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1.
J Breath Res ; 15(2): 026008, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491662

RESUMO

Short sleep duration potentially affects the risk of developing asthma and asthmatic exacerbation. Our aim is to determine the associations between sleep duration with asthmatic phenotypes, fraction of exhaled NO (FeNO), blood eosinophils, and lung function among current asthmatics. A total of 558 individuals from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2007-2012 were included in this study. Self-reported sleep duration was divided into three groups: short (⩽6 h), healthy (7-8 h) and long (⩾9 h). By using a multivariate generalized additive model with binomial or Poisson regression, the abovementioned associations were evaluated after adjustment for potential confounders. Our study population included 284 short sleepers, 240 healthy sleepers and 34 long sleepers. In multivariate binomial regression analysis, we found that short sleep duration was associated with increased risk of asthma with central obesity (adjusted OR = 0.58, 95%CI: 0.33-0.99, P = 0.047) compared with healthy sleep duration. Multivariate Poisson regression analyses revealed a significant increase in FeNO (adjusted OR = 1.19, 95%CI: 1.14-1.26, P < 0.01) and reduction of blood eosinophil percentage (adjusted OR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.77-0.96, P < 0.01) in the healthy sleep duration group compared with the short sleep duration group. The individuals with healthy and long sleep duration harbored better lung function than those with short sleep duration, with the exception of FEV1/FVC. Our study suggested that short sleepers potentially increase the risk of asthma with central obesity and lung function impairment than healthy sleepers among current asthmatics. We also observed that short sleep duration is associated with a significant reduction of FeNO and increase of blood eosinophil percentage.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Past history of gallstones is associated with increased risk of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in observational studies. We conducted complementary observational and Mendelian Randomization (MR) analyses to determine whether history of gallstones is causally related to development of GBC in an Indian population. METHODS: To investigate associations between history of gallstones and GBC, we used questionnaire and imaging data from a GBC case-control study conducted at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (cases=1170; controls=2525). We then used 26 genetic variants identified in a genome-wide association study of 27,174 gallstones cases and 736,838 controls of European ancestry in a Mendelian randomization approach to assess causality. The association of these genetic variants with both gallstones and GBC was examined in the GBC case-control study. Various complementary MR approaches were used to evaluate the robustness of our results in the presence of pleiotropy and heterogeneity, and to consider the suitability of the selected SNPs as genetic instruments for gallstones in an Indian population. RESULTS: We found a strong observational association between gallstones and GBC using self-reported history of gallstones (OR=4.5, 95%CI=3.5-5.8) and with objective measures of gallstone presence using imaging techniques (OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.5-2.7). We found consistent causal estimates across all MR techniques, with odds ratios for GBC in the range of 1.3-1.6. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate a causal relationship between history of gallstones and increased risk of GBC, albeit of a smaller magnitude to those found in observational analysis. IMPACT: Our findings emphasise the importance of gallstone treatment for preventing GBC in high risk individuals.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(46): 19487-19492, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152240

RESUMO

A concise chemical synthesis of (+)-haperforin G in 20 steps from commercially available starting materials is achieved with the integration of the Co-catalyzed intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction for the stereoselective construction of cyclopentanone bearing an all-carbon quaternary stereogenic center at the bridge-head position and the light-initiated photocatalysis for convergent and asymmetric cross-coupling of the unstabilized C(sp3)-radical with an enone. The developed chemistry paves the way to synthesizing structurally diverse analogs of haperforin G (6).

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092341

RESUMO

Wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system is the core equipment for removing SO2 from coal-fired power plants, and it also has an important synergistic effect on the removal of selenium. However, the removal efficiency of Se across WFGD systems is not as expected, and it varies greatly in different coal-fired units (12.5-96%). In this study, a mathematical model was established to quantitatively describe the selenium migration behavior in WFGD spray towers, including the conversion of gaseous selenium to particulate selenium and the capture of gaseous SeO2 and particles by droplets. The calculation results show that the behavior of selenium in the spray tower can be divided into three stages: preparation, condensation, and removal. The condensation stage significantly affected the selenium distribution and its total removal efficiency. Furthermore, five factors which may affect the selenium behavior were investigated. Among them, the inlet particle size distribution and the droplet temperature had great impacts on the outlet selenium concentration, which may be the reason for the unstable selenium removal efficiencies. This study can help in understanding the migration process of selenium in WFGD spray towers and provide some guidance for the development of specific selenium control technologies.

