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1.
Talanta ; 221: 121660, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076170

RESUMO

As a common plasma protein, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is widely applied as the tumor biomarker for the diagnosis of many cancers. To develop a low cost, high sensitive and high-throughput method for the determination of AFP is significant for the disease diagnosis. In this work, an immunoassay with sandwich-type structures was performed on a paper-based chip for the analysis of AFP. AFP could be captured by the primary antibodies which were immobilized on the paper by chitosan. On the secondary antibodies, the modified initiator DNAs could trigger the hybridization chain reaction to amplify the fluorescence signals for AFP. A laser-induced fluorescence detector coupled with an interface was applied to detect the targets on the paper-based chip. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit for AFP was 1.0 pg/mL. For every test, the sample solution consumption only was 10 µL. Finally, the method was applied to determine the AFP in serum of normal person and hepatopaths with hepatic malignant tumor, chronic hepatitis B and other suspected liver diseases. The AFP could be found from all of the samples and the results were similar to that obtained by chemiluminescence immunoassay. The recoveries for AFP ranged from 93.8% to 106%, which indicated the method was reliable. The method based on paper chip had great potential in the application of AFP determination.

2.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 20(1): 377, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to characterize the trends of prognosis in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) in a Chinese tertiary hospital. METHODS: A 30-year retrospective cohort analysis was conducted at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Consecutive patients newly diagnosed with UC or CD from 1985 to 2014 were included. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. The secondary outcomes included surgery and length of stay in hospital. The Pearson correlation coefficient was applied to determine the relationship between time and prognosis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors for in-hospital mortality and surgery. RESULTS: In total, 1467 patients were included in this study (898 cases with UC and 569 cases with CD). Annual admissions for UC and CD have increased significantly over the last 30 years (UC, r = 0.918, P < 0.05; CD, r = 0.898, P < 0.05). Decreased in-hospital mortality was observed both in patients with UC and CD (UC, from 2.44 to 0.27%, r = - 0.827, P < 0.05; CD, from 12.50 to 0.00%, r = - 0.978, P < 0.05). A decreasing surgery rate was observed in patients with CD (r = - 0.847, P < 0.05), while an increasing surgery rate was observed in patients with UC (r = 0.956, P < 0.05). Shortened average lengths of hospital stay were observed in both UC and CD patients (UC, from 47.83 ± 34.35 to 23.58 ± 20.05 days, r = - 0.970, P < 0.05; CD, from 65.50 ± 50.57 to 26.41 ± 18.43 days, r = - 0.913, P < 0.05). Toxic megacolon and septic shock were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality in patients with UC. Intestinal fistula and intestinal perforation were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality in patients with CD. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, the admissions of patients with UC and CD were increased, with significantly improved prognoses during the past 30 years.

3.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(11)2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207796

RESUMO

The concentration of bovine milk fat changes regularly with lactation stages. In particular, milk fat percentage is higher in late lactation than mid lactation. Furthermore, milk fat composition is highly subject to a few genes. Thus, transcriptome sequencing was performed to explore the expression patterns of differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) in the parenchymal mammary gland of Holstein dairy cows between mid and late lactation. The 725 DEGs were screened (fold change > 2 and p-value < 0.05), and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway associated with lipid synthesis had a significant variation between the two periods (p-value < 0.05). The activation of the PPAR signal pathway may a key factor in the increasing of milk fat content in late lactation compared to mid lactation. Acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4), a member of the PPAR signaling pathway, was upregulated in late lactation compared to mid lactation (p < 0.05). ACSL4 catalyzes the activation of long-chain fatty acids for cellular lipid synthesis. However, it remains uncertain that the molecular mechanism of milk fat synthesis is regulated by ACSL4 in dairy cows. Subsequently, the function verification of ACSL4 was performed in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). The upregulated expression of ACSL4 was accompanied by the increase of the concentration of intracellular triglycerides, whereas knockdown of ACSL4 decreased the concentration of intracellular triglycerides, which demonstrated that ACSL4 plays an important role in modulating milk fat synthesis. In conclusion, the results displayed that ACSL4 expression regulates triglyceride metabolism in ruminant mammary cells.

