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1.
Adv Mater ; : e2106208, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734442

RESUMO

DNA-based gels are attractive materials as they allow intuitive rational design, respond to external physicochemical stimuli, and show great potential for biomedical applications. However, their relatively poor mechanical properties currently limit their technological application considerably as the latter requires mechanical integrity and tunability. With this work, a DNA organogel is reported that gels through supramolecular interactions, which induce mesophase ordering, and that exhibits exceptional stretchability, deformability, plasticity, and biocompatibility. Moreover, the nature of the supramolecular bond enables complete self-healing within 3 s. Most importantly, the DNA-based liquid crystalline organogels exhibit impressive ultimate tensile strengths above 1 MPa, stiffness higher than 20 MPa, and toughness up to 18 MJ m-3 , rendering these materials the strongest among reported DNA networks. In addition, the facile access is demonstrated to composite DNA materials by blending magnetic nanoparticles with the organogel matrix giving access to magnetic field induced actuation. It is believed that these findings contribute significantly to the advancement of DNA gels for their use in smart materials and biomedical applications.

2.
Biol Fertil Soils ; 57(7): 881-894, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759437

RESUMO

To improve soil health and to aid in climate change mitigation, the quantity of soil organic matter (SOM) should be maintained or increased over the long run. In doing so, not only the total quantity of SOC but also the stability of SOC must be considered. Stability of SOC increases as a function of resistance to microbial decomposition or microbial substrate use efficiency through chemical, biological, and physical mechanisms including humification, hydrophobic moieties, molecular diversity, and formation of macroaggregates. One of the mechanisms that enhance stability confers changes in the distribution of C functional groups of SOM. To better understand and quantify how these changes are influenced by agricultural management practices, we collected 670 pairwise data from the body of literature that has evaluated changes in the distribution of C functional groups of SOM measured by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. The types of agricultural managements discussed herein include (1) fertilization, (2) tillage, (3) crop rotation, (4) grazing, and (5) liming practices. Our meta-analyses show that these practices modify the distribution of C functional groups of SOM. Fertilization practices were associated with increased O-alkyl groups. Tillage resulted in increases in the SOC consisted of aromatic and carbonyl groups. Crop rotations, especially legume-based rotations, were found to increase the proportion of aromatic groups. Although there are fewer publications on tillage and crop rotation than on fertilization practices, the distribution of C functional groups may be more influenced by crop rotation and tillage practices than fertilization management-and should be a focus of future research. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s00374-021-01580-2.

3.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(44): 10880-10885, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730355

RESUMO

Despite the fact that chemotherapy has been widely used in the clinical treatment of breast cancer, the toxicity of chemotherapeutics to normal tissues cannot be ignored due to the low specificity. Therefore, due to the non-negligible toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents to normal tissues, tumor microenvironment (TME)-responsive cancer therapy has attracted a great deal of attention. Here, we report a TME-responsive theranostic nanoagent MnOx@PAA@HKUST-1-DSF@BSA fabricated via a layer-by-layer synthesis method. Once endocytosed by tumor cells, the nanoagent can be degraded into Mn2+ for magnetic resonance imaging and Cu2+ for Fenton-like reaction and chelating with released disulfiram in situ, achieving enhanced chemotherapy. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that the TME-targeted nanoagent can efficiently kill tumor cells. This work provides an alternative option for effective imaging and treatment of breast cancer without collateral damage to normal tissues.

4.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2021: 5527627, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744512