5.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(17)2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825625

RESUMO

Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys with Al and Zr addition have excellent radiation tolerance, high-temperature strength, and corrosion resistance. The 15Cr-Al-Zr-ODS alloys are processed by mechanical alloying (MA), hot isostatic pressing (HIP), subsequent hot rolling to large strains of 70%, and further annealing. The effect of hot rolling on the microstructure, and the properties of nanostructured 15Cr ODS alloys with Al and Zr addition, were investigated. The microstructure after hot rolling and annealing showed obvious anisotropy. The cubic texture (φ1 = 0°, Φ = 0°, φ2 = 0°) {0 0 1} <1 0 0> and brass-R texture (φ1 = 0°, Φ = 55°, φ2 = 45°) {1 1 1} <1 1 0> were observed. The similar size distribution of precipitates was obtained for the comparison of the hot rolling samples with the hot isostatic pressed samples, which can be attributed to excellent thermal stability. After hot rolling, the alloy showed higher yield strength but did not lose too much plasticity.

6.
Life Sci ; 259: 118284, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798557

RESUMO

AIMS: To study how to effectively prevent or reduce renal injury caused by contrast agents in diabetic patients. MAIN METHODS: Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were bred with a high-fat diet for eight weeks, then intraperitoneally injected with Streptozotocin (STZ) to prepare the diabetes model. Rats were treated with Iodixanol to prepare a contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) model. Moreover, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an autophagy inhibitor, was administrated to diabetic rats with or without Rapamycin treatment. Serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were examined using Biochemical detector. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), N-acetyl-ß-D-amino glycosidase (NAG) in urine, inflammatory and oxidative stress factors in serum were determined by ELISA. The expression level of ROS was quantified by immunofluorescence (IF). The protein expressions of Bax, BCl-2, LC3, Beclin1, mTOR and p70S6K in renal tissue were detected by Western blot. KEY FINDINGS: Rapamycin was demonstrated to improve renal injury induced by Iodixanol diabetic rats, decrease the levels of SCr, BUN, KIM-1, NAG, improve renal functions, reduce inflammatory response and oxidative stress injury, down-regulate Bax, while up-regulate BCl-2 and inhibit apoptosis. Moreover, Rapamycin could inhibit the phosphorylation of mTOR/p70S6K pathway-associated proteins, activate autophagy and increase the levels of LC3 and Beclin1. After treatment with 3MA, an inhibitor of mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway, the protective effects of Rapamycin on CIAKI were weakened. SIGNIFICANCE: Rapamycin can alleviate renal injury induced by Iodixanol diabetic rats, and its regulatory mechanisms may be related to the regulation of mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway and the activating autophagy.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Sirolimo/metabolismo , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Fosforilação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estreptozocina/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Ácidos Tri-Iodobenzoicos/farmacologia
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3353, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620889

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the identification of hundreds of susceptibility loci across cancers, but the impact of further studies remains uncertain. Here we analyse summary-level data from GWAS of European ancestry across fourteen cancer sites to estimate the number of common susceptibility variants (polygenicity) and underlying effect-size distribution. All cancers show a high degree of polygenicity, involving at a minimum of thousands of loci. We project that sample sizes required to explain 80% of GWAS heritability vary from 60,000 cases for testicular to over 1,000,000 cases for lung cancer. The maximum relative risk achievable for subjects at the 99th risk percentile of underlying polygenic risk scores (PRS), compared to average risk, ranges from 12 for testicular to 2.5 for ovarian cancer. We show that PRS have potential for risk stratification for cancers of breast, colon and prostate, but less so for others because of modest heritability and lower incidence.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Modelos Genéticos , Herança Multifatorial , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Animais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Brain Pathol ; 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678959

