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1.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 244: 118857, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877850

RESUMO

The valorization, resource generation and the functional characteristic exploration of domestic waste still face enormous challenges. Kiwi peels, a common kind of fruit waste, contain a large amount of phenolic substances, including polyphenols, flavonoids, etc., which can be explored and reused in food and biomedical fields. By ultrasonic assisted extraction technology, we obtained conversional fluorescence kiwi peel phenolic extracts (PE) which possessed gradient magenta fluorescence relying on the content of ethanol in the solution, as well as strong antioxidant activity. Besides, metal ions sensing assay revealed that PE can specifically sense Hg2+ and Cu2+ (LOD: 1.16 and 0.17 µM, respectively) accompanied with a fluorescence conversion from magenta fluorescence to blue. Moreover, employing the prepared PE as fluorescent probes, imaging of HeLa cells can be easily achieved with satisfactory resolution. Additionally, PE was incorporated into the gelatin matrix, successfully fabricating a green, edible degradable film with excellent antioxidant activity.

2.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e036927, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine whether eHealth interventions can effectively improve anthropometric and biochemical indicators of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: PubMed, the Web of Science, Embase, Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Wanfang and Weipu databases were comprehensively searched for papers that were published from database inception to May 2019. Articles were included if the participants were metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients, the participants received eHealth interventions, the participants in the control group received usual care or were wait listed, the outcomes included anthropometric and biochemical indicators of MetS, and the study was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) or a controlled clinical trial (CCT). The Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies was used to assess the methodological quality of the included articles. The meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager V.5.3 software. RESULTS: In our review, seven RCTs and two CCTs comprising 935 MetS participants met the inclusion criteria. The results of the meta-analysis revealed that eHealth interventions resulted in significant improvements in body mass index (standardised mean difference (SMD)=-0.36, 95% CI (-0.61 to -0.10), p<0.01), waist circumference (SMD=-0.47, 95% CI (-0.84 to -0.09), p=0.01) and systolic blood pressure(SMD=-0.35, 95% CI (-0.66 to -0.04), p=0.03) compared with the respective outcomes associated with the usual care or wait-listed groups. Based on the included studies, we found significant effects of the eHealth interventions on body weight. However, we did not find significant positive effects of the eHealth interventions on other metabolic parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that eHealth interventions were beneficial for improving specific anthropometric outcomes, but did not affect biochemical indicators of MetS. Therefore, whether researchers adopt eHealth interventions should be based on the purpose of the study. More rigorous studies are needed to confirm these findings.

3.
Oncologist ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017510

RESUMO

On December 19, 2018, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted approval to olaparib monotherapy for first-line maintenance treatment of BRCA mutated (BRCAm) advanced ovarian cancer and on May 8, 2020, expanded the indication of olaparib to include its use in combination with bevacizumab for first-line maintenance treatment of homologous recombinant deficient (HRD)-positive advanced ovarian cancer. Both these approvals were based on randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trials. Approval for olaparib monotherapy was based on the SOLO-1 trial, comparing the efficacy of olaparib versus placebo in patients with BRCAm advanced ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer following surgical cytoreduction and first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Two companion diagnostic (CDx) tests were approved with this indication: BRACAnalysis CDx, for germline BRCA1/2 alterations and FoundationOne CDx, for BRCA1/2 alterations in tissue specimens. Approval for olaparib in combination with bevacizumab was based on the results of the PAOLA-1 trial that compared olaparib with bevacizumab versus placebo plus bevacizumab in patients with advanced high-grade epithelial ovarian cancer, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer following first-line platinum-based chemotherapy and bevacizumab. Myriad myChoice CDx was designated as a companion diagnostic device for use of olaparib plus bevacizumab combination for ovarian cancer associated with HRD-positive status. Both trials demonstrated clinically meaningful improvements in progression-free survival (PFS) and favorable benefit-risk profiles for the indicated populations. This article summarizes the FDA thought process and data supporting the approval of olaparib as monotherapy and in combination with bevacizumab for maintenance therapy in this setting. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: These approvals represent the first PARP inhibitor, alone or in combination with bevacizumab, approved in first-line maintenance treatment of women with advanced ovarian cancer following cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy. In patients with BRCA-mutated (BRCAm) tumors, olaparib monotherapy demonstrated a 70% reduction in the risk of disease progression or death compared to placebo and olaparib in combination with bevacizumab demonstrated a 67% reduction in the risk of disease progression or death compared to bevacizumab alone in homologous recombination deficient (HRD)-positive tumors. These approvals represent a major advance for the treatment of women with advanced ovarian cancer who are in complete or partial response following their initial platinum-based chemotherapy.

