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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 391: 122200, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044634

RESUMO

Straw biochar and straw application to paddy soil dramatically altered arsenic (As) biogeochemical cycling in soil-rice system, but it remains unknown how As biotransformation microbes (ABMs) contribute to these processes. In this study, rice pot experiments combining terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and clone library were performed to characterize ABMs. Through linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) and correlation analysis, results revealed that arrA-harbouring iron-reducing bacteria (e.g., Geobacter and Shewanella) and arsC-harbouring Gammaproteobacteria (e.g., fermentative hydrogen-producing and lignin-degrading microorganisms) potentially mediated arsenate [As(V)] reduction under biochar and straw amendments, respectively. Methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) carrying arsM gene might regulate methylated As concentration in soil-rice system. Network analysis demonstrated that the association among ABMs in rhizosphere was significantly stronger than that in bulk soil. Arsenite [As(III)] methylators carrying arsM gene exhibited much stronger co-occurrence pattern with arsC-harbouring As(V) reducers than with arrA-harbouring As(V) reducers. This study would broaden our insights for the dramatic variation of As biogeochemical cycling in soil-rice system after straw biochar and straw amendments through the activities of ABMs, which could contribute to the safe rice production and high rice yield in As-contaminated fields.

2.
Lung Cancer ; 139: 118-123, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775086

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The 2015 World Health Organization classification defines pulmonary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) as a high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. However, the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of pure LCNEC and combined LCNEC remain unclear. Hence, we performed a multi-center retrospective study to compare the clinical outcomes of pure versus combined LCNEC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 381 patients with pulmonary LCNEC admitted to 17 Chinese institutes between 2009 and 2016 were collected retrospectively. Clinical characteristics and prognosis were analyzed among patients receiving adjuvant (adjuvant group; n = 56) and first-line (first-line group; n = 146) chemotherapy, as well as among patients receiving small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-SCLC (NSCLC) chemotherapy regimens. The Kaplan-Meier method and multivariable Cox regression were used to identify clinicopathological variables that might influence patient outcomes. RESULTS: Expression levels of neuroendocrine markers (synaptophysin, chromogranin-A, CD56) were associated with patients' prognosis in the total study cohort. In the adjuvant group, median disease-free survival was non-significantly longer for SCLC-based regimens than for NSCLC-based regimens (P = 0.112). In the first-line group, median progression-free survival was significantly longer for SCLC-based regimens than for NSCLC-based regimens (11.5 vs. 7.2 months, P = 0.003). Among patients with combined LCNEC, adenocarcinoma was the most common combined component, accounting for 70.0 % of cases. Additionally, median overall survival was non-significantly shorter for combined LCNEC than for pure LCNEC (P = 0.083). CONCLUSION: The SCLC regimen is a more effective choice, as either first-line or adjuvant chemotherapy, when compared to the NSCLC regimen for LCNEC treatment. Further studies are needed to clarify the survival differences between patients with pure-, and combined LCNEC.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 383: 121160, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518812

RESUMO

The application of current soil quality standards based on total arsenic (As) fails to assess the ecological risks of soil arsenic or to ensure the safety of crops and foods. In this study, bioavailable arsenic instead of total arsenic was applied to improve predictive models for arsenic transfer from soil to wheat (Triticum turgidum L.). The stepwise multiple-linear regression analysis showed that bioavailable arsenic and amorphous iron oxides (FeOX) were the two most important factors contributing to arsenic accumulation in wheat grain, with the explained percentage of variation being up to 82%. Compared with the bioavailable arsenic extracted by NH4H2PO4, bioavailable arsenic extracted by HNO3 from soils generated better predictions of the amount of arsenic in grain. The best reliable model was log[Asgrain] = 0.917 log[HNO3-As] - 0.452 log[FeOX] - 1.507 (R2 = 0.82, P <  0.001). Consistently, bioavailable arsenic and FeOX were also the key factors to predict arsenic accumulation in wheat straw, leaves and spikes. Our prediction models was successfully verified for three independent soils. Our results highlight the role of soil bioavailable heavy metals in predicting their transfer in soil-plant systems and can be used to improve existing Chinese soil quality standards.