RESUMO

Immune disorders play an important role in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). Notably, the increased immune response of Th1 cells and related cytokines is associated with the onset of CD. IL-27 is a newly discovered IL-12-related cytokine, but its expression and clinical significance in CD patients are still controversial. This study is aimed at evaluating the serum levels of IL-27 in CD patients and analyzing their clinical significance. The results indicated that serum levels of IL-27 in CD patients were significantly higher than those in control subjects (median (interquartile range (IQR)): 110.0 (95.0, 145.0) vs. 85.0 (80.0, 95.0) pg/ml, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the IL-27 levels significantly increased in CD patients at the active stage compared with CD patients in remission (CDR) (127.5 (100.0, 150.0) vs. 90 (80.0, 110.0) pg/ml, P < 0.001). However, there was no difference in IL-27 levels between CDR and control subjects. The levels of IL-27 were positively correlated with Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI), C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fecal calprotectin (FC), and Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease (SES-CD) and negatively correlated with hemoglobin (Hb) and serum albumin (ALB). IL-27 combined with CRP favored the prediction of CD activity (area under the curve (AUC): 0.88). Additionally, the proportions of Th17 and Th1 cells in peripheral blood were higher in CD patients than in control subjects. Active CD patients exhibited significantly higher proportions of Th17 and Th1 cells than those in remission. Moreover, correlation analysis indicated that the serum levels of IL-27 were positively associated with the frequency of Th17 cells in CD patients (r = 0.519, P = 0.013) but not associated with the frequency of Th1 cells in CD patients. IL-27 is positively associated with multiple inflammation indicators and may exert a proinflammatory profile by regulating Th17 cell differentiation in the development of Crohn's disease. In the future, IL-27 combined with CRP is expected to become an important biological marker of CD activity.

5.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 433, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiota is thought to be involved in the occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease in remission with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms, but the specific distinct profile of these bacteria remains unclear. This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the fecal microbiota profiling in patients with these diseases. METHODS: Fecal samples from 97 subjects, including Crohn's disease patients in remission with IBS-type symptoms (CDR-IBS+) or without IBS-type symptoms (CDR-IBS-), ulcerative colitis patients in remission with IBS-type symptoms (UCR-IBS+) or without IBS-type symptoms (UCR-IBS-), IBS patients and healthy controls, were collected and applied 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene sequencing. The V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA gene were amplified and sequenced by the Illumina MiSeq platform. The differences in the sample diversity index in groups were analyzed with R software. RESULTS: The richness of the intestinal microbiota in the CDR-IBS group was markedly lower than those in the control and IBS groups based on the analysis of observed species and the Chao index (P < 0.05). The observed species index in the CDR-IBS+ group was higher than that in the CDR-IBS- group (median index: 254.8 vs 203, P = 0.036). No difference was found in alpha diversity between UCR patients with IBS-type symptoms and those without related symptoms. At the genus level, the number of Faecalibacterium in CDR patients with IBS-type symptoms increased significantly, while Fusobacterium decreased versus those without such symptoms (mean relative abundance of Faecalibacterium: 20.35% vs 5.18%, P < 0.05; Fusobacterium: 1.51% vs 5.2%, P < 0.05). However, compared with the UCR-IBS- group, the number of Faecalibacterium in the UCR-IBS+ group decreased, while the number of Streptococcus increased, but there was no significant difference in the genus structure. The abundance and composition of the microbiota of IBS patients were not distinct from those of healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: The IBS-type symptoms in CD patients in remission may be related to an increase in Faecalibacterium and a decrease in Fusobacterium. The IBS-type symptoms in UC patients in remission cannot be explained by changes in the abundance and structure of the intestinal microbiota.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Microbiota , Estudos Transversais , Fezes , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/complicações
6.
J Mater Chem B ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842263

RESUMO

As an incurable metabolic disease, gouty arthritis (GA) requires long-term treatment with frequent drug administration several times per day. Compared to non-specific small organic medications, interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) blocking therapies, such as IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), show great therapeutic potential in clinical trials of GA. However, IL-1Ra application is starkly limited due to its short half-life and poor bioavailability. Herein, we demonstrate a new type of nanotherapeutic formulation via noncovalent assembly of an engineered IL-1Ra chimera protein. PEGylation was employed to induce such assembly by exploiting electrostatic complexation and hydrophobic interactions. The engineered protein nanoparticles had a combination of biocompatibility, improved bioavailability and therapeutic performance. It showed extraordinary long-term anti-inflammatory effect and robust bio-efficacy for GA therapy in acute GA rat models. Strikingly, this nanoprotein system possesses an ultralong half-life of 27 hours and a bioavailability 7 times higher than that of pristine IL-1Ra, thus extending the dosing interval from several hours to more than 3 days. Therefore, our noncovalent assembly strategy via an engineered chimeric protein empowers the construction of potent delivery nanosystems for efficient GA treatment, and this might be adapted for other therapeutics to form long-acting formulations.