4.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(564)2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028708

RESUMO

More effective tuberculosis vaccines are needed to help reach World Health Organization tuberculosis elimination goals. Insufficient evidence exists on the potential impact of future tuberculosis vaccines with varying characteristics and in different epidemiological settings. To inform vaccine development decision making, we modeled the impact of hypothetical tuberculosis vaccines in three high-burden countries. We calibrated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) transmission models to age-stratified demographic and epidemiological data from China, South Africa, and India. We varied vaccine efficacy to prevent infection or disease, effective in persons M.tb uninfected or infected, and duration of protection. We modeled routine early-adolescent vaccination and 10-yearly mass campaigns from 2025. We estimated median percentage population-level tuberculosis incidence rate reduction (IRR) in 2050 compared to a no new vaccine scenario. In all settings, results suggested vaccines preventing disease in M.tb-infected populations would have greatest impact by 2050 (10-year, 70% efficacy against disease, IRR 51%, 52%, and 54% in China, South Africa, and India, respectively). Vaccines preventing reinfection delivered lower potential impact (IRR 1, 12, and 17%). Intermediate impact was predicted for vaccines effective only in uninfected populations, if preventing infection (IRR 21, 37, and 50%) or disease (IRR 19, 36, and 51%), with greater impact in higher-transmission settings. Tuberculosis vaccines have the potential to deliver substantial population-level impact. For prioritizing impact by 2050, vaccine development should focus on preventing disease in M.tb-infected populations. Preventing infection or disease in uninfected populations may be useful in higher transmission settings. As vaccine impact depended on epidemiology, different development strategies may be required.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025745

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major pathogen for osteomyelitis. Calcium phosphate bone cement (CPC) paste is promising for orthopedic uses. Nanostructured graphene oxide (GO) showed antibacterial effect on Gram-positive bacteria. However, there has been no report of incorporating GO into CPC. The objectives of this study were to (a) develop an injectable and mechanically strong CPC-chitosan paste containing GO and (b) investigate the inhibition of S. aureus infection and the promotion of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) for bone regeneration. Injectable CPC-chitosan-GO paste was fabricated. Flexural strength, elastic modulus, and work-of-fracture of the CPC-chitosan and CPC-chitosan-GO bars were evaluated. Antibacterial effects against S. aureus biofilms were determined. hUCMSC growth and viability on disks were investigated. CPC-chitosan-GO bars had a flexural strength of 7.2 ± 1.6 MPa, matching that of CPC-chitosan control without GO. CPC-chitosan-GO had strong antibacterial effects on S. aureus, with an inhibition zone of 55.2 ± 2.5 mm, greater than that of CPC-chitosan control (30.1 ± 2.0 mm) (p < 0.05). CPC-chitosan-GO had potent antibacterial activity on S. aureus biofilms in vitro (p > 0.05). The injectable and antibacterial CPC-GO paste had no toxic effect, yielding excellent hUCMSC growth and viability on disks. The CPC-chitosan-GO had injectability, good strength, strong antibacterial effects, and excellent stem cell attachment and growth. CPC-chitosan-GO is promising for dental, craniofacial, and orthopedic applications to control infections and good biocompatibility to support stem cell viability to enhance bone regeneration.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4928, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004791