4.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794607

RESUMO

It is known that adaptive evolution in permanently cold environments drives cold adaptation in enzymes. However, how the relatively high enzyme activities were achieved in cold environments prior to cold adaptation of enzymes is unclear. Here we report that an Antarctic strain of Chlorella vulgaris, called NJ-7, acquired the capability to grow at near 0 °C temperatures and greatly enhanced freezing tolerance after systematic increases in abundance of enzymes/proteins and positive selection of certain genes. Having diverged from the temperate strain UTEX259 of the same species 2.5 (1.1-4.1) to 2.6 (1.0-4.5) million years ago, NJ-7 retained the basic mesophilic characteristics and genome structures. Nitrate reductases in the two strains are highly similar in amino acid sequence and optimal temperature, but the NJ-7 one showed significantly higher abundance and activity. Quantitative proteomic analyses indicated that several cryoprotective proteins (LEA), many enzymes involved in carbon metabolism and a large number of other enzymes/proteins, were more abundant in NJ-7 than in UTEX259. Like nitrate reductase, most of these enzymes were not upregulated in response to cold stress. Thus, compensation of low specific activities by increased enzyme abundance appears to be an important strategy for early stage cold adaptation to Antarctica, but such enzymes are mostly not involved in cold acclimation upon transfer from favorable temperatures to near 0 °C temperatures.

5.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(6): 821-826, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880112

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of atypical protein kinase Cι (PKCι) isoform PKC on the pancreatic cancer cells towards the tumoricidal effect of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells and explore its mechanisms. METHODS: CIK cells were prepared by inducing mononuclear cells isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy people with interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon (IFN) and CD3 mAb and subsequently co-cultured with pancreatic epithelial cell HPDE6-C7, pancreatic cancer cells MiaPaCa and PANC-1 with or without PKC inhibitor named sodium thiomalate (ATM). All cells were divided into control group, ATM group, co-culture group with CIK and co-culture group with CIK+ATM. Cell count was used to detect the growth of each group from 1 to 8 d. Flow cytometry was used to detect the death rate of the cell lines after 48 h cell culture in each group. The small hairpin RNA (shRNA) was used for PKCι knockdown and the recombinant plasmid transfection was for PKCι overexpression in pancreatic cancer cells. Western blot and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) were utilized to determine the expression of PKCι protein and the impact on gene expression of transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß), a downstream effector modulated by PKC. Different mass concentrations of TGF-ß (1, 10, 20 ng/mL) were added into the co-culture of MiaPaCa and PANC-1 with CIK. The cell death rate was detected by flow cytometry 48 h later, so as to explore the possible mechanisms of the impact of PKCι on the tumoricidal effects of CIK cells. RESULTS: ATM and CIK were shown to suppress the growth and induce apoptosis or death of pancreatic cancer cells, meanwhile, ATM can enhance the tumoricidal effect of CIK on pancreatic cancer cells. Moreover, we found that PKCι knockdown in pancreatic cancer cells can down-regulate the gene expression of TGF-ß. In return, PKCι overexpression in pancreatic cancer cells can increase the gene expression of TGF-ß. The death rate of cancer cells with 10, 20 ng/mL TGF-ß was lower compared with the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: PKCι knockdown in pancreatic cancer cells can not only inhibit the growth of pancreatic cancer cells, but also enhance the tumoricidal effects of CIK on cancer cells. The possible mechanism of PKCι is to affect the immune escape of tumor cells by regulating the expression of TGF-ß.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Induzidas por Citocinas , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Interleucina-2
6.
Front Oncol ; 9: 1153, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781485

RESUMO

Natural compounds are highly effective anticancer chemotherapeutic agents, and the targets of plant-derived anticancer agents have been widely reported. In this review, we focus on the main signaling pathways of apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis that are regulated by polyphenols, alkaloids, saponins, and polysaccharides. Alkaloids primarily affect apoptosis-related pathways, while polysaccharides primarily target pathways related to proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Other compounds, such as flavonoids and saponins, affect all of these aspects. The association between compound structures and signaling pathways may play a critical role in drug discovery.