7.
Gastroenterol Res Pract ; 2021: 5557357, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621310

RESUMO

Aim: To explore the expression of long noncoding RNA (LncRNA) LUCAT1 in adult patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and evaluate the relationship between LncRNA LUCAT1 and the disease activity in Chinese patients with CD. Methods: Patients with CD and healthy participants (≥18 years old) were enrolled in this study between January 2018 and December 2019. The expression of LncRNA LUCAT1 in plasma samples was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Basic characteristics of patients with CD were collected, including gender, age, clinical stage, disease behavior, disease location, C-reactive protein (CRP), platelet (PLT), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fecal calprotectin (FC), Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) score, and simplified Crohn's disease endoscopic score (SES-CD). Results: In total, 168 patients with CD and 65 healthy participants (≥18 years old) were enrolled in this study. Among them, ninety patients with clinically active CD, seventy-eight patients with CD in clinical remission, forty-eight patients with endoscopically active CD, thirty patients with endoscopically inactive CD, and sixty-five healthy participants. LncRNA LUCAT1 was increased in plasma of patients with CD compared with the control group. The plasma LncRNA LUCAT1 level of patients with CD both in the clinical and endoscopic active phase was higher than that of both the clinical and endoscopic remission phase. The plasma level of LncRNA LUCAT1 in patients with CD was positively correlated with ESR, CRP, FC, CDAI, and SES-CD. There was no significant correlation between the level of LUCAT1 and platelets. The plasma LncRNA LUCAT1 level in patients with CD had significant differences between severe active patients and mild/moderate active patients. Conclusion: The plasma LncRNA LUCAT1 is positively associated with the disease activity in patients with CD, and it may act as a noninvasive biomarker to identify the degree of disease activity.

8.
Chem Sci ; 12(37): 12234-12247, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603654

RESUMO

As a necessary substance to maintain the body's normal life activities, metal ions are ubiquitous in organisms and play a major role in various complex physiological and biochemical processes, such as material transportation, energy conversion, information transmission, metabolic regulation, etc. Their abnormal distribution/accumulation in cells can interfere with these processes, causing irreversible physical damage to cells or activating biochemical reactions to induce cell death. Therefore, metal ions can be exploited against a wide spectrum of cancers with high efficiency and without drug resistance, which can effectively inhibit the growth of cancer cells by triggering biocatalysis, breaking the osmotic balance, affecting metabolism, interfering with signal transduction, damaging DNA, etc. This perspective systematically summarizes the latest research progress of metal ion-based anti-tumor therapy, and emphasizes the challenges and development directions of this type of therapeutic strategy, hoping to provide a general implication for future research.

9.
ACS Omega ; 6(40): 26231-26238, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660982

RESUMO

Gas production from each perforation cluster has an obvious difference along with the horizontal wellbore in shale gas reservoirs. Some special perforation clusters evenly do not produce any gas, which means that those perforation clusters are not fractured. In shale gas reservoirs, only when the shale gas section was fractured with equal volumes of fracturing fluids, gas can be produced evenly. In this study, a stress theory around the perforation tunnel considering the stress around the wellbore and an induced stress by leaking of the fluid and the tunnel is presented. The results show that (1) fractures will quickly be created at two of the three perforation clusters and then the fracture of the cluster initiates. (2) The rate through each cluster is different, and the fracture volume created will have a big difference. (3) The fracture distribution between three perforation clusters are different, thus shale gas production also will be different. The theory and the method presented in this paper, can be used for different reservoirs besides shale gas reservoirs, thus it can be applied and referred widely.

10.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(44): 10746-10752, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714073

RESUMO

The application of CsPbCl3 perovskite is limited by the low photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY), weak luminescence, and unpromising stability. Doping impurity ions has been considered as an effective strategy to tune the optoelectronic performances of perovskite. In this work, heterovalent Ti3+ ions are successfully doped into CsPbCl3 nanocrystals. It is found that Ti3+ ion doping could effectively improve the photoluminescence (PL) performance of CsPbCl3 nanocrystals. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that Ti3+ ions could introduce more band-edge states around the conduction band minimum of CsPbCl3, which is conducive to release electrons into conduction band. Furthermore, Ti3+ ion doping could inhibit the Cl vacancy concentration in CsPbCl3 and prevent the in-gap state caused by Cl vacancy. Notably, the stability of CsPbCl3 perovskite is greatly improved through Ti3+ ion doping. This work provides a new perspective for improving the optoelectronic properties of all-inorganic perovskites through heterovalent metal ion doping.

