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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 275: 118694, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742421

RESUMO

The elucidation of precise structure of fucoidan is essential for understanding their structure-function relationship and promoting the development of marine drugs. In this work, we firstly reported the oligosaccharide mapping of fucoidan from Holothuria floridana using a combination of hydrothermal depolymerization, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-FTMS) and high energy collision-induced dissociation (HCD-MS/MS) and 2D NMR analysis. With careful selection of fully deprotonated molecular ions of fucoidan oligosaccharides and their NaBD4 reduced alditols, HILIC-ESI-HCD-MS/MS provided structurally relevant glycosidic product ions with no sulfate loss for definitive assignment of sequence and sulfation pattern of all the oligosaccharides and their isomers from dp2 to dp7 from hydrothermal depolymerization. The oligosaccharide mapping clarified the structure of fucoidan with various oligosaccharide domains with 2,4-di-O-sulfated and 2-O sulfated fucose residues.

2.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 451-461, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509119

RESUMO

In this study, a functionalized Co3O4-Bi2O3-Ti catalytic membrane (CBO-Ti-M) was prepared and applied for removing organic pollutants via activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS) in the dead-end filtration mode. Characterizations including scanning electron microcopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that the Co3O4-Bi2O3 catalyst was successfully supported on the Ti membrane. The CBO-Ti-M /PMS system could efficiently remove various organic pollutants such as sulfamethoxazole, methyl orange, bisphenol A and methylene blue, achieving removal efficiencies of 98.0%-99.5%. The effects of PMS concentration, flow rate and solution environment on degradation efficiency were investigated in detail. Furthermore, quenching experiments, electron spin resonance (ESR) and in-situ open circuit potential (OCP) tests collectively demonstrated that singlet oxygen as well as the non-radical electron transfer pathway mainly contributed in the reaction mechanism. The synergistic effect of Co and Bi was illustrated according to XPS results, and the possible degradation pathway of MB was proposed based on LC-MS analysis. Reusability test showed that pollutant removal efficiency with the CBO-Ti-M /PMS system remained stable in four runs and limited metal leaching was observed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Água , Peróxidos , Titânio
3.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727313

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the prognostic accuracy of scores of SOFA for 90-day mortality in patients with kidney transplant status identified from the public Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III databank. METHODS: A total of 428 participants with kidney transplant status who were admitted for the first time to the ICU were included. The target-independent and target-dependent variables were the SOFA scores in the first 3 days of ICU admission and 90-day mortality, respectively. RESULTS: Fully adjusted binary logistic regression indicated that the day-2 and day-3 SOFA scores were positively associated with a risk of 90-day mortality after adjustment for confounders (odds ratio: 1.196, 95% confidence interval: 1.052-1.360; odds ratio: 1.233, 95% confidence interval: 1.062-1.432). The receiver operating characteristic curve showed areas under the curve for the prediction of 90-day mortality from SOFA scores on days 1, 2 and 3 were 0.524, 0.654, and 0.727, respectively. Further analysis using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and multivariate regression models of 90-day survival showed that patients with low SOFA scores survived longer than those with high scores. CONCLUSION: The SOFA scores in the early days of ICU admission were positively associated with 90-day outcomes although the first-day score showed no significant correlation.

4.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ability of latent class models to identify clinically distinct groups among high-risk patients has been demonstrated, but it is unclear how healthcare data can inform group-specific intervention design. OBJECTIVE: Examine how utilization patterns across latent groups of high-risk patients provide actionable information to guide group-specific intervention design. DESIGN: Cohort study using data from 2012 to 2015. PATIENTS: Participants were 934,787 patients receiving primary care in the Veterans Health Administration, with predicted probability of 12-month hospitalization in the top 10th percentile during 2014. MAIN MEASURES: Patients were assigned to latent groups via mixture-item response theory models based on 28 chronic conditions. We modeled odds of all-cause mortality, hospitalizations, and 30-day re-hospitalizations by group membership. Detailed outpatient and inpatient utilization patterns were compared between groups. KEY RESULTS: A total of 764,257 (81.8%) of patients were matched with a comorbidity group. Groups were characterized by substance use disorders (14.0% of patients assigned), cardiometabolic conditions (25.7%), mental health conditions (17.6%), pain/arthritis (19.1%), cancer (15.3%), and liver disease (8.3%). One-year mortality ranged from 2.7% in the Mental Health group to 14.9% in the Cancer group, compared to 8.5% overall. In adjusted models, group assignment predicted significantly different odds of each outcome. Groups differed in their utilization of multiple types of care. For example, patients in the Pain group had the highest utilization of in-person primary care, with a mean (SD) of 5.3 (5.0) visits in the year of follow-up, while the Substance Use Disorder group had the lowest, with 3.9 (4.1) visits. The Substance Use Disorder group also had the highest rates of using services for housing instability (25.1%), followed by the Liver group (10.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Latent groups of high-risk patients had distinct hospitalization and utilization profiles, despite having comparable levels of predicted baseline risk. Utilization profiles pointed towards system-specific care needs that could inform tailored interventions.