7.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 4010764, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737170

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by elevated blood glucose and/or high serum free fatty acids. Chronic hyperlipidemia causes the dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells, which is aggravated in the presence of hyperglycemia (glucolipotoxicity). Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been suggested to play key roles in type 1 diabetes mellitus development. However, their roles in glucolipotoxicity-induced beta cell dysfunction are not fully understood. In the present study, we identified the differentially expressed lncRNAs in INS-1 cells exposed to high glucose and palmitate (HG/PA). Among the dysregulated lncRNAs, NONRATT003679.2 (low expression in glucolipotoxicity-treated beta cells (LEGLTBC)) was involved in glucolipotoxicity-evoked rat islet beta cell damage. LEGLTBC functioned as a molecular sponge of miR-34a in INS-1 cells. Additionally, SIRT1 was identified as a target of miR-34a and LEGLTBC promoted SIRT1 expression by sponging miR-34a. The upregulation of LEGLTBC attenuated HG/PA-induced INS-1 cell injury through the promotion of SIRT1-mediated suppression of ROS accumulation and apoptosis. This is the first study to comprehensively identify the lncRNA expression profiling of HG/PA-treated INS-1 beta cells and to demonstrate that LEGLTBC functions as a competing endogenous RNA and regulates miR-34a/SIRT1-mediated oxidative stress and apoptosis in INS-1 cells undergoing glucolipotoxicity.

8.
Cancer Manag Res ; 11: 8295-8302, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571987

RESUMO

Background: This study aims to compare the efficacy and adverse reactions of bortezomib for treating newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) through two different administration methods: intravenous (IV) injection and subcutaneous (SC) injection. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed in 205 patients with newly diagnosed MM, who were treated by the Department of Hematopathology, Henan Cancer Hospital, from June 2009 to December 2017. These patients were divided into two groups according to the treatment methods: IV injection group, IV injection of bortezomib; SC injection group, SC injection of bortezomib. Results: After the first course of treatment, the effect of very good partial remission (VGPR) or above (≥VGPR) in the IV injection group (IV group) and SC injection group (SC group) was 31.0% and 14.3%, respectively (P=0.004), while the overall response rate (ORR) was 72.0% and 49.5%, respectively (P=0.001). From the 2nd course to the 6th course of treatment, the ORR was not statistically different between these two groups. No significant difference was found in median progression-free survival (37 vs 45 months) and overall survival (63 vs 59 months). A lower frequency of adverse events, especially Grade 3 peripheral neuropathy, was observed in SC group compared with the IV group. Conclusion: Compared with IV administration, SC bortezomib can provide a better balance between efficacy and toxicity.

9.
Curr Med Sci ; 39(4): 576-581, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346993

RESUMO

The present analysis aims to investigate the prevalence of thyroid nodules in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) population. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science from inception to the March 1, 2018. The studies were selected to estimate the prevalence of thyroid nodules in T2DM subjects and to compare the prevalence of thyroid nodules in different glucose tolerance status. The random effects model was used, and the outcome was presented as a pooled prevalence proportion with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) or a summary odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI. In the end, 9 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The pooled prevalence of thyroid nodules was 60% (95% CI: 0.52, 0.68) for T2DM 2 diabetes patients, 50% (95% CI: 0.48, 0.51) for pre-diabetes, and 43% (95% CI: 0.34, 0.52) for normal glucose tolerance population. Compared with patients without diabetes, diabetes subjects are more likely to develop thyroid nodules, adjusted OR for thyroid nodule was 1.78 (95% CI: 1.25, 2.55). Insulin resistance might be involved in thyroid nodule development.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
11.
Future Oncol ; 15(19): 2241-2249, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215231

RESUMO

Aim: We evaluated the incidence, clinicopathological features, prognostic factors and survival of gastric cancer (GC) with bone metastasis in a single large cancer center in China. Patients & methods: Patients with bone metastasis of GC were retrospectively analyzed. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Clinicopathological factors, which were associated with prognostic factors for survival, were evaluated. Results: The incidence of bone metastasis was 11.3% for metastatic GC patients. Median overall survival time was 6.5 months. Multivariate analysis revealed two independent poor prognostic factors: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group ≥2 (p = 0.023) and lack of palliative chemotherapy (p = 0.018). Conclusion: The incidence of bone metastasis from metastatic GC was underestimated. The prognosis of GC with bone metastasis was poor.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Ósseas/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , China/epidemiologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Gastrectomia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
12.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 651-658, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108298