11.
Chemistry ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622998

RESUMO

Protein-based adhesives with their robust adhesion performance and excellent biocompatibility have been extensively explored over years. In particular, the unique adhesion behaviours of mussel and sandcastle worm inspired the development of synthetic adhesives. However, the chemical synthesized adhesives often demonstrate weak underwater adhesion performance and poor biocompatibility/biodegradability, limiting their further biomedical applications. In sharp contrast, genetically engineering endows the protein-based adhesives the ability to maintain underwater adhesion property as well as biocompatibility/biodegradability. Herein, we outline recent advances in the design and development of protein-based adhesives by genetic engineering. We summarize the fabrication and adhesion performance of elastin-like polypeptide-based adhesives, followed by mussel foot protein (mfp) based adhesives and other sources protein-based adhesives, such as, spider silk spidroin and suckerin. In addition, the biomedical applications of these bioengineered protein-based adhesives are presented. Finally, we give a brief summary and perspective on the future development of bioengineered protein-based adhesives.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(41): 48378-48385, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632756

RESUMO

Despite bismuth-based energy conversion nanomaterials having attracted extensive attention for nanomedicine, the nanomaterials suffer from major shortcomings including low tumor accumulation, long internal retention time, and undesirable photothermal conversion efficiency (PCE). To combat these challenges, bovine serum albumin and folic acid co-modified Bi2Se3 nanomedicine with rich selenium vacancies (abbreviated as VSe-BS) was fabricated for the second near-infrared (NIR-II) light-triggered photonic hyperthermia. More importantly, selenium vacancies on the crystal planes (0 1 5) and (0 1 11) of VSe-BS with similar formation energies could be distinctively observed via aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy images. The defect engineering endows VSe-BS with enhanced conductivity, making VSe-BS possess outstanding PCE (54.1%) in the NIR-II biowindow and desirable photoacoustic imaging performance. Tumor ablation studies indicate that VSe-BS possesses satisfactory therapeutic outcomes triggered by NIR-II light. These findings give rise to inspiration for further broadening the biological applications of defect engineering bismuth-based nanomaterials.

13.
Adv Mater ; : e2103936, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596931

RESUMO

Metal phosphorus-based nanomaterials (Metal-P NMs) including metal phosphate nanomaterials, metal phosphide nanomaterials, and metal-black phosphorus (Metal-BP) nanocomposite are widely used in the field of biomedicine owing to their excellent physical and chemical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. In recent years, metal phosphate nanomaterials and Metal-BP nanocomposite acted as medicine delivery system have made breakthroughs in tumor diagnosis including magnetic resonance imaging, fluorescence imaging, photoacoustic imaging, nuclear imaging, and therapies including chemotherapy, gene therapy, photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, and radiation therapy. Metal phosphate nanomaterials have good biodegradability, especially calcium-based metal phosphate nanomaterials can be dissolved into nontoxic ions and participate in the metabolisms of normal organs. Compared with metal phosphate nanomaterials, metal phosphide nanomaterials have excellent optical, magnetic, and catalytic properties, which can be used as multifunctional diagnostic nanoplatforms and therapeutic agents for chemodynamic therapy, photothermal therapy, or immunotherapy. The latest developments in Metal-P NMs, covering the range of preparation methods and biological applications, such as serving as drug carriers, tumor diagnosis, and therapy, are focused. All in all, the current trends, key issues, future prospects and challenges of Metal-P NMs are concluded and discussed, which are important for the development of this research field and shining more lights on this direction.