5.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 11(10): 3272-3285, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729315

RESUMO

Co-delivery of chemotherapeutics and immunostimulant or chemoimmunotherapy is an emerging strategy in cancer therapy. The precise control of the targeting and release of agents is critical in this methodology. This article proposes the asynchronous release of the chemotherapeutic agents and immunostimulants to realize the synergistic effect between chemotherapy and immunotherapy. To obtain a proof-of-concept, a co-delivery system was prepared via a drug-delivering-drug (DDD) strategy for cytosolic co-delivery of Poly I:C, a synthetic dsRNA analog to activate RIG-I signaling, and PTX, a commonly used chemotherapeutics, in which pure PTX nanorods were sequentially coated with Poly I:C and mannuronic acid via stimulating the RIG-I signaling axis. The co-delivery system with a diameter of 200 nm enables profound immunogenicity of cancer cells, exhibiting increased secretion of cytokines and chemokines, pronounced immune response in vivo, and significant inhibition of tumor growth. Also, we found that intracellularly sustained release of cytotoxic agents could elicit the immunogenicity of cancer cells. Overall, the intracellular asynchronous release of chemotherapeutics and immunomodulators is a promising strategy to promote the immunogenicity of cancer cells and augment the antitumor immune response.

6.
J Environ Manage ; 302(Pt B): 114089, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775337

RESUMO

Maintaining ecosystem services (ESs) and reducing ecosystem degradation are important goals for achieving sustainable development. However, under the influence of various anthropogenic factors, the total ecosystem service value (ESV) of China continues to decline, and the detailed processes involved in this decline are unclear. In this paper, a new long-term annual land cover dataset (the Climate Change Initiative Land Cover or CCI-LC dataset) with a spatial resolution of 300 m was employed to estimate the ESV of China, and Bayesian spatiotemporal hierarchy models were built to examine the detailed patterns and anthropogenic driving factors. From 1992 to 2018, the total ESV of China fluctuated and decreased from 3265.3 to 3253.29 billion US$ at an average rate of 0.55 billion US$ per year. Furthermore, the model revealed the spatiotemporal variations in the ESV pattern, and simultaneously detected the influences of 9 variables related to economic factors, population, infrastructure, energy, agriculture and ecological restoration, providing a convenient and effective method for ESV spatiotemporal analysis. The results enrich our understanding of the detailed spatiotemporal variation and anthropogenic driving factors underlying the declining ESV in China. These findings have substantial guiding implications for adjusting ecological regulation policies.

7.
Cell Death Discov ; 7(1): 357, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785642

RESUMO

Ubiquitination displays a crucial role in various biological functions, such as protein degradation, signal transduction, and cellular homeostasis. Accumulating evidence has indicated that ubiquitination is essential in cancer progression. Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2S (UBE2S) is a member of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family of the ubiquitin system and its role in hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is largely unknown. We investigated the role of UBE2S in HCC and found UBE2S upregulation is relevant with large tumor size, recurrence, and advanced TNM stage, serving as an independent risk factor of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) for HCC patients. We conducted in vitro experiments and found that in HCC cells, UBE2S overexpression increases the resistance to 5-FU and oxaliplatin, while UBE2S knockdown achieves an opposite effect. UBE2S is transcriptionally activated by the binding of FOXM1 to UBE2S promoter, which induces its upregulation and reduces PTEN protein level by promoting PTEN ubiquitination at Lys60 and Lys327 and facilitating AKT phosphorylation. The promotional effect of FOXM1-UBE2S axis on HCC cell chemoresistance is attenuated by allosteric AKT inhibitor, MK2206. In conclusion, our results reveal that UBE2S is a prognostic biomarker for HCC patients, and the FOXM1-UBE2S-PTEN-p-AKT signaling axis might be a promising target for the treatment of HCC.