RESUMO

Dietary arsenic (As) intake from food is of great concern, and developing a reliable model capable of predicting As concentrations in plant edible parts is desirable. In this study, pot experiments were performed with 16 Chinese upland soils spiked with arsenate [As(V)] to develop a predictive model for As concentrations in pepper fruits (Capsicum annum L.). Our results showed that after three months' aging, concentrations of bioavailable As (extracted by 0.05 M NH4H2PO4) in various soils varied widely, depending on soil total As concentrations and soil properties such as soil pH and amorphous iron (Fe) contents. Furthermore, both the bioconcentration factor (BCF, denoted as the ratio of fruit As to soil As) and total As concentrations in pepper fruits were largely determined by concentrations of bioavailable As, which explained 27% and 69% variations in the BCF and fruit As concentrations, respectively. Apart from bioavailable As, soil pH and Fe contents were another two important factors influencing As accumulation in pepper fruits. Taking the three factors into account, concentrations of fruit As can be well predicted using a stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) analysis (R2 = 0.80, RMSE = 0.17). Arsenic species in soils and edible parts were also analyzed. Although As(V) predominated in soils (>96%), As in pepper fruits presented as As(V) (46%) and arsenite [As(III)] (39%) with small amount of methylated As (<15%). Aggregated boosted tree (ABT) analysis revealed that inorganic As concentrations in pepper fruits were determined by concentrations of bioavailable As, phosphorus (P) and Fe in soils. In contrast to inorganic As, methylated As concentrations were not correlated with those factors in soils. Taken together, this study established an empirical model for predicting As concentrations in pepper fruits. The predictive model can be used for establishing the As threshold in fruit vegetable farming soils.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/farmacocinética , Capsicum/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Arsenicais/análise , Arsenicais/química , Arsenicais/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ferro/análise , Fósforo/análise , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
13.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 25(10): 1142-1150, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955248

RESUMO

AIMS: Previous studies indicated that intraventricular injection of thrombin would induce hydrocephalus. But how thrombin works in this process remains unclear. Since cadherin plays a critical role in hydrocephalus, we aimed to explore the mechanisms of how thrombin acted on choroid plexus vascular endothelium and how thrombin interacted with vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin) during hydrocephalus. METHODS: There were two parts in this study. Firstly, rats received an injection of saline or thrombin into the right lateral ventricle. Magnetic resonance imaging was applied to measure the lateral ventricle volumes. Albumin leakage and Evans blue content were assessed to test the blood-brain barrier function. Immunofluorescence and Western blot were applied to detect the location and the expression of VE-cadherin. Secondly, we observed the roles of protease-activated receptors-1 (PAR1) inhibitor (SCH79797), Src inhibitor (PP2), p21-activated kinase-1 (PAK1) inhibitor (IPA3) in the thrombin-induced hydrocephalus, and their effects on the regulation of VE-cadherin. RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that intraventricular injection of thrombin caused significant downregulation of VE-cadherin in choroid plexus and dilation of ventricles. In addition, the inhibition of PAR1/p-Src/p-PAK1 pathway reversed the decrease of VE-cadherin and attenuated thrombin-induced hydrocephalus. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that the thrombin-induced hydrocephalus was associated with the inhibition of VE-cadherin via the PAR1/p-Src/p-PAK1 pathway.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 666: 1209-1219, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970486

RESUMO

Rivers and reservoirs are affected by human activities and are sources of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Concentrations of N2O in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River and Xiaolangdi Reservoir, China, were measured in June and December 2017. Fluxes were estimated by boundary layer method to explore their controlling factors, especially the impact of damming and reservoir operation. In the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, N2O concentrations in surface waters were 26.65 ±â€¯14.67 nmol L-1 in summer and 21.16 ±â€¯5.35 nmol L-1 in winter. In comparison, the concentrations of N2O in the reservoir were 32.94 ±â€¯17.32 nmol L-1 in summer and 23.73 ±â€¯5.60 nmol L-1 in winter. The longitudinal distribution of N2O along the river exhibited different patterns with surface N2O decreasing downstream towards the dam in summer but increasing in winter. Vertical profiles of N2O concentrations in the reservoir showed an increase with depth in summer but were almost vertically uniform in winter. In winter, N2O that had accumulated in the bottom water in summer was transported to the surface by vertical mixing and released into the atmosphere. Dissolved oxygen (DO), water temperature, and in situ biological production were the main factors affecting the distribution of N2O. The mean emissions rates of N2O from the surface waters were 13.7 ±â€¯8.8 µmol m-2 d-1 in summer and 13.2 ±â€¯7.6 µmol m-2 d-1 in winter. Approximately 1.31 × 106 mol N2O was released from the reservoir surface in 2017, which represents 0.12% of the annual N2O emissions from global reservoirs. The construction of dams increased N2O emission from the lower reaches of the river by 4.53 × 105 mol and 1.22 × 105 mol due to the discharge of the bottom water and the water and sediment regulation, respectively. This study demonstrates that the construction of dams and reservoir operation practices have made the Xiaolangdi Reservoir a key area for N2O emissions.