4.
Environ Pollut ; : 115121, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139099

RESUMO

Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), as the secondary environmental pollutants of the widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs), possess the similar physicochemical and toxic properties as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). However, studies on human body exposure to them are extremely limited. In this study, forty human milk samples collected in Shanghai were measured for 13 PBDD/F congeners using gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS), to investigate their exposure level and characteristics, potential source and corresponding health risks to breastfed infants. The results showed no PBDDs but three PBDF congeners including 2,3,7,8-TBDF, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF and OBDF (mean concentration (detection rates) are 3.2 pg/g (72.5%), 9.5 pg/g (100%) and 28 pg/g (67.5%), respectively) were detected. The average toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ, 0.42 pg/g lw) presented the highest concentration level compared to other regions reported. The contribution of PBDFs to the total TEQ of PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs is 6.8%. The correlation between PBDD/Fs and age or dietary habits was not observed, which normally existed in their chlorinated analogues-PCDD/Fs. Significant correlations were observed between PBDFs and highly brominated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (especially for BDE 183 and BDE 209). The correlation between PCDD/Fs and PBDFs was not observed except 2,3,7,8-TBDF. The high PBDFs exposure in Shanghai may originate from the emission of PBDEs and/or non-PBDE BFRs in environment, according to the consistency of the environmental data previously reported. The average estimated dietary intakes (EDI) for breastfed infants is 2.0 pg TEQ/kg·bw/day (0.13-13 pg TEQ/kg·bw/day), within the range of the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for TCDD (1-4 pg TEQ/kg·bw/day) suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, given the high toxicity of PBDD/Fs, the potential health risks of these pollutants for breastfed infants should be of concern.

5.
J Environ Manage ; : 111599, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189421

RESUMO

Although nitrogen (N) is a limiting factor for food production (FP) in Africa, and African food security is seriously threatened by the phenomenon of soil N depletion, there is a dearth of information that shows the points to focus on throughout the chain of FP and food consumption (FC) in all African countries to minimize N loss while securing food N supply. Food N footprint (NF) is an indicator for tracing the losses of reactive N (Nr) with regard to the FP and FC chain. This is the first study to calculate the food NF for all African countries under fertilized and unfertilized farms, by calculating two sets of virtual N factors (VNFs; kg Nr released to the environment kg-1 N in consumed product): one for unfertilized farms (the unfertilized scenario) and one for fertilized farms (the fertilized scenario). The fertilized and unfertilized VNFs were utilized to calculate a weighted average set of VNFs (the combined scenario). From the percentage of farms that utilize N fertilizer, and the N percentage in production that comes from soil depletion, the proportion used for the combined scenario was determined. Soil N depletion factors (SNDFs; kg N taken from the unfertilized soil kg-1 N in food consumed) were also computed to identify the quantity of N extracted from the soil for food production. We have also provided the changes in N inputs, N outputs, and N use efficiency (NUE) for North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) during the last 57 years. The average total N input to croplands increased from 24 and 19 kg N ha-1 yr-1 in 1961-1965 to 100 and 42 kg N ha-1 yr-1 in 2010-2017 for North Africa and SSA, respectively. The NUE declined from 109% and 67% (1961-1965) to 47% and 63% (2010-2017) for North Africa and SSA, respectively. The total average per-capita food NF was 11 and 5.8 kg N cap-1 yr-1 in unfertilized farms; 21 and 14 kg N cap-1 yr-1 in fertilized farms; and 19 and 7.5 kg N cap-1 yr-1 under the combined scenario for North Africa and SSA, respectively. Vegetable-fruit and beef have the highest SDNFs in Africa. FP in Africa contributes approximately 70% of the total food NF. Therefore, if possible, the best way for Africans to reduce soil N depletion and N emissions is to encourage the production and consumption of livestock and crops products with less VNF and SNDF. However, African people do not have this luxury of choice because of poverty and ignorance. Therefore, African policy-makers must adopt integrated approaches that provide effective tools to control the production of animals and crops in conjunction with the improvement of NUE. Trying to completely change the African agricultural system is impossible, but strategies must be developed to reduce soil depletion in a gradual way, as well as a shift towards low-VNF foods.