14.
Curr Drug Targets ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636297

RESUMO

Coronaviruses have been receiving continuous attention worldwide as they have caused a serious threat to global public health. This group of viruses is named so as they exhibit characteristic crown-like spikes on their protein coat. SARS-CoV-2, a type of coronavirus that emerged in 2019, causes severe infection in the lower respiratory tract of humans and is often fatal in immunocompromised individuals. No medications have been approved so far for the direct treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the currently available treatment options rely on relieving the symptoms. The medicinal plants occurring in nature serve as a rich source of active ingredients that could be utilized for developing pharmacopeial and non-pharmacopeial/synthetic drugs with antiviral properties. Compounds obtained from certain plants have been used for directly and selectively inhibiting different coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. The present review discusses the potential natural inhibitors against the highly pathogenic human coronaviruses, with a systematic elaboration on the possible mechanisms of action of these natural compounds while acting in the different stages of the life cycle of coronaviruses. Moreover, through a comprehensive exploration of the existing literature in this regard, the importance of such compounds in the research and development of effective and safe antiviral agents is discussed. We focused on the mechanism of action of several natural compounds along with their target of action. In addition, the immunomodulatory effects of these active components in the context of human health are elucidated. Finally, it is suggested that the use of traditional medicinal plants is a novel and feasible remedial strategy against human coronaviruses.

15.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 27(4): 612-625, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642282

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Some inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients in remission suffer from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like symptoms (IBD-IBS). The pathogenesis has not yet been elucidated. The study aim is to evaluate relationships among quality of life (QOL), psychological status, and visceral sensitivity, and explore the formation mechanism of IBD-IBS. Methods: Forty-seven patients with Crohn's disease in remission, 24 ulcerative colitis in remission, 26 IBS, and 20 healthy controls were included in the study. The abdominal pain, QOL, anxiety, and depression were evaluated through questionnaires. Visceral sensitivity was measured by rectal balloon distension. The serum levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and nerve growth factor (NGF) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expressions of tryptase, 5-HT, NGF, and related receptors in colonic tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Results: Prevalence of IBS-like symptoms in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients in clinical remission was 29.8% and 50.0%, respectively. The QOL was lower, the anxiety/depression scores were higher in IBD-IBS patients than those without IBS-like symptoms. Additionally, patients with IBD-IBS existed visceral hypersensitivity. Besides, abdominal pain was associated with poor QOL, visceral hypersensitivity, anxiety, and depression in IBD-IBS patients. The number of mast cells (MCs) and expressions of 5-HT, NGF, and related receptors were higher in IBD-IBS patients than those with no such symptoms. The serum levels of 5-HT and NGF positively correlated with abdominal pain and visceral hypersensitivity. Conclusion: IBD-IBS patients may have low QOL and psychological abnormalities, as wells as visceral hypersensitivity which may be related to increased 5-HT and NGF levels released from activated mast cells.

16.
Microb Ecol ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585289

RESUMO

At certain nutrient concentrations, shallow freshwater lakes are generally characterized by two contrasting ecological regimes with disparate patterns of biodiversity and biogeochemical cycles: a macrophyte-dominated regime (MDR) and a phytoplankton-dominated regime (PDR). To reveal ecological mechanisms that affect bacterioplankton along the regime shift, Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene combined with a novel network clustering tool (Manta) were used to identify patterns of bacterioplankton community composition across the regime shift in Taihu Lake, China. Marked divergence in the composition and ecological assembly processes of bacterioplankton community was observed under the regime shift. The alpha diversity of the bacterioplankton community consistently and continuously decreased with the regime shift from MDR to PDR, while the beta diversity presents differently. Moreover, as the regime shifted from MDR to PDR, the contribution of deterministic processes (such as environmental selection) to the assembly of bacterioplankton community initially decreased and then increased again as regime shift from MDR to PDR, most likely as a consequence of differences in nutrient concentration. The topological properties, including modularity, transitivity and network diameter, of the bacterioplankton co-occurrence networks changed along the regime shift, and the co-occurrences among species changed in structure and were significantly shaped by the environmental variables along the regime transition from MDR to PDR. The divergent environmental state of the regimes with diverse nutritional status may be the most important factor that contributes to the dissimilarity of bacterioplankton community composition along the regime shift.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585505