15.
J Cell Physiol ; 234(8): 13534-13543, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609027

RESUMO

Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is known to induce hypertension, but the mechanism is not well understood. We hypothesized that sensory plasticity of the carotid body (CB) and oxidative stress in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are involved in CIH-induced hypertension. In this study, rats were exposed to CIH for 28 days (intermittent hypoxia of 21% O2 for 60 s and 5% O2 for 30 s, cyclically repeated for 8 hr/day) and then randomly grouped for intracerebroventricular injection of 5-HT2 receptor antagonist ritanserin, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632, and NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), respectively. We found that CIH increased blood pressure (BP), elevated carotid sinus nerve (CSN) and renal sympathetic nerve (RSN) activities, oxidative stress, and cell apoptosis in PVN. NOX-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell apoptosis decreased when CIH-induced activation of 5-HT/5-HT2AR/PKC signaling was inhibited by ritanserin. In addition, RhoA expression was downregulated when oxidative stress was attenuated by DPI, while Y-27632 decreased the expression of endothelin-1, which is overexpressed in the vascular wall during hypertension. Moreover, treatment with ritanserin, DPI or Y-27632 attenuated the sensory plasticity and sympathetic hyperactivity as well as CIH-induced elevation of BP. In conclusion, CIH-induced activation of 5-HT/5-HT2AR/PKC signaling contributes to NOX-derived oxidative stress in PVN, which may cause sensory plasticity of CB, RSN hyperactivity, and elevated BP.

16.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 163: 24-33, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30278323

RESUMO

Here, time-decoupled comprehensive two-dimensional ultra-high liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with an ion mobility (IM)-high resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS) was established and used to analyze ginsenosides from the main roots of white ginseng (WG) and red ginseng (RG), which enabled the separation of complex samples in four dimensions (2D-LC, ion mobility, and mass spectrometry). The incompatibility of mobile phases, dilution effect, and long analysis time, which are the main shortcomings of traditional comprehensive 2D-LC methods, were largely avoided in this newly established 2D-UHPLC method. The orthogonality of this system was 55%, and the peak capacity was 4392. Under the optimized 2D-UHPLC-IM-MS method, 201 ginsenosides were detected from white and red ginseng samples. Among them, 10 pairs of co-eluting isobaric ginseng saponins that were not resolved by 2D-UHPLC-HRMS were further resolved using 2D-UHPLC-IM-MS. In addition, 24 ginsenoside references were analyzed by UHPLC-IM-MS to obtain their collision cross section (CCS) values and ion mobility characteristics. Finally, the established new method combined with multivariate statistical analysis was successfully applied to differentiate WG and RG, and 9 ginsenosides were found to be the potential biomarkers by S-Plot and the values of max fold change, which could be used for classifying WG and RG samples. Overall, the obtained results demonstrate the applicability and potential of the established time-decoupled online comprehensive 2D-UHPLC-IM-MS system, and it will be extended to the analysis of other targeted or untargeted compounds, especially co-eluting isomers in more herbal extracts.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Ginsenosídeos/análise , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Fracionamento Químico/instrumentação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/instrumentação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
17.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 44(2): 157-162, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548302

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Aristolochic acid (AA) is an abundant compound in Aristolochia plants and various natural herbs. In the 1990s, a slimming formula used in Belgium that contains Aristolochia fangchi was reported to cause kidney damage and bladder cancer, and aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) is now well recognized worldwide. In October 2017, researchers reported an AA signature that is closely associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. COMMENT: There are differing opinions on the toxicity of AA, and different countries have taken different measures to address the issue. There is a lack of clarity on the causal role of AA in hepatocarcinogenesis and on the potential underlying mechanisms for the reported nephrotoxicity and carcinogenicity. The toxicity of AA differs depending on gender and age, and other risk factors that could explain the variability in the toxicity of AA remain to be identified. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: Whether preparations containing AA, such as many Chinese medicines, should be used remains controversial, and this issue warrants further investigation before definite conclusions can be drawn.