RESUMO

Olfactory dysfunction is one of the early symptoms seen in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the mechanisms underlying olfactory pathology that impacts PD disease progression and post-mortem appearance of alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) inclusions in and beyond olfactory bulb in PD remain unclear. It has been suggested that environmental toxins inhaled through the nose can induce inflammation in the olfactory bulb (OB), where Lewy body (LB) is the first to be found, and then, spread to related brain regions. We hypothesize that OB inflammation triggers local α-Syn pathology and promotes its spreading to cause PD. In this study, we evaluated this hypothesis by intranasal infusion of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce OB inflammation in mice and examined cytokines expression and PD-like pathology. We found intranasal LPS-induced microglia activation, inflammatory cytokine expression and α-Syn overexpression and aggregation in the OB via interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß)/IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1R1) dependent signaling. In addition, an aberrant form of α-Syn, the phosphorylated serine 129 α-Syn (pS129 α-Syn), was found in the OB, substantia nigra (SN) and striatum 6 weeks after the LPS treatment. Moreover, 6 weeks after the LPS treatment, mice showed reduced SN tyrosine hydroxylase, decreased striatal dopaminergic metabolites and PD-like behaviors. These changes were blunted in IL-1R1 deficient mice. Further studies found the LPS treatment inhibited IL-1R1-dependent autophagy in the OB. These results suggest that IL-1ß/IL-1R1 signaling in OB play a vital role in the induction and propagation of aberrant α-Syn, which may ultimately trigger PD pathology.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 139735, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531590

RESUMO

Shared bicycles are prevailing in China but the extent to which they contribute to maintaining and transmitting pathogens and antibiotic-resistant bacteria remain largely unknown. To fill the knowledge gap, herein, swab samples (n = 963) were collected from handlebars of shared bicycles in areas of hospital, school, metro station (n = 887) and riders (n = 76) in Chengdu, China. Staphylococci (n = 241) and Enterococci (n = 69) were widely distributed across sampling locations at a frequency of 2.3%-12.9%, and 0.08%-5.5%, respectively. Bicycle or rider-borne Gram-positive bacteria were frequently resistant to clinically important antibiotics including linezolid, fosfomycin, and vancomycin, and a significant portion of these isolates (3.4%-16.6% for Staphylococci and 0.1%-13.8% for Enterococci) indicated multidrug resistance. Nineteen Staphylococcus aureus isolates were identified in this collection and 52.6% of which were considered as methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Whole genome sequencing further characterized 26 antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) including fosB, fusB, and lnu(G) in S. aureus and 21 ARGs including optrA in Enterococci. Leveraging a complementary approach with conventional MLST, whole genome SNP and MLST analyses, we present that genetically closely-related bacteria were found in bicycles and riders across geographical-distinct locations suggesting bacterial transmission. Further, five new ST types 5697-5701 were firstly characterized in S. aureus. ST 942 and ST 1640 are new ST types observed in E. faecalis, and E. faecium, respectively. Our results highlighted the risk of shared bicycle system in disseminating pathogens and antibiotic resistance which warrants effective disinfections.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Staphylococcus , Antibacterianos , Ciclismo , China , Enterococcus , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Prevalência , Staphylococcus aureus
10.
Nat Genet ; 52(6): 572-581, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424353

RESUMO

Breast cancer susceptibility variants frequently show heterogeneity in associations by tumor subtype1-3. To identify novel loci, we performed a genome-wide association study including 133,384 breast cancer cases and 113,789 controls, plus 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer) of European ancestry, using both standard and novel methodologies that account for underlying tumor heterogeneity by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. We identified 32 novel susceptibility loci (P < 5.0 × 10-8), 15 of which showed evidence for associations with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 0.05). Five loci showed associations (P < 0.05) in opposite directions between luminal and non-luminal subtypes. In silico analyses showed that these five loci contained cell-specific enhancers that differed between normal luminal and basal mammary cells. The genetic correlations between five intrinsic-like subtypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.80. The proportion of genome-wide chip heritability explained by all known susceptibility loci was 54.2% for luminal A-like disease and 37.6% for triple-negative disease. The odds ratios of polygenic risk scores, which included 330 variants, for the highest 1% of quantiles compared with middle quantiles were 5.63 and 3.02 for luminal A-like and triple-negative disease, respectively. These findings provide an improved understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer subtypes and will inform the development of subtype-specific polygenic risk scores.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Mutação , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231753, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369481