8.
Geospat Health ; 16(2)2021 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763415

RESUMO

Longevity is a near-universal human aspiration that can affect moral progress and economic development at the social level. In rapidly developing China, questions about the geographical distribution and environmental factors of longevity phenomenon need to be answered more clearly. This study calculated the longevity index (LI), longevity index for females (LIF) and longevity index for males (LIM) based on the percentage of the long-lived population among the total number of elderly people to investigate regional and gender characteristics at the county level in China. A new multi-scale geographically weighted regression (MGWR) model and four possible geographical environmental factors were applied to explore environmental effects. The results indicate that the LIs of 2838 counties ranged from 1.3% to 16.3%, and the distribution showed obvious regional and gender differences. In general, the LI was high in the East and low in the West, and the LIF was higher than the LIM in 2614 counties (92.1%). The MGWR model performed well explaining that geographical environmental factors, including topographic features, vegetation conditions, human social activity and air pollution factors have a variable influence on longevity at different spatial scales and in different regions. These findings enrich our understanding of the spatial distribution, gender differences and geographical environmental effects on longevity in China, which provides an important reference for people interested in the variations in the associations between different geographical factors.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Regressão Espacial , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Longevidade , Masculino
9.
PhytoKeys ; 184: 111-126, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785975

RESUMO

As the supplement of the flora of Zhejiang, East China, two new species were described with illustrations. Cerastiumhuadingense Y.F.Lu, W.Y.Xie & X.F.Jin (Caryophyllaceae) differs from C.qingliangfengicum in having sterile stems absent, leaves sessile, petals slightly longer than sepals, and stamens slightly shorter than sepals. Ixeridiumdimorphifolium Y.L.Xu, Y.F.Lu & X.Cai (Asteraceae) differs from I.beauverdianum in having plant stoloniferous, basal leaves dimorphic, involucre 8‒10 mm long, inner phyllaries 8, and florets 7‒10. Paraphlomissetulosa C.Y.Wu & H.W.Li (Lamiaceae) was reviewed and morphological characters of the corolla and stamens of its type and the specimens collected in the field survey were critically examined. With barbate anthers and strongly divergent anther cells, Paraphlomissetulosa was transferred to Sinopogonanthera, and S.setulosa (C.Y.Wu & H.W.Li) H.W.Zhang & X.F.Jin was consequently combined.

10.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(21)2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772053

RESUMO

Generating topological microstructures on the surface of cortical bone to establish a suitable microenvironment can guide bone cells to achieve bone repair. Single-point diamond tools (SPDTs) have advantages in efficiency and flexibility to fabricate surface microstructures. However, the cutting force during ploughing cannot be predicted and controlled due to the special properties of cortical bone. In this paper, a novel cutting model for ploughing cortical bone using an SPDT was established, and we comprehensively considered the shear stress anisotropy of the bone material and the proportional relationship between the normal force and the tangential force. Then, the orthogonal cutting experiment was used to verify the model. The results show that the error of calculated value and the experimental data is less than 5%. The proposed model can be used to assist the fabrication of microstructures on cortical bone surface using an SPDT.