RESUMO

Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite, functioning as a signalling molecule in diverse cellular processes. Over the past few decades, studies of S1P signalling have revealed that the physiological activity of S1P largely depends on S1P metabolizing enzymes, transporters and receptors on the plasma membrane, as well as on the intracellular proteins that S1P binds directly to. In addition to its roles in cancer signalling, immunity and inflammation, a large body of evidence has identified a close link of S1P signalling with organ morphogenesis. Here we discuss the vital role of S1P signalling in orchestrating various cellular events during organ morphogenesis through analysing each component along the extracellular and intracellular S1P signalling axes. For each component, we review advances in our understanding of S1P signalling and function from the upstream regulators to the downstream effectors and from cellular behaviours to tissue organization, primarily in the context of morphogenetic mechanisms. S1P-mediated vesicular trafficking is also discussed as a function independent of its signalling function. A picture emerges that reveals a multifaceted role of S1P-dependent pathways in the development and maintenance of organ structure and function.

18.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-9, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498960

RESUMO

A new icetexane diterpenoid, 11, 12, 20α-trihydroxyl-7ß-methoxyicetexa-8, 11, 13-triene-19, 10-lactone [Phyllane A (1)], and a new abietane diterpenoid, 7ß, 20-epoxy-3ß, 17-acetoxy-abieta-8, 11, 13-teriene-11, 12-diol [phyllane B (2)], along with two known compounds (3 and 4) were isolated from the methanol (MeOH) extract of twigs and leaves of the folk medicinal Isodon phyllopodus. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses including 2 D NMR spectral data, and further confirmed by X-ray single crystal diffraction. Moreover, the compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and anti-HIV activities, and phyllane A showed anti-HIV activity with an IC50 value of 15.7 µM, but phyllane B was found to be cytotoxic to the A549 host cells with a CC50 value of 108.5 µM.

19.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 65(21): e2100433, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558816

RESUMO

SCOPE: Intestinal commensal microbiota interactions play critical roles in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) development. Candida albicans (CA) can aggravate intestinal inflammation; however, whether Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (FP) can antagonize CA is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: CA are co-cultured with bacteria (FP and Escherichia coli (EC)), bacterial supernatant, and bacterial medium, respectively. Then, the CA hyphae-specific genes' expression and CA cells' morphology are investigated. The Nod-like receptor pyrin-containing protein 6 (NLRP6) inflammasome, inflammatory cytokines, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) production are evaluated in intestinal epithelial cells pre-treated with bacteria, bacterial med, and bacterial supernatant and exposed without or with CA. Both bacteria significantly prohibit CA numbers, while only FP and FP supernatant prohibit the transformation and virulence factors (extracellular phospholipase, secreted aspartyl proteinase, and hemolysin) secretion of CA in a co-culture system compared with media controls. Further, FP and FP supernatant promote the production of the NLRP6 inflammasome, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-18, and antibacterial peptides (ß-defensin (BD)-2 and BD-3) and inhibit in vitro and in vivo CA growth and pathogenicity, and alleviate DSS-colitis in mice, while EC do not show the similar effect. CONCLUSION: FP improve intestinal inflammation by inhibiting CA reproduction, colonization, and pathogenicity and inducing AMP secretion in the gut. This study uncovers new relationships between intestinal microbes and fungi in IBD patients.

20.
Nanoscale Horiz ; 6(10): 766-780, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569585

RESUMO

Biomolecules play critical roles in biological activities and are closely related to various disease conditions. The reliable, selective and sensitive detection of biomolecules holds much promise for specific and rapid biosensing. In recent years, luminescent lanthanide probes have been widely used for monitoring the activity of biomolecules owing to their long luminescence lifetimes and line-like emission which allow time-resolved and ratiometric analyses. In this review article, we concentrate on recent advances in the detection of biomolecule activities based on lanthanide luminescent systems, including upconversion luminescent nanoparticles, lanthanide-metal organic frameworks, and lanthanide organic complexes. We also introduce the latest remarkable accomplishments of lanthanide probes in the design principles and sensing mechanisms, as well as the forthcoming challenges and perspectives for practical achievements.


Assuntos
Elementos da Série dos Lantanídeos , Nanopartículas , Luminescência
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