6.
J Cell Sci ; 133(21)2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033182

RESUMO

Periodic pattern formation on the cellular and tissue scale is an important process and has been extensively studied. However, periodic pattern formation at the subcellular level still remains poorly understood. The C. elegans epidermis displays a highly ordered parallel stripe pattern as part of its subcellular structure, making it an ideal model to study the formation and reorganization of periodic patterns within cells. Here, we show that the initial formation of periodic striped patterns in the C. elegans epidermis is dependent on actin and spectrin, and requires the apical membrane attachment structures for maintenance. The periodic subcellular structures do not accommodate cell growth by continuously making new stripes. Instead, they increase the number of stripes by going through one round of uniform duplication, which is independent of the increasing epidermal length or the developmental cycles. This long-range synchronized reorganization of subcellular structures is achieved by physical links established by extracellular collagens together with extension forces generated from epidermal cell growth. Our studies uncover a novel strategy employed by evenly spaced and interlinked subcellular structures to maintain their integrity and equidistribution during cell growth and tissue development.

7.
Int J Cardiol ; 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a serious complication and a major cause of mortality in patients with Takayasu arteritis (TA). We aimed to explore the clinical features and long-term outcomes in TA patients with CHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult TA patients admitted to our hospital between January 2009 to April 2018 were classified as HF and non-HF group. The adverse events were defined as a composite of all-cause mortality and hospitalization for HF. The outcome of the HF-group was further analyzed. A total of 61 HF patients and 102 non-HF patients were identified. In the HF group, the median age at assessment was 41.9 years, and female was predominant (82.0%). The multivariable logistic regression model revealed that pulmonary hypertension, aortic regurgitation, mitral regurgitation, level albumin, and uric acid were independently associated with CHF. After a median follow-up of 1347 days, 25 adverse events occurred in HF patients, and the 5-year event-free rate was 54.7%. The Cox model showed that coronary artery involvement, aortic regurgitation, without interventional treatment were related to adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The 5-year event-free rate was not satisfying. Aggressive intervention may decreased the likelihood of adverse events in patients with CHF.

8.
Plant Signal Behav ; 15(12): 1836883, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100175

RESUMO

The circadian clock is a universal timing system that involved in plant physical responses to abiotic stresses. Moreover, OSCA1 is an osmosensor responsible for [Ca2+]i increases induced by osmotic stress in plants. However, there is little information on osmosensor involved osmotic stress-triggered circadian clock responses. Using an aequorin-based Ca2+ imaging assay, we found the gradient (0 mM, 200 mM, 500 mM) osmotic stress (induced by sorbitol) both altered the primary circadian parameter of WT and osca1 mutant. This means the plant switch to a fast day/night model to avoid energy consumption. In contrast, the period of WT and osca1 mutant became short since the sorbitol concentration increased from 0 mM to 500 mM. As the sorbitol concentration increased, the phase of the WT becomes more extensive compared with osca1 mutant, which means WT is more capable of coping with the environmental change. Moreover, the amplitude of WT also becomes broader than osca1 mutant, especially in high (500 mM) sorbitol concentration, indicate the WT shows more responses in high osmotic stress. In a word, the WT has much more flexibility to cope with the osmotic stress than osca1 mutant. It implies the OSCA1 might be involved in the circadian gated plant adaptation to the environmental osmotic stress, which opens an avenue to study Ca2+ processes with other circadian signaling pathways.