Assuntos
Ácidos Aristolóquicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Hepáticas/induzido quimicamente , Fatores Etários , Ácidos Aristolóquicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 12: 3847-3854, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510400

RESUMO

Introduction: Secondary brain injury is a major factor that affects the prognosis and outcome of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. Secondary brain edema is considered to be an initiating factor in secondary brain injury after TBI. A previous study has indicated that Notch signaling activation contributes to neuron death in mice affected by stroke; however, its role in neuronal oxidation stress for brain edema after TBI is not well established. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values can represent the brain edema after TBI. Methods: We established a rat model of acute craniocerebral injury, using functional MRI to evaluate the ADC and cerebral blood flow values. The present study was designed to determine the effect of Notch inhibitor DAPT upon oxidation stress for brain edema after TBI. Rats were randomly distributed into five groups, control group, severe TBI group, severe TBI + vehicle group, severe TBI + DAPT group, and severe TBI + DPI group. All rats were sacrificed at 24 hours after TBI. Results: Our data indicated that Notch signaling inhibitor DAPT significantly reduced the ADC values and improved the neurological function after TBI. In addition, DAPT decreased NOX2 levels and the ROS levels. Furthermore, DPI can decrease NOX2 levels and ROS levels. Conclusion: This study indicated that DAPT Notch signal inhibitors can inhibit NOX2-ROS generation, reduce the ADC values, relieve cerebral edema, and improve nerve function.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Diaminas/farmacologia , Difusão , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , NADPH Oxidase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Notch/antagonistas & inibidores , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , NADPH Oxidase 2/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/metabolismo
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 4232794, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30539011

RESUMO

Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is the most severe manifestation of peripheral artery disease, which is common but rarely diagnosed. Noninvasive biomarkers are urgently required to assist in the diagnosis of CLI. Accumulating evidence indicates that miRNAs play an important role in the development of various diseases. In this study, microarray profiling revealed 11 miRNAs with significantly altered expression in four T2DM patients with CLI compared with that in four sex- and age-matched T2DM patients without CLI. In independent cohorts, qRT-PCR validation confirmed the increased miRNA-4739 level in patients with CLI versus patients without CLI. miRNA-4739 levels increased with FPG and HbA1c (all P < 0.05). After adjusting for the risk factors, miRNA-4739 levels were found to be associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) of T2DM with CLI (OR =12.818, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.148 to 143.143, P = 0.038). ROC curve analysis revealed that the area under the curve (AUC) of miR-4739+confounding risk factors was 0.94 (95% CI 0.891 to 0.998, P < 0.001), which was higher than that of confounding risk factors (AUC 0.94 vs. 0.91, 95% CI -0.122 to 0.060, P > 0.05) and of miR-4739 (AUC 0.94 vs. 0.69, 95% CI -0.399 to -0.101, P < 0.001), respectively. We conclude that elevated plasma miRNA-4739 levels are independently associated with CLI in T2DM patients. miRNA-4739 is implicated as a novel diagnostic marker and a potential therapeutic target for CLI in diabetes.


Assuntos
MicroRNA Circulante/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Pé Diabético/diagnóstico , Pé/irrigação sanguínea , MicroRNAs/sangue , MicroRNAs/genética , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , MicroRNA Circulante/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Pé Diabético/sangue , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Isquemia/sangue , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Isquemia/genética , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Curva ROC , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
20.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 43(11): 722-4, 2018 Nov 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30585470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immediate effect of moxibustion at Shenshu (BL 23) on renal hemodynamics in patients with chronic kidney disease(CKD).. METHODS: Thirty-two non-dialysis patients with CKD were recruited in this study. Moxibustion was applied at bilateral BL 23 for 30 min. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV) of the interlobar renal artery were measured by Doppler ultrasonography (US) before, and 0 and 15 min after moxibustion. The renal resistance index (RI) was equal to (PSV-EDV)/PSV. The body temperature (T), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR) were also monitored at the same time points. RESULTS: After moxibustion, the EVD level at 15 min after moxibustion was significantly increased (P<0.05), and the renal RI levels at 0 and 15 min after moxibustion were significantly down-regulated in comparison with their own pre-treatment (P<0.01). No significant changes were found in the levels of PSV, T, SBP, DBP and HR after moxibustion (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Moxibustion at BL 23 can increase EDV and reduce renal RI of the interlobar renal artery in patients with CKD, which may be useful in relieving kidney disorders by improving renal blood flow.


Assuntos
Moxibustão , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Pressão Sanguínea , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Rim
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