RESUMO

High-altitude adaptation of Tibetans represents a remarkable case of natural selection during recent human evolution. Previous genome-wide scans found many non-coding variants under selection, suggesting a pressing need to understand the functional role of non-coding regulatory elements (REs). Here, we generate time courses of paired ATAC-seq and RNA-seq data on cultured HUVECs under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. We further develop a variant interpretation methodology (vPECA) to identify active selected REs (ASREs) and associated regulatory network. We discover three causal SNPs of EPAS1, the key adaptive gene for Tibetans. These SNPs decrease the accessibility of ASREs with weakened binding strength of relevant TFs, and cooperatively down-regulate EPAS1 expression. We further construct the downstream network of EPAS1, elucidating its roles in hypoxic response and angiogenesis. Collectively, we provide a systematic approach to interpret phenotype-associated noncoding variants in proper cell types and relevant dynamic conditions, to model their impact on gene regulation.

7.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(10): 870, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067426

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated that gastric cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a rare sub-group of gastric cancer (GC) cells and have an important role in promoting the tumor growth and progression of GC. In the present study, we demonstrated that the glycolytic enzyme Enolase 1 (ENO1) was involved in the regulation of the stem cell-like characteristics of GC cells, as compared to the parental cell lines PAMC-82 and SNU16, the expression of ENO1 in spheroids markedly increased. We then observed that ENO1 could enhance stem cell-like characteristics, including self-renewal capacity, cell invasion and migration, chemoresistance, and even the tumorigenicity of GC cells. ENO1 is known as an enzyme that is involved in glycolysis, but our results showed that ENO1 could markedly promote the glycolytic activity of cells. Furthermore, inhibiting glycolysis activity using 2-deoxy-D-glucose treatment significantly reduced the stemness of GC cells. Therefore, ENO1 could improve the stemness of CSCs by enhancing the cells' glycolysis. Subsequently, to further confirm our results, we found that the inhibition of ENO1 using AP-III-a4 (ENOblock) could reduce the stemness of GC cells to a similar extent as the knockdown of ENO1 by shRNA. Finally, increased expression of ENO1 was related to poor prognosis in GC patients. Taken together, our results demonstrated that ENO1 is a significant biomarker associated with the stemness of GC cells.

8.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 373, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and fibrinogen (Fib) are both associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). The atherogenicity of Lp(a) can be partly due to the potentially antifibrinolytic categories. We hypothesize that patients with higher Lp(a) and Fib may have worse outcomes. METHODS: In this prospective study, we consecutively enrolled 8,417 Chinese patients with stable CAD from March 2011 to March 2017. All subjects were divided into 9 groups according to Lp(a) (Lp(a)-Low, Lp(a)-Medium, Lp(a)-High) and Fib levels (Fib-Low, Fib-Medium, Fib-High) and followed up for CVEs, including nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality. Kaplan-Meier, Cox regression and C-statistic analyses were performed. RESULTS: During a median of 37.1 months' follow-up, 395 (4.7%) CVEs occurred. The occurrence of CVEs increased by Lp(a) (3.5 vs. 5.3 vs. 5.6%, p = 0.001) and Fib (4.0 vs. 4.4 vs. 6.1%, p < 0.001) categories. When further classified into 9 groups by Lp(a) and Fib levels, the CVEs were highest in the 9th (Lp(a)-High and Fib-High) compared with the 1st (Lp(a)-Low and Fib-Low) group (7.2 vs. 3.3%, p < 0.001). The highest risk of subsequent CVEs was found in the 9th group (HRadjusted 2.656, 95% CI 1.628-4.333, p < 0.001), which was more significant than Lp(a)-High (HRadjusted 1.786, 95% CI 1.315-2.426, p < 0.001) or Fib-High (HRadjusted 1.558, 95% CI 1.162-2.089, p = 0.003) group. Moreover, adding the combined Lp(a) and Fib increased the C-statistic by 0.013. CONCLUSION: Combining Fib and Lp(a) enhance the prognostic value for incident CVEs beyond Lp(a) or Fib alone.