RESUMO

Lou onion (Allium fistulosum L. var. viviparum) is an abundant source of flavonols which provides additional health benefits to diseases. Genome-wide specific length amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing method is a rapidly developed deep sequencing technologies used for selection and identification of genetic loci or markers. This study aimed to elucidate the genetic diversity of 122 onion accessions in China using the SLAF-seq method. A set of 122 onion accessions including 107 A.fistulosum L. var. viviparum Makino, 3 A.fistulosum L. var. gigantum Makino, 3 A.mongolicum Regel and 9 A.cepa L. accessions (3 whites, 3 reds and 3 yellows) from different regions in China were enrolled. Genomic DNA was isolated from young leaves and prepared for the SLAF-seq, which generated a total of 1,387.55 M reads and 162,321 high quality SNPs (integrity >0.5 and MAF >0.05). These SNPs were used for the construction of neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree, in which 10 A.fistulosum L. var. viviparum Makino accessions from Yinchuan (Ningxia province) and Datong (Qinghai province) had close genetic relationship. The 3 A.cepa L. clusters (red, white and yellow) had close genetic relationship especially with the 97 A.fistulosum L. var. viviparum Makino accessions. Population structure analysis suggested entire population could be clustered into 3 groups, while principal component analysis (PCA) showed there were 4 genetic groups. We confirmed the SLAF-seq approach was effective in genetic diversity analysis in red onion accessions. The key findings would provide a reference to the Lou onion germplasm in China.


Assuntos
Cebolas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , China , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genética Populacional , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Análise de Componente Principal , Locos de Características Quantitativas
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466163

RESUMO

(1) Background: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health emergency that has caused worldwide concern. Vast resources have been allocated to control the pandemic and treat patients. However, little attention has been paid to the adverse impact on mental health or effective mitigation strategies to improve mental health. (2) Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the adverse impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on Chinese college students' mental health, understand the underlying mechanisms, and explore feasible mitigation strategies. (3) Methods: During the peak time of the COVID-19 outbreak in China, we conducted longitudinal surveys of sixty-six college students. Structured questionnaires collected information on demographics, physical activity, negative emotions, sleep quality, and aggressiveness level. A mixed-effect model was used to evaluate associations between variables, and the mediating effect of sleep quality was further explored. A generalized additive model was used to determine the dose-response relationships between the COVID-19 death count, physical activity, and negative emotions. (4) Results: The COVID-19 death count showed a direct negative impact on general sleep quality (ß = 1.37, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.55, 2.19) and reduced aggressiveness (ß = -6.57, 95% CI: -12.78, -0.36). In contrast, the COVID-19 death count imposed not a direct but an indirect impact on general negative emotions (indirect effect (IE) = 0.81, p = 0.012), stress (IE = 0.40, p < 0.001), and anxiety (IE = 0.27, p = 0.004) with sleep quality as a mediator. Moreover, physical activity directly alleviated general negative emotions (ß = -0.12, 95% CI: -0.22, -0.01), and the maximal mitigation effect occurred when weekly physical activity was about 2500 METs. (5) Conclusions: (a) The severity of the COVID-19 outbreak has an indirect effect on negative emotions by affecting sleep quality. (b) A possible mitigation strategy for improving mental health includes taking suitable amounts of daily physical activity and sleeping well.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Exercício Físico , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sono , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Bioinformatics ; 36(19): 4838-4845, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311007

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Third generation sequencing techniques, such as the Single Molecule Real Time technique from PacBio and the MinION technique from Oxford Nanopore, can generate long, error-prone sequencing reads which pose new challenges for fragment assembly algorithms. In this paper, we study the overlap detection problem for error-prone reads, which is the first and most critical step in the de novo fragment assembly. We observe that all the state-of-the-art methods cannot achieve an ideal accuracy for overlap detection (in terms of relatively low precision and recall) due to the high sequencing error rates, especially when the overlap lengths between reads are relatively short (e.g. <2000 bases). This limitation appears inherent to these algorithms due to their usage of q-gram-based seeds under the seed-extension framework. RESULTS: We propose smooth q-gram, a variant of q-gram that captures q-gram pairs within small edit distances and design a novel algorithm for detecting overlapping reads using smooth q-gram-based seeds. We implemented the algorithm and tested it on both PacBio and Nanopore sequencing datasets. Our benchmarking results demonstrated that our algorithm outperforms the existing q-gram-based overlap detection algorithms, especially for reads with relatively short overlapping lengths. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The source code of our implementation in C++ is available at https://github.com/FIGOGO/smoothq. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