11.
Int J Womens Health ; 13: 1005-1015, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737649

RESUMO

Purpose: Early-stage cervical cancer is usually diagnosed by colposcopy-directed biopsy (CDB) and/or endocervical curettage (ECC), but some neglected lesions must be detected by conization because they are occult. This study aimed to explore the optimal method for detecting these "occult" cervical cancers. Patients and Methods: A total of 1299 patients who were high-risk for early-stage cervical cancer from five centres in China were prospectively included. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of cytology, HPV testing, colposcopy and CDB&ECC for detecting "occult" cervical cancer and discussed the diagnostic importance of transformation zone (TZ) type, conization length and the proportion of cervical cone excision. Results: The diagnostic agreement between colposcopy impression and conization was 64.5% and 72.4% between CDB&ECC and conization. Forty-two patients were finally diagnosed with pathologic cancer, and the sensitivities of cytology, colposcopy, CDB&ECC were 4.8%, 7.1%, and 47.4%, respectively. Twenty cases were neglected by CDB&ECC but further diagnosed as cancer by conization, considered to be occult cervical cancer, accounting for 1.6%. Cytologic high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL)+, positive HPV, biopsy HSIL+ and cervical TZ type 3 were considered risk factors for developing HSIL+, while colposcopy impression HSIL+ was not. There was a significant difference between cancerous and HSIL patients in the proportion of cervical cone excision (P<0.001), which was recognized as a risk factor (P<0.001) for detecting cancer, while the length of cervical cone excision was not. The average proportion was 0.62, and the minimal effective proportion was 0.56. Conclusion: Since the incidence of occult cervical cancer neglected by CDB&ECC, colposcopy and cytology was far beyond expectations, conization is necessary, especially in patients with TZ type 3, high-grade cytology and biopsy results. As the cervical length varies in patients, the proportion of cervical cone excision might be a better indicator for detecting occult cervical cancer.

12.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 761641, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744741

RESUMO

Safflower polysaccharide (SPS) is one of the active fractions extracted from safflower petals (Carthamus tinctorius L.) which has been reported to possess antitumor and immune control roles. However, its antitumor mechanisms by regulating the immune pathway remain barely understood. In this study, a mouse model was established by azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to evaluate the antitumor effect of SPS on colorectal cancer (CRC). The results showed that 50 mg/kg SPS-1, an active fraction isolated from SPS, could significantly inhibit CRC induced by AOM/DSS and changed the polarization of macrophages to the M1 phenotype. Meanwhile, SPS-1 treatment significantly alleviated the characteristic AOM/DSS-induced pathological symptoms, in terms of decreasing the nucleoplasmic ratio, nuclear polarity extinction, and gland hyperplasia. However, the results in vitro showed that SPS-1 did not directly inhibit the growth of CRC cells but could upregulate the NF-κB signal and trigger M1 macrophage transformation. Thus, the condition medium (CM) of Mφ pretreated with SPS-1 was used against CRC cells. As expected, SPS-1-activated Raw 264.7 markedly exhibited antitumor effects by inhibiting cell proliferation and suppressing cell colony formation. In addition, SPS-1-activated Raw 264.7 could also induce CRC cell apoptosis by upregulating the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO). Further results suggested that SPS-1-induced transition of the macrophage phenotype could be suppressed by an NF-κB inhibitor, PDTC. Moreover, SPS-1-activated Raw 264.7 inhibiting CRC cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis were also rescued by PDTC. Taken together, all results suggested that SPS-1 could be a therapeutic option for the prevention and treatment of CRC.

13.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 517, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was largely brought under control in most regions of China during the previous century, VL cases have rebounded in western and central China in recent decades. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological features and spatial-temporal distribution of VL in mainland China from 2004 to 2019. METHODS: Incidence and mortality data for VL during the period 2004-2019 were collected from the Public Health Sciences Data Center of China and annual national epidemic reports of VL, whose data source was the National Diseases Reporting Information System. Joinpoint regression analysis was performed to explore the trends of VL. Spatial autocorrelation and spatial-temporal clustering analysis were conducted to identify the distribution and risk areas of VL transmission. RESULTS: A total of 4877 VL cases were reported in mainland China during 2004-2019, with mean annual incidence of 0.0228/100,000. VL incidence showed a decreasing trend in general during our study period (annual percentage change [APC] = -4.2564, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -8.0856 to -0.2677). Among mainly endemic provinces, VL was initially heavily epidemic in Gansu, Sichuan, and especially Xinjiang, but subsequently decreased considerably. In contrast, Shaanxi and Shanxi witnessed significantly increasing trends, especially in 2017-2019. The first-level spatial-temporal aggregation area covered two endemic provinces in northwestern China, including Gansu and Xinjiang, with the gathering time from 2004 to 2011 (relative risk [RR] = 13.91, log-likelihood ratio [LLR] = 3308.87, P < 0.001). The secondary aggregation area was detected in Shanxi province of central China, with the gathering time of 2019 (RR = 1.61, LLR = 4.88, P = 0.041). The epidemic peak of October to November disappeared in 2018-2019, leaving only one peak in March to May. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that VL is still an important endemic infectious disease in China. Epidemic trends in different provinces changed significantly and spatial-temporal aggregation areas shifted from northwestern to central China during our study period. Mitigation strategies, including large-scale screening, insecticide spraying, and health education encouraging behavioral change, in combination with other integrated approaches, are needed to decrease transmission risk in areas at risk, especially in Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Gansu provinces.