9.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 100(17): adv00299, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047146

RESUMO

Filaggrin, encoded by the FLG gene, plays a crucial role in the barrier function of epidermis, but the association between FLG loss-of-function mutations and infectious skin diseases has not been systematically studied. FLG coding sequences from 945 patients with leprosy and 916 healthy controls were captured and enriched using an array-based high-throughput system, and subjected to next-generation sequencing. The loss-of-function mutations found were further validated by Sanger sequencing. A total of 21 loss-of-function mutations were found in 945 patients with leprosy, with a carrier rate of 17.53%, while the prevalence of these mutations in 916 healthy controls was 14.77%, which was significantly lower than in patients. Two individual FLG loss-of-function mutations (K4022X and Q1790X) were found to be significantly associated with leprosy. These results suggest a possible role for filaggrin in defending against leprosy pathogens.

10.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 321, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy serves as one of the most regular microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus and is the main factor that causes end-stage renal disease and incident mortality. As the beneficial effect and minute adverse influence of Celastrol on the renal system requires further elucidation, the renoprotective function of Celastrol in early diabetic nephropathy was investigated. METHODS: In high-fat and high-glucose diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats which is the early diabetic nephropathy model, ALT, AST, 24 h urinary protein, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine content were observed. Periodic acid-Schiff staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemical analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and western blot analysis were used to explore the renoprotective effect of Celastrol to diabetic nephropathy rats and the underlying mechanism. RESULTS: High dose of Celastrol (1.5 mg/kg/d) not only improved the kidney function of diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats, and decreased the blood glucose and 24 h urinary albumin, but also increased the expression of LC3II and nephrin, and downregulated the expression of PI3K, p-AKT, and the mRNA level of NF-κB and mTOR. CONCLUSION: Celastrol functions as a potential therapeutic substance, acting via the PI3K/AKT pathway to attenuate renal injury, inhibit glomerular basement membrane thickening, and achieve podocyte homeostasis in diabetic nephropathy.

11.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095722

RESUMO

This article reconsiders the data quantization problem in iterative learning control (ILC) for nonlinear nonaffine systems from four aspects: 1) use of available additional control knowledge; 2) different tracking tasks; 3) adaptation to uncertainties; and 4) data-driven design and analysis framework. An iterative linear data model (iLDM) is established first to represent the nonlinear nonaffine system for subsequent control algorithm design and analysis under a data-driven framework. A quantitative data-driven adaptive ILC (QDDAILC) is then developed using quantized tracking errors based on the nonlifted iLDM and, thus, additional available input information from previous time instants can be utilized to improve control performance. The parameter estimation derived from an adaptive updating law makes the learning gain of the QDDAILC adjustable, therefore improving the robustness to uncertainties. Due to the coupled dynamics among inputs and tracking errors, a new double-dynamics analysis method is introduced besides the contraction mapping principle to show error convergence. A quantized data-driven adaptive point-to-point ILC (QDDAPTPILC) is further presented using partial quantized measurements at the specified instants for multi-intermediate-point tracking. Simulation examples verify theoretical results and illustrate that the QDDAPTPILC outperforms the QDDAILC for multi-intermediate-point tracking tasks because it removes the unnecessary constraints.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082815