9.
Plant Dis ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044138

RESUMO

Phenamacril is a cyanoacrylate fungicide that provides excellent control of Fusarium head blight (FHB) or wheat scab, which is caused predominantly by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium asiaticum. Previous studies revealed that codon mutations of the myosin-5 gene of Fusarium spp. conferred resistance to phenamacril in vitro lab experiments. In this study, PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) was developed to detect three common mutations (A135T, GCC to ACC at codon 135; S217L, TCA to TTA at codon 217, and E420K, GAA to AAA at codon 420) in F. graminearum induced by fungicide domestication in vitro. PCR products of 841 bp (for mutation of A135T), 802 bp (for mutation of S217L) or 1649 bp (for mutation of E420K) in myosin-5 gene were amplified respectively by appropriate primer pairs. Restriction enzyme KpnⅠ, TasⅠ or DraⅠ was used to distinguish phenamacril-sensitive and -resistant strains with mutation genotypes of A135T, S217L and E420K, respectively. KpnⅠ digested the 841 bp PCR products of phenamacri-resistant strains with codon mutation A135T into two fragments of 256 bp and 585 bp. In contrast, KpnⅠ did not digest the PCR products of sensitive strains. TasⅠ digested the 802 bp PCR products of phenamacril-strains with codon mutation S217L into three fragments of 461 bp, 287bp and 54 bp. In contrast, TasⅠ digestion of the 802 bp PCR products of phenamacril-sensitive strains resulted in only two fragments of 515bp and 287bp. DraⅠ digested the 1649 bp PCR products of phenamacril-resistant strains with codon mutation E420K into two fragments of 932 bp and 717 bp, while the PCR products of phenamacril-sensitive strains was not digested. The three genotypes of resistance mutations were determined by analyzing electrophoresis patterns of the digestion fragments of PCR products. The PCR-RFLP method was evaluated on 48 phenamacril-resistant strains induced by fungicide domestication in vitro and compared with the conventional method (mycelial growth on fungicide-amended agar). The accuracy of the PCR-RFLP method for detecting the three resistant mutation genotypes of F. graminearum to phenamacril was 95.12% compared with conventional method. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the PCR-RFLP method could also be used to detect the codon mutations of A135T and E420K in F. asiaticum.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5061, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033262

RESUMO

The interplay between the Yamanaka factors (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC) and transcriptional/epigenetic co-regulators in somatic cell reprogramming is incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that the histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) demethylase JMJD3 plays conflicting roles in mouse reprogramming. On one side, JMJD3 induces the pro-senescence factor Ink4a and degrades the pluripotency regulator PHF20 in a reprogramming factor-independent manner. On the other side, JMJD3 is specifically recruited by KLF4 to reduce H3K27me3 at both enhancers and promoters of epithelial and pluripotency genes. JMJD3 also promotes enhancer-promoter looping through the cohesin loading factor NIPBL and ultimately transcriptional elongation. This competition of forces can be shifted towards improved reprogramming by using early passage fibroblasts or boosting JMJD3's catalytic activity with vitamin C. Our work, thus, establishes a multifaceted role for JMJD3, placing it as a key partner of KLF4 and a scaffold that assists chromatin interactions and activates gene transcription.