14.
Am J Transl Res ; 13(9): 10676-10684, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650742

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the influences of Hiao's double-C nursing model combined with pain care on postoperative satisfaction with pain control and complications in patients with mixed hemorrhoids. METHODS: A total of 80 patients with mixed hemorrhoids admitted to our hospital from January 2019 to October 2020 were selected as the study subjects, and they were divided into a regular group (n = 43) and a combined group (n = 37) based on different nursing methods. The regular group was treated with routine nursing care, while the combined group was treated with Hiao's double-C nursing model combined with pain care. The degrees of pain, duration of pain, satisfaction with pain control, quality of life and complications were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: At 6 h, 24 h and 72 h after surgery, the combined group had markedly lower visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and a noticeably shorter duration of pain than that of the regular group (P < 0.05). Compared with the regular group, the combined group scored significantly lower on pain experience and expectation, and influences of pain on emotions, body and life, and significantly higher on satisfactions with pain control education and pain control or relief and overall satisfaction (P < 0.05). After intervention, the scores of quality of life, and physical, social and psychological functions were elevated in both groups (P < 0.05), and the aforementioned scores in the combined group were significantly higher than those in the regular group (P < 0.05). The incidence rate of complications in the combined group was notably lower than that in the regular group (8.11% vs. 41.86%, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Hiao's double-C nursing model combined with pain care can effectively improve postoperative degrees of pain, satisfaction with pain control and complications, and duration of pain.

15.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132397, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597640

RESUMO

Reasonable design of three-dimensional (3D) catalytic particle electrodes (CPEs) is crucial for achieving efficient electrocatalytic oxidation of organic pollutants. Herein, the novel Fe3O4/SnO2/GO (FO/SO/GO) particle electrode has been developed and serviced to the 3D electrocatalytic berberine hydrochloride oxidation system with DSA (RuO2-IrO2-SnO2/Ti) electrode as anode and GDE (gas diffusion electrode) electrode as the cathode. Compared with 2D systems and other CPEs, FO/SO/GO electrode shows excellent electrocatalytic activity and remarkable stability for BH removal, that is, the removal rate of BH is 94.8% within 90 min, and the rate constant is 0.03095 min-1. More importantly, after five cycles, the ternary composite still maintains a strong ability to oxidize pollutants. The structural characterization and electrochemical measurement further uncover that the electron transfer ability and electrocatalytic oxidation efficiency are highly dependent on the surface structure regulation of CPEs. Furthermore, the quenching experiments show that hydroxyl radicals are the main active species in the 3D electro-Fenton (EF) system, which can oxidize BH molecules adsorbed on the surface of GO to CO2, H2O, or other products. The results could potentially provide new insights for designing and fabricating more stable and efficient 3D CPEs electrocatalytic removal of organic pollutants in the future.

16.
Chin Med ; 16(1): 101, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing skin disease characterized by recurring episodes of itchiness with skin erythema and surface damages. Chinese medicine (CM) is widely used for the management of AD in China not only by its own, but also used in combination with conventional therapy (integrated Chinese-Western medicine, ICWM). Although many clinical trials on the effectiveness of ICWM on AD have been conducted, however, up to date, no sound evidence has been established on the clinical effectiveness and safety of ICWM for AD. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the currently available clinical evidence on the clinical effectiveness and safety of ICWM for AD. METHODS: Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials, which investigated ICWM interventions with at least one control group using the same conventional interventions, no treatment or placebo treatment, were included. Four English (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED) and three Chinese (CNKI, CBM, WanFang Med) databases were searched. Risk of bias was assessed according to the Cochrane's tool. Meta-analysis was performed to pool the data. RESULTS: From 1473 entries, 55 studies were included, involving 5953 participants aged between 35 days and 67 years old. Duration of treatment ranged from 1 to 24 weeks. Only 2 studies were judged to have low risk of bias, 3 studies had unclear risk of bias, and the other 50 studies were with high risk of bias. ICWM was found to be superior over WM alone in improving clinical severity of AD (measured by EASI, SCORAD), health-related quality of life (measured by CDLQI, DLQI), long term control of AD (recurrence rate), patients/investigator global score (clinical effectiveness rate), and serum IgE level. Adverse events associated with ICWM were found to be comparable with WM alone. CONCLUSION: ICWM seems to produce superior treatment response than WM alone in managing AD without increased risk of adverse events. However, the current available evidence remains too weak to make a conclusive decision.

