group was relatively smooth without obvious differences. The results of specific surface area and porosity analysis showed that they were significantly higher in demineralized bone powder than in nondemineralized bone powder, however, there was no significant difference between the two decalcification methods. The content of hydroxyproline in nondemineralized bone powder and EDTA-demineralized bone powder had no statistical difference, while HCl-demineralization had statistical significance compared with the former two, and the content increased with the decrease of particle size. The protein and BMP-2 extracted from HCl demineralized bone powder were significantly higher than that from nondemineralized bone powder and EDTA demineralized bone powder, and there were differences among different particle sizes. These results suggested the importance of demineralization mode and particle size of the allogenic bone powder and provided guidance for the choice of the most appropriate particle size and demineralization mode to be used in tissue bioengineering.

20.
Adv Biol (Weinh) ; : e2200092, 2022 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35818694

RESUMO

Site-specific incorporation of distinct noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins via genetic code expansion in mammalian cells represents a new avenue for protein engineering. Reassigning three TAGs with the same ncAA in mammalian cells has previously been achieved using translational machinery. However, simultaneous recoding of three nonsense codons with distinct ncAAs in mammalian cells remains a challenge due to low incorporation efficiencies. Here, three optimized aaRS/tRNA pairs (i.e., the E. coli-derived tyrosyl (EcTyr)/tRNAUUA , E. coli-derived leucyl (EcLeu)/tRNACUA , and Methanosarcina mazei pyrrolysyl (MmPyl)/tRNAUCA pairs) are screened for ncAA incorporation. Furthermore, introduced combinations of eukaryotic release factor 1 (eRF1) mutants (E55R, E55D, N129D, and Y125F) significantly improve the encoding efficiency of the three premature stop codons' sites from 0.78% to 11.6%. Thus, site-specific incorporation of three distinct ncAAs into a single protein is achieved in this study. This work markedly expands the potential for multiple site-specific protein modifications within mammalian cells, thereby facilitating new in vivo applications.

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