11.
Neuroimage ; : 117425, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035669

RESUMO

The intra-axonal water exchange time (τi), a parameter associated with axonal permeability, could be an important biomarker for understanding and treating demyelinating pathologies such as Multiple Sclerosis. Diffusion-Weighted MRI (DW-MRI) is sensitive to changes in permeability; however, the parameter has so far remained elusive due to the lack of general biophysical models that incorporate it. Machine learning based computational models can potentially be used to estimate such parameters. Recently, for the first time, a theoretical framework using a random forest (RF) regressor suggests that this is a promising new approach for permeability estimation. In this study, we adopt such an approach and for the first time experimentally investigate it for demyelinating pathologies through direct comparison with histology. We construct a computational model using Monte Carlo simulations and an RF regressor in order to learn a mapping between features derived from DW-MRI signals and ground truth microstructure parameters. We test our model in simulations, and find strong correlations between the predicted and ground truth parameters (intra-axonal volume fraction f: R2 =0.99, τi: R2 =0.84, intrinsic diffusivity d: R2 =0.99). We then apply the model in-vivo, on a controlled cuprizone (CPZ) mouse model of demyelination, comparing the results from two cohorts of mice, CPZ (N=8) and healthy age-matched wild-type (WT, N=8). We find that the RF model estimates sensible microstructure parameters for both groups, matching values found in literature. Furthermore, we perform histology for both groups using electron microscopy (EM), measuring the thickness of the myelin sheath as a surrogate for exchange time. Histology results show that our RF model estimates are very strongly correlated with the EM measurements (ρ = 0.98 for f, ρ = 0.82 for τi). Finally, we find a statistically significant decrease in τi in all three regions of the corpus callosum (splenium/genu/body) of the CPZ cohort (<τi>=310ms/330ms/350ms) compared to the WT group (<τi>=370ms/370ms/380ms). This is in line with our expectations that τi is lower in regions where the myelin sheath is damaged, as axonal membranes become more permeable. Overall, these results demonstrate, for the first time experimentally and in vivo, that a computational model learned from simulations can reliably estimate microstructure parameters, including the axonal permeability.

12.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e28723, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the impact of hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) disorders on health outcomes in children and adolescents who received conformal radiation therapy (RT) for central nervous system tumors. PROCEDURE: Cohort study including 355 patients (age ≤25 years at diagnosis) treated with high-dose (50.4-59.4 Gy) RT using photons for low-grade glioma or ependymoma. Patients (median age, 6.4 years at RT) received systematic endocrine follow-up (median duration, 10.1 years; range, 0.1-19.6). Associations between HP disorders and adverse health outcomes were determined by multivariable analysis. RESULTS: Prevalence was 37.2% for growth hormone deficiency (GHD), 17.7% for gonadotropin deficiency (LH/FSHD), 14.9% for thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiency (TSHD), 10.3% for adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency (ACTHD), and 12.6% for central precocious puberty (CPP). Hypothalamus mean dose ≥ 36 Gy was associated with higher odds of any deficiency. GHD was associated with short stature (OR 2.77; 95% CI 1.34-5.70), low bone mineral density (OR 3.47; 95% CI 1.16-10.40), and TSHD with dyslipidemia (OR 5.54; 95% CI 1.66-18.52). Patients with ACTHD and CPP had lower intelligence quotient scores, and memory scores were impaired in patients with GHD (P = 0.02). Treatment of GHD was not associated with increased risk for tumor recurrence, secondary tumors, or mortality. CONCLUSIONS: HP disorders occur frequently in patients receiving high-dose RT and are related to physical and neurocognitive well-being. Future studies are needed to assess whether further optimization of endocrine management yields better health outcomes.

13.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038083

RESUMO

Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers endangering women's health. SRY-related high-mobility-group box 6 (SOX6) is associated with many cancers, though its role has not been reported in breast cancer. Here, we aimed to explore the expression and function of SOX6 in breast cancer. On the basis of the analysis of SOX6 in The Cancer Genome Atlas, Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and Genotype-Tissue Expression databases, we revealed that SOX6 was downregulated in breast cancer, and we verified the results at the cellular level by means of western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. When SOX6 was overexpressed, the proliferation of breast cancer cells was inhibited, and apoptosis was promoted. Moreover, the methylation level of the SOX6 promoter in breast cancer was significantly higher than that in normal tissues. 5'-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine reversed the high level of methylation that was caused by decreased expression of SOX6. This evidence suggests that SOX6 is a tumor suppressor gene associated with breast cancer. This study could provide a new target for breast cancer treatment.