17.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) ; 53(11): 1417-1427, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664059

RESUMO

Cancer cells are often exposed to cell intrinsic stresses and environmental perturbations that may lead to accumulation of unfolded and/or misfolded proteins in the lumen of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a cellular condition known as ER stress. In response to ER stress, the cells elicit an adaptive process called unfolded protein response (UPR) to cope with the stress, supporting cellular homeostasis and survival. The ER stress sensors inositol requiring protein 1α (IRE1α), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3 (EIF2AK3, also called PERK), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) constitute the three branches of UPR to resolve ER stress. IRE1α, PERK, and ATF6 play an important role in tumor cell growth and survival. They are also involved in chemotherapy resistance of cancers. These have generated widespread interest in targeting these UPR branches for cancer treatment. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of IRE1α, PERK, and ATF6 in cancer progression and drug resistance and we summarize the research advances in targeting these UPR branches to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy of cancers.

18.
Front Surg ; 8: 681614, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557514

RESUMO

Background: As cancer has become a major public health issue in China, fertility preservation remains limited despite the wide application of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) throughout the country. Objective: This study aimed to identify gaps in knowledge and communication as well as referrals in the previous year regarding oncofertility among medical and surgical oncologists and breast cancer patients (BCPs) in Chinese academic settings to target areas of needed improvement. Materials and Methods: A WeChat online questionnaire was designed, distributed, and compared between medical and surgical oncology specialists and reproductive age BCPs in academic teaching settings in Shanghai. Results: Sixty-one medical and surgical oncologists and 125 BCPs responded to the survey. 63.3% of oncologists were familiar with the term "oncofertility" compared to 25.6% of BCPs (p < 0.001). Oncologists were more likely to correctly know the costs associated with treatment (59.0 vs. 32.0%, p < 0.001); patient did not have to be married to undergo oncofertility treatment (50.8 vs. 24.8%, p < 0.001). Both oncologists and BCPs were similarly unlikely to know when patients could utilize cryopreserved tissue in the future (37.7 vs. 22.2%, p = 0.056). While oncologists reported they discussed all oncofertility options (41.0%) and offered psychological counseling (98.4%), significantly fewer BCPs reported receiving information on all options and offered counseling (3.2%, p < 0.001 and 85.6%, p < 0.01). Knowledge of oncofertility was the most important predictor for providing and receiving counseling from oncologists [OR = 6.44 (95% CI = 1.59-26.1, p = 0.009] and BCPs (OR = 3.73 95% CI: = 1.36-10.2, p = 0.011). Overall, 57.4% of oncologists referred <10 patients and none referred more than 25 patients in the past year. Conclusion: Data suggests a significant knowledge gap and ineffective communication/comprehension exists between academic Chinese oncologists and BCPs. Continued education and raised awareness are needed to optimize utilization of oncofertility services in China.

19.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 11(8): 2150-2171, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522582

RESUMO

Within less than a decade since its inception, CRISPR-Cas9-based genome editing has been rapidly advanced to human clinical trials in multiple disease areas. Although it is highly anticipated that this revolutionary technology will bring novel therapeutic modalities to many diseases by precisely manipulating cellular DNA sequences, the low efficiency of in vivo delivery must be enhanced before its therapeutic potential can be fully realized. Here we discuss the most recent progress of in vivo delivery of CRISPR-Cas9 systems, highlight innovative viral and non-viral delivery technologies, emphasize outstanding delivery challenges, and provide the most updated perspectives.

20.
Org Lett ; 23(18): 7156-7160, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468157

RESUMO

A new, simple, yet easily accessible, (1-selenocyanatoethyl)benzene has been designed and applied as a SeCN group transfer reagent for selenocyanation of aliphatic C(sp3)-H bonds for the first time. This protocol is featured with mild reaction conditions and wide substrate scope. Control experiments reveal that a radical-group transfer mechanism might be involved.

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