14.
Biostatistics ; 2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112086

RESUMO

Cancers are routinely classified into subtypes according to various features, including histopathological characteristics and molecular markers. Previous genome-wide association studies have reported heterogeneous associations between loci and cancer subtypes. However, it is not evident what is the optimal modeling strategy for handling correlated tumor features, missing data, and increased degrees-of-freedom in the underlying tests of associations. We propose to test for genetic associations using a mixed-effect two-stage polytomous model score test (MTOP). In the first stage, a standard polytomous model is used to specify all possible subtypes defined by the cross-classification of the tumor characteristics. In the second stage, the subtype-specific case-control odds ratios are specified using a more parsimonious model based on the case-control odds ratio for a baseline subtype, and the case-case parameters associated with tumor markers. Further, to reduce the degrees-of-freedom, we specify case-case parameters for additional exploratory markers using a random-effect model. We use the Expectation-Maximization algorithm to account for missing data on tumor markers. Through simulations across a range of realistic scenarios and data from the Polish Breast Cancer Study (PBCS), we show MTOP outperforms alternative methods for identifying heterogeneous associations between risk loci and tumor subtypes. The proposed methods have been implemented in a user-friendly and high-speed R statistical package called TOP (https://github.com/andrewhaoyu/TOP).

15.
J Prosthodont ; 29(5): 387-393, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125065

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare in vitro fracture load, surface wear, and roughness after thermal cycling and cyclic mechanical fatigue loading among cemented microhybrid resin-based composite and ceramic occlusal veneers fabricated at two thicknesses (1.5 and 2.5 mm). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-four extracted premolars without root canal treatment were prepared and restored with occlusal veneers of two thicknesses (1.5 and 2.5 mm), using four different materials: microhybrid composite (MC), fiber-reinforced microhybrid composite (FMC), heat-pressed lithium disilicate ceramic (HPC), and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufactured lithium disilicate ceramic (CCC). The specimens underwent thermal cycling and cyclic mechanical fatigue loading, and were then subjected to fracture testing, with loads at failure recorded as fracture load. Wear and surface roughness were recorded before and after fatigue loading. Results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, two-way ANOVA (α = 0.05). RESULTS: All specimens survived thermal cycling and cyclic mechanical fatigue loading. At 1.5-mm thickness, the mean fracture load of FMC was highest (3926.48 ± 556.54 N), while that of CCC was highest (3066.45 ± 559.94 N) at 2.5 mm. Regardless of thickness, the fracture load of CCC was higher than that of HPC (p = 0.004 and p = 0.023). The wear of MC and FMC was significantly higher than those of HPC and CCC (p ≤ 0.001), but was similar in terms of the wear rate of tooth enamel. HPC exhibited the lowest surface roughness after fatigue loading (p ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSION: All tested occlusal veneers exhibited a fracture load considerably exceeding the maximum occlusal force in the posterior dentition. When the attainable space for restoration varies, different occlusal veneer materials should be considered. The surface wear and roughness also need to be considered when selecting materials.


Assuntos
Porcelana Dentária , Facetas Dentárias , Cerâmica , Materiais Dentários , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Teste de Materiais
16.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(3)2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023948

RESUMO

The low-cycle fatigue behavior of Al-9Si-4Cu-0.4Mg-0.3Sc alloy with different casting states was investigated by performing low-cycle fatigue tests and by means of observations and analysis with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). It was found that the metal-mold cast and die-cast Al-9Si-4Cu-0.4Mg-0.3Sc alloys exhibited the cyclic stress response of strain hardening under all imposed total strain amplitudes. The cyclic deformation resistance and fatigue life of the metal-mold cast Al-9Si-4Cu-0.4Mg-0.3Sc alloy were lower than those of the die-cast Al-9Si-4Cu-0.4Mg-0.3Sc alloy. The plastic strain and elastic strain amplitudes of the metal-mold cast and die-cast Al-9Si-4Cu-0.4Mg-0.3Sc alloys were linearly related to the number of reversals to failure, which obeyed the Coffin-Manson and Basquin formulas, respectively. The results of TEM observation revealed that at all imposed total strain amplitudes, the cyclic deformation mechanisms of the metal-mold cast and die-cast Al-9Si-4Cu-0.4Mg-0.3Sc alloys were planar slip and wavy slip at the lower and higher strain amplitudes, respectively.