14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 206: 111366, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010598

RESUMO

To explore the effects of copper (Cu) on energy metabolism and AMPK-mTOR pathway-mediated autophagy in kidney, a total of 240 one-day-old broiler chickens were randomized into four equal groups and fed on the diets with different levels of Cu (11, 110, 220, and 330 mg/kg) for 49 d. Results showed that excess Cu could induce vacuolar degeneration and increase the number of autophagosomes in kidney, and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level and mRNA levels of energy metabolism-related genes were decreased with the increasing dietary Cu level. Moreover, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence showed that the positive expressions of Beclin1 and LC3-II were mainly located in cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells and increased significantly with the increasing levels of Cu. The mRNA levels of Beclin1, Atg5, LC3-I, LC3-II, Dynein and the protein levels of Beclin1, Atg5, LC3-II/LC3-I and p-AMPKα1/AMPKα1 were markedly elevated in treated groups compared with control group (11 mg/kg Cu). However, the mRNA and protein levels of p62 and p-mTOR/mTOR were significantly decreased with the increasing levels of Cu. These results suggest that impaired energy metabolism induced by Cu may lead to autophagy via AMPK-mTOR pathway in kidney of broiler chickens.

15.
Food Funct ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030465

RESUMO

Blueberry dietary interventions have demonstrated remarkable potential against obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the effects of fermented blueberry juice on metabolic syndrome, the gut microbiota, and insulin resistance have not yet been reported. This study aimed to investigate the potential of fermented blueberry juice against obesity, hyperglycemia, and gut microbiota dysbiosis in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Our study findings revealed that supplementation with fresh blueberry juice (BBJ), and fermented blueberry juice with homemade probiotic starter (FBJ) or commercial starter (CFBJ) significantly decreased fat accumulation and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in HFD-fed mice. FBJ showed relatively more potency to reduce body weight than BBJ and CFBJ. The percentage increase in the body weight of the FBJ group was almost the same as that in the normal chow diet (NCD) group, and was approximately 10% lower than the BBJ and CFBJ groups. Overall, all blueberry juices significantly ameliorated hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice. Moreover, the dietary interventions with BBJ, FBJ, and CFBJ for 17 weeks significantly improved the community richness and diversity of the gut microflora along with an altered structure in the HFD-fed mice group. The FBJ treated mice group showed relatively low abundance of Firmicutes, obesity-related bacteria (Oscillibacter and Alistipes), and high abundance of lean bacteria (Akkermansia, Barnesiella, Olsenella, Bifidobacterium, and Lactobacillus) compared to the HFD-fed mice group. Furthermore, BBJ and FBJ treatments regulated the liver mRNA and protein expression levels involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. This study inferred that fermented blueberry juice could be used as a functional food to prevent the modern pandemics i.e., obesity and insulin resistance.

16.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt B): 115702, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007653

RESUMO

Anthropogenic activities have increased lead (Pb) emissions and impacted their spatiotemporal distributions in coastal seas. To quantify the increasing variability of Pb and identify the specific origins and their corresponding magnitudes, Pb and Pb isotopes are investigated in a well-placed sediment core covering the period of 1928-2008 in the Central Yellow Sea Mud (CYSM). The concentration of Pb varied from 27.17 µg/g to 37.30 µg/g upwardly along the core, with pronounced anthropogenic disturbance since the late 1960s. The Pb input history of the CYSM experienced five stages according to industrialization levels and Pb contamination, with relative pristine stages from 1928 to 1969 and human activity-impacted stages from 1969 to 2008. The 206Pb/207Pb ratio demonstrated an overall decreasing profile while the 208Pb/206Pb ratio displayed the reverse trend upwardly along the core, possibly due to the atmospheric delivery of anthropogenic Pb emissions from northern China. Furthermore, 208Pb/206Pb vs. 206Pb/207Pb shows certain linearity between natural sediment sources and anthropogenic emissions of Pb (atmospheric deposition); thus, atmospheric inputs account for 34-43% of the Pb in the sediment since Pb enrichment using the two-endmember mixing model. Moreover, the steep decrease in 206Pb/207Pb and rapid increase in 208Pb/206Pb since the 1970s suggest the introduction of leaded gasoline and the increasing proportionate consumption of gasoline relative to total energy consumption. The continuously decreasing 206Pb/207Pb ratio and increasing 208Pb/206Pb ratio since 2000 are the combined results of coal consumption, nonferrous smelting, and residual Pb contamination from leaded gasoline, which is quite distinctive from cases in North America and Europe. The relatively high 206Pb/207Pb and low 208Pb/206Pb ratios before 1969 represent the natural Pb isotopic signatures. Hence, Pb input is significantly affected by regional energy consumption and restructuring, and the Pb isotopic ratios may be a potential proxy for the shift in energy consumption.