RESUMO

Background: Colla Cornus Cervi (CCC) has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of osteoporosis and osteonecrosis of the femoral head. However, the bioavailability of CCC is seriously limited owing to its large molecular weight and complex ingredients. In the present study, antler polypeptide was separated from CCC, and the effects of antler polypeptide on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were investigated. Methods: Antler polypeptide was separated from Colla Cornus Cervi by ultrafiltration into different samples according to the molecular weight. The total peptide content of these samples was determined by the biuret method. The content of antler polypeptide in different samples was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effects of antler polypeptide at different concentrations on the proliferation, cell cycle, alkaline phosphatase activity, and BMP7 expression of BMSCs were investigated. Results: Antler polypeptide was separated by ultrafiltration into different samples: A (molecular weight <800 Da), B (molecular weight 800-1500 Da), and C (molecular weight >1500 Da). The total peptide contents of A, B, and C were 0.602 mg/mL, 8.976 mg/mL, and 38.88 mg/mL. Antler polypeptide B eluted at 14.279∼15.351 min showed that the content of antler polypeptide was significantly higher than that of A and C with a peak area of 933.80927. The BMSCs proliferation rate (84.66%) of polypeptide B was the highest at the concentration of 1.578 × 10-2 g/mL. Antler polypeptide B significantly promoted the proliferation of BMSCs with a proliferation index of 38.68%, which was significantly higher than that of the other groups. Antler polypeptide B significantly enhanced the activity of alkaline phosphatase in BMSCs compared to that of the blank group (P < 0.001). Antler polypeptide B increased the BMP7 protein expression in BMSCs. Conclusions: Results suggested that antler polypeptide may promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Our study lays an experimental foundation for the further development and application of antler polypeptide in medicine.

13.
Pancreatology ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: /Objectives: The management of acute pancreatitis (AP) in China has undergone major changes since the launch of the updated guideline in 2013. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of this guideline on clinical practice and patient outcome. METHODS: Moderately severe and severe adult AP patients, who were admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2016, were retrospectively included in the study. All enrolled patients were divided into two groups based on the publication date of the updated guideline, as the pre-guideline (Pre) group and post-guideline (Post) group. In-hospital case-fatality rates were compared between two groups after adjusting baseline features, including gender, age, etiology and disease severity. In addition, the associations between specific therapeutic approaches recommended in the updated guideline and in-hospital case-fatality rates were explored. RESULTS: A total of 475 patients were enrolled in this study, including 273 (57%) in the Pre group and 202 (43%) in the Post group. The adjusted in-hospital case-fatality rate significantly decreased in the Post group (14.3% vs. 5.9%, OR 0.39, 95%CI 0.19-0.82). In the post-hoc analysis, the use of enteral nutrition was a protective factor against in-hospital death (OR: 0.08, 95%CI: 0.03-0.18), while open surgery showed an opposite effect (OR: 3.81, 95%CI: 1.06-13.74). Prophylactic antibiotics was not significantly associated with in-hospital death (OR: 1.00, 95%CI: 0.39-2.60). CONCLUSIONS: There was a prominent transition in the management of moderately severe and severe AP after the release of the guideline in China in 2013, which made the prognosis better.

14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22861, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126329

RESUMO

The lack of effective markers leads to missed optimal treatment times, resulting in poorer prognosis in most cancers. Drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic protein (SMAD) family members are important cytokines in the transforming growth factor-beta family. They jointly regulate the processes of cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, the expression of SMAD family genes in pan-cancers and their impact on prognosis have not been elucidated. Perl software and R software were used to perform expression analysis and survival curve analysis on the data collected by TCGA, GTEx, and GEO, and the potential regulatory pathways were determined through gene ontology enrichment and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes enrichment analysis. It was found that SMAD7 and SMAD9 expression decreased in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), and their expression was positively correlated with survival time. Additionally, SMAD7 could be used as an independent prognostic factor for LUAD. In general, SMAD7 and SMAD9 can be used as prognostic markers of LUAD. Further, SMAD7 is expected to become a therapeutic target for LUAD.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Prognóstico , Proteína Smad7/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Proteína Smad7/sangue
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(38): 23982-23990, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887800