17.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(3): 2453-2470, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019902

RESUMO

Recently, mitochondrial-nuclear interaction in aging has been widely studied. However, the nuclear genome controlled by natural mitochondrial variations that influence aging has not been comprehensively understood so far. We hypothesized that mitochondrial polymorphisms could play critical roles in the aging process, probably by regulation of the whole-transcriptome expression. Our results showed that mitochondria polymorphisms not only decreased the mitochondrial mass but also miRNA, lncRNA, mRNA, circRNA and metabolite profiles. Furthermore, most genes that are associated with mitochondria show age-related expression features (P = 3.58E-35). We also constructed a differentially expressed circRNA-lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA regulatory network and a ceRNA network affected by the mitochondrial variations. In addition, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses showed that the genes affected by the mitochondrial variation were enriched in metabolic activity. We finally constructed a multi-level regulatory network with aging which affected by the mitochondrial variation in Caenorhabditis elegans. The interactions between these genes and metabolites have great values for further aging research. In sum, our findings provide new evidence for understanding the molecular mechanisms of how mitochondria influence aging.

18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(3)2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050537

RESUMO

In the process of electron-beam freeform fabrication deposition, the surface of the deposit layer becomes rough because of the instability of the feeding wire and the changing of the thermal diffusion condition. This will make the droplet transfer distance change in the deposition process, and the droplet transfer cannot always be stable in the liquid bridge transfer state. It is easy to form a large droplet or make wire and substrate stick together, which makes the deposition quality worsen or even interrupts the deposition process. The current electron-beam freeform fabrication deposition is mostly open-loop control, so it is urgent to realize the real-time and closed-loop control of the droplet transfer and to make it stable in the liquid bridge transfer state. In this paper, a real-time monitoring method based on machine vision is proposed for the droplet transfer of electron-beam freeform fabrication. The detection accuracy is up to ± 0.08 mm. Based on this method, the measured droplet transfer distance is fed back to the platform control system in real time. This closed-loop control system can stabilize the droplet transfer distance within ± 0.14 mm. In order to improve the detection stability of the whole system, a droplet transfer detection algorithm suitable for this scenario has been written, which improves the adaptability of the droplet transfer distance detection method by means of dilatation/erosion, local minimum value suppression, and image segmentation. This algorithm can resist multiple disturbances, such as spatter, large droplet occlusion and so on.

19.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(2)2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952295

RESUMO

Natural materials are generally damage adaptive through their multilevel architectures, with the characteristics of compositional and mechanical gradients. This study demonstrated that the desired elastic gradient can be in-situ stress-induced in a titanium alloy, and that the alloy showed extreme fatigue-damage tolerance through the crack deflection and branch due to the formation of a three-dimensional elastically graded zone surrounding the crack tip. This looks like a perceptive and adaptive mechanism to retard the crack: the higher stress concentrated at the tip and the larger elastic gradient to be induced. The retardation is so strong that a gradient nano-grained layer with a thickness of less than 2 µm formed at the crack tip due to the highly localized and accumulated plasticity. Furthermore, the ultrafine-grained alloy with the nano-sized precipitation also exhibited good damage tolerance.

20.
Environ Int ; 135: 105346, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies diesel engine exhaust as carcinogenic to humans based on sufficient evidence for lung cancer. IARC noted, however, an increased risk of bladder cancer (based on limited evidence). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between quantitative, lifetime occupational diesel exhaust exposure and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder (UBC) overall and according to pathological subtypes. METHODS: Data from personal interviews with 1944 UBC cases, as well as formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue blocks, and 2135 controls were pooled from two case-control studies conducted in the U.S. and Spain. Lifetime occupational histories combined with exposure-oriented questions were used to estimate cumulative exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a primary surrogate for diesel exhaust. Unconditional logistic regression and two-stage polytomous logistic regression were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for smoking and other risk factors. RESULTS: Exposure to cumulative REC was associated with an increased risk of UBC; workers with cumulative REC >396 µg/m3-years had an OR of 1.61 (95% CI, 1.08-2.40). At this level of cumulative exposure, similar results were observed in the U.S. and Spain, OR = 1.75 (95% CI, 0.97-3.15) and OR = 1.54 (95% CI, 0.89-2.68), respectively. In lagged analysis, we also observed a consistent increased risk among workers with cumulative REC >396 µg/m3-years (range of ORs = 1.52-1.93) for all lag intervals evaluated (5-40 years). When we accounted for tumor subtypes defined by stage and grade, a significant association between diesel exhaust exposure and UBC was apparent (global test for association p = 0.0019). CONCLUSIONS: Combining data from two large epidemiologic studies, our results provide further evidence that diesel exhaust exposure increases the risk of UBC.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Exposição Ocupacional , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Emissões de Veículos , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade
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