17.
J Biomed Inform ; 111: 103583, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010427

RESUMO

In recent years, named entity recognition (NER) has attracted significant attention in various fields, especially in the clinical medical field, because NER is essential for useful mining knowledge in the clinical medical area. However, there are still some problems in Chinese named entity recognition, such as the complexity of medical texts, word segmentation errors, and incomplete extraction of semantic information. In this paper, we propose a Chinese NER method based on the multi-granularity semantic dictionary and multimodal tree method, which involves the following steps. First, we extract different semantic words using multimodal trees. Next, we extract the boundary information, and finally, perform the multi-granularity feature fusion. Furthermore, we combine the above methods to complete the entity recognition task. From the results of our experimental verification, our proposed model outperforms the current state-of-the-art results.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048693

RESUMO

In soccer, passing is the most frequent interaction between players and plays a significant role in creating scoring chances. Experts are interested in analyzing players' passing behavior to learn passing tactics, i.e., how players build up an attack with passing. Various approaches have been proposed to facilitate the analysis of passing tactics. However, the dynamic changes of a team's employed tactics over a match have not been comprehensively investigated. To address the problem, we closely collaborate with domain experts and characterize requirements to analyze the dynamic changes of a team's passing tactics. To characterize the passing tactic employed for each attack, we propose a topic-based approach that provides a high-level abstraction of complex passing behaviors. Based on the model, we propose a glyph-based design to reveal the multi-variate information of passing tactics within different phases of attacks, including player identity, spatial context, and formation. We further design and develop PassVizor, a visual analytics system, to support the comprehensive analysis of passing dynamics. With the system, users can detect the changing patterns of passing tactics and examine the detailed passing process for evaluating passing tactics. We invite experts to conduct analysis with PassVizor and demonstrate the usability of the system through an expert interview.

19.
Zootaxa ; 4759(1): zootaxa.4759.1.5, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056933

RESUMO

Three Graphium species belonging to two species groups of the subgenus Pazala, the alebion and tamerlanus groups, were examined in molecular and morphological studies, and their female genitalia are reported for the first time. Their relationship with other species groups within the subgenus is assessed and their divergence times are estimated. We find that G. (P.) alebion is the first lineage to diverge within Pazala in the early Miocene (20 Ma) and that G. (P.) tamerlanus and G. (P.) parus are sister species and diverged from each other in the late Miocene (7 Ma). A revision of the four recognised taxa belonging to three species is presented, and historical misidentification of these taxa and their geographic ranges are explained.

20.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240285, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057355

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has swept the whole world with high mortality. Since droplet transmission is the main route of transmission, wearing a mask serves as a crucial preventive measure. However, the virus has spread quite quickly, causing severe mask shortage. Finding alternative materials for homemade masks while ensuring the significant performance indicators will help alleviate the shortage of masks. Referring to the national standard for the "Surgical Mask" of China, 17 materials to be selected for homemade masks were tested in four key indicators: pressure difference, particle filtration efficiency, bacterial filtration efficiency and resistance to surface wetting. Eleven single-layer materials met the standard of pressure difference (≤49 Pa), of which 3 met the standard of resistance to surface wetting (≥3), 1 met the standard of particle filtration efficiency (≥30%), but none met the standard of bacterial filtration efficiency (≥95%). Based on the testing results of single-layer materials, fifteen combinations of paired materials were tested. The results showed that three double-layer materials including double-layer medical non-woven fabric, medical non-woven fabric plus non-woven shopping bag, and medical non-woven fabric plus granular tea towel could meet all the standards of pressure difference, particle filtration efficiency, and resistance to surface wetting, and were close to the standard of the bacterial filtration efficiency. In conclusion, if resources are severely lacking and medical masks cannot be obtained, homemade masks using available materials, based on the results of this study, can minimize the chance of infection to the maximum extent.

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