RESUMO

MAC5 is a component of the conserved MOS4-associated complex. It plays critical roles in development and immunity. Here we report that MAC5 is required for microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis. MAC5 interacts with Serrate (SE), which is a core component of the microprocessor that processes primary miRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs) into miRNAs and binds the stem-loop region of pri-miRNAs. MAC5 is essential for both the efficient processing and the stability of pri-miRNAs. Interestingly, the reduction of pri-miRNA levels in mac5 is partially caused by XRN2/XRN3, the nuclear-localized 5'-to-3' exoribonucleases, and depends on SE. These results reveal that MAC5 plays a dual role in promoting pri-miRNA processing and stability through its interaction with SE and/or pri-miRNAs. This study also uncovers that pri-miRNAs need to be protected from nuclear RNA decay machinery, which is connected to the microprocessor.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Exorribonucleases , MicroRNAs , Proteínas Nucleares , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Exorribonucleases/genética , Exorribonucleases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/genética , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo
16.
Food Funct ; 11(10): 8625-8636, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935676

RESUMO

Both mRNA and miRNA play an important role in the regulation of mammary fatty acid metabolism and milk fat synthesis. Although studies have shown a strong transcriptional control of fatty acid metabolism, less is known about the regulatory mechanisms of milk fat synthesis as a function of miRNA-mRNA interactions. In this study, we carried out transcriptome sequencing using mammary tissues from the early lactation period, peak lactation, mid-lactation and late lactation in dairy cows and identified key genes regulating milk fatty acid metabolism. A total of 32 differentially co-expressed gene were screened out. Large tumor suppressor kinase 2 (LATS2) was chosen for further study using luciferase reporter assays, qRT-PCR and western blotting. The aim was to demonstrate that miR-497 is an upstream regulator of LATS2, i.e. miR-497 and LATS2 are a potential miRNA/mRNA regulatory pair. The results indicated that miR-497 could inhibit the production of triglycerides (TAG) and unsaturated fatty acids in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). In contrast, LATS2 can promote the production of TAG and unsaturated fatty acids. "Rescue" experiments further verified the miR-497/LATS2 regulatory network. Overall, data underscored that the miR-497/LATS2 pathway exerts control on milk fat metabolism and provides a theoretical approach for improving milk quality via genetic means.

17.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(23)2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978127

RESUMO

Long-term nitrogen field fertilization often results in significant changes in nitrifying communities that catalyze a key step in the global N cycle. However, whether microcosm studies are able to inform the dynamic changes in communities of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) under field conditions remains poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the transcriptional activities of nitrifying communities under in situ conditions, and we found that they were largely similar to those of 13C-labeled nitrifying communities in the urea-amended microcosms of soils that had received different N fertilization regimens for 22 years. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts suggested that Nitrosospira cluster 3-like AOB and Nitrososphaera viennensis-like AOA were significantly stimulated in N-fertilized fresh soils. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that the significant increase of AOA and AOB in fresh soils upon nitrogen fertilization could be preserved in the air-dried soils. DNA-based stable-isotope probing (SIP) further revealed the greatest labeling of Nitrosospira cluster 3-like AOB and Nitrosospira viennensis-like AOA, despite the strong advantage of AOB over AOA in the N-fertilized soils. Nitrobacter-like nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) played more important roles than Nitrospira-like NOB in urea-amended SIP microcosms, while the situation was the opposite under field conditions. Our results suggest that long-term fertilization selected for physiologically versatile AOB and AOA that could have been adapted to a wide range of substrate ammonium concentrations. It also provides compelling evidence that the dominant communities of transcriptionally active nitrifiers under field conditions were largely similar to those revealed in 13C-labeled microcosms.IMPORTANCE The role of manipulated microcosms in microbial ecology has been much debated, because they cannot entirely represent the in situ situation. We collected soil samples from 20 field plots, including 5 different treatments with and without nitrogen fertilizers for 22 years, in order to assess active nitrifying communities by in situ transcriptomics and microcosm-based stable-isotope probing. The results showed that chronic N enrichment led to competitive advantages of Nitrosospira cluster 3-like AOB over N. viennensis-like AOA in soils under field conditions. Microcosm labeling revealed similar results for active AOA and AOB, although an apparent discrepancy was observed for nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. This study suggests that the soil microbiome represents a relatively stable community resulting from complex evolutionary processes over a large time scale, and microcosms can serve as powerful tools to test the theory of environmental filtering on the key functional microbial guilds.

18.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(7): 253, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888086

RESUMO

We developed a pH-triggered in situ gel (ISG) for ocular delivery of vinpocetine to achieve systemic absorption and a brain-targeting effect in rats. Carbopol acted as a gelling agent combined with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as a viscosity-enhancing agent. The concentration of Carbopol (0.2%, w/v) and HPMC (1.5%, w/v) was optimized for the ISG system. The optimized formulation was evaluated for studies on release in vitro, rheology, differential scanning calorimetry, ocular irritation, residence time, and in vivo pharmacokinetics. The vinpocetine ISG stayed longer in rabbit eyes than vinpocetine ointment. In vivo pharmacokinetics showed that compared with vinpocetine ointment, vinpocetine ISG attained a peak plasma concentration and area under the curve that was 1-2 folds greater in rat plasma. The Drug Targeting Index (DTI) was 1.06 and 1.26 for vinpocetine ointment and vinpocetine ISG, respectively, after ocular administration, showing that vinpocetine ISG had better distribution in rat brain. These results revealed that a pH-triggered ISG system via ocular administration could be an alternative approach compared with traditional ophthalmic formulations.

19.
Anal Methods ; 12(23): 3004-3013, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930160

RESUMO

To study the application value of sweet cherry leaves before abscission, a supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2) extraction method was established for sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) leaves. The extraction temperature, pressure and time were optimized with a Box-Behnken design, and the optimal conditions were 43 °C, 30 MPa, and 120 min, resulting in a yield of 2.52 ± 0.261% (w/w), which agrees well with the predicted value. The yield of the sweet cherry leaf extracts obtained by methanol solvent extraction is 2.03% (w/w); the SFE-CO2 extraction method was more efficient and had a higher yield than the methanol solvent extraction method, and the adverse effects of organic solvent residues and high temperatures on the product during traditional solvent extraction were avoided, resulting in a higher quality product. UPLC-MS/MS in negative ion mode provided 56 identifiable chromatographic peaks, including those of 31 acids (13.25%), 5 sugars (15.94%), 2 alcohols (6.19%), and 18 other compounds (3.86%). The fragmentation pathways of the 7 main components in the sweet cherry leaf extract were identified. The carbohydrates and bioactive substances in the extracts obtained from sweet cherry leaves suggested the potential use of sweet cherry leaves in the food and medical industries.

20.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 50(4): 533-540, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895340

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate nursing students' understanding of the prevention of COVID-19, as well as their anxiety towards the disease and their perception of their professional identity in the wake of the pandemic, in Zhengzhou, China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was designed to investigate 474 nursing students by cluster sampling using a stratified questionnaire from February 15 to March 31, 2020. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the factors affecting professional identity. Binary and multiple logistic regression were used to identify the factors affecting anxiety. RESULTS: Responders with a high level of understanding of COVID-19 and frequent use of behavioral strategies for its prevention comprised 93.2% and 30.0% of the cohort, respectively. Professional identity was significantly associated with gender and anxiety (p < .050). The prevalence of anxiety among nursing students was 12.4%. Male (odds ratio [OR] = 2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26~4.52), sophomores (OR = 5.30; 95% CI = 1.61~7.45), and infrequent use of prevention measures (OR = 3.49; 95% CI = 1.16~5.19) had a significant effect on anxiety. CONCLUSION: Anxiety during the COVID-19 epidemic gives an adverse effect on the professional identity of nursing in students. Nursing education institutions need to provide psychological counseling services for nursing students, in addition to improving their teaching of COVID-19 prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimento , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Papel Profissional , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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