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1.
Exp Neurol ; : 113223, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032565

RESUMO

AIMS: Ischemic stroke has become one of the main causes of death worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and could serve as therapeutic targets. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and has been implicated in inflammatory central nerve system disorders. The objective of this study was to explore the neuroprotective effects of miR-193b-3p against focal cerebral I/R injury in rats by regulating 5-LOX expression. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion injury. The level of miR-193b-3p expression was observed in the rat cortical peri-infarct region after focal cerebral I/R injury. Bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the binding sites of miR-193b-3p, and a dual-luciferase reporter gene assay was applied to verify the potential interaction between 5-LOX mRNA and miR-193b-3p. Then, rats were injected with a miR-193b-3p agomir (modified and enhanced mimic) or antagomir (modified and enhanced inhibitor) in the right lateral ventricle of the brain. Neurological deficit scores, infarct volumes, neuron damage and 5-LOX enzymatic activity and expression were measured. In an in vitro experiment, cultured PC12 cells were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R). OGD/R-induced cells were treated with a miR-193b-3p mimic or inhibitor and 5-LOX siRNA. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release, apoptosis rate and 5-LOX expression were evaluated. RESULTS: The level of miR-193b-3p expression was increased in the cortical peri-infarct region of rats with cerebral focal I/R injury. The results of the dual-luciferase reporter gene assay showed that a miR-193b-3p binding site was located in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of 5-LOX mRNA. Neurological deficit scores, infarct volumes and neuronal injury were alleviated by miR-193b-3p agomir treatment but aggravated by miR-193b-3p antagomir. Furthermore, leukotriene B4, cysteinyl-leukotrienes and 5-LOX expression in the cortical peri-infarct region of rats with focal cerebral I/R injury were also downregulated by miR-193b-3p agomir treatment but upregulated by miR-193b-3p antagomir. In PC12 cells, miR-193b-3p mimic significantly decreased OGD/R-induced cell death and reduced lactate dehydrogenase release and 5-LOX expression. In contrast, miR-193b-3p inhibitor exacerbated OGD/R-induced injury in PC12 cells. Additionally, the in vitro effects of miR-193b-3p inhibitor on OGD/R-induced cell injury were partially reversed by 5-LOX siRNA treatment. CONCLUSION: MiR-193b-3p has a potentially neuroprotective effect on focal cerebral I/R-induced injury by inhibiting 5-LOX expression.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 711: 134585, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000314

RESUMO

Drought is one of the most frequent disasters occurring in North China and has a great influence on agriculture, ecology and economy. To monitor drought of typical dry areas in North China, Shandong Province, this paper proposed composite drought indices using multivariable linear regression (MCDIs) to integrate Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) derived precipitation, Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2.1 (GLDAS-2.1) derived soil moisture, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived land surface temperature (LST) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from 2013 to 2017 (March to September). Pearson correlation analyses were performed between single remote sensing drought indices and in-situ drought indices, standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI), in different time scales to assess the capability of single indices over Shandong Province. The multivariable linear regression method was used to established MCDIs, and mediator and moderator variables were introduced to optimize the model. The correlation coefficients (r) between MCDIs and SPEIs was higher than that between each single index and SPEIs. Additionally, when we investigate the correlations of different MCDIs with both standardized precipitation index (SPI) and moisture index (MI), the highest r values with both 1-month SPI and MI were acquired by the MCDI based on 1-month SPEI (MCDI-1). This suggested MCDI-1 was suitable to monitor meteorological drought. Also, the comparison between MCDI based on 9-month SPEI (MCDI-9) and soil moisture showed MCDI-9 was a good indicator for agricultural drought. Therefore, multivariable linear regression and MCDIs were recommended to be an effective method and indices for monitoring drought across Shandong Province and similar areas.

3.
Nanotechnology ; 31(16): 165707, 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899897

RESUMO

The core-shell CeO2:Er,Yb@W18O49 heterojunction is successfully synthesized via the facile solvothermal method. The octahedral CeO2:Er,Yb nanocrystal's core exhibits green (2H11/2, 4S3/2 â†’ 4I15/2), red (4F9/2 â†’ 4I15/2) and NIR (4I11/2 â†’ 4I15/2 and 4I13/2 â†’ 4I15/2) emission under 980 nm laser diode excitation, and the multiband emissions are absorbed by the W18O49 nanowire's shell, re-exciting its higher energy localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR). With the excitation of 980 nm, the photocatalytic property of CeO2:Er,Yb@W18O49 for hydrogen (H2) evolution from ammonia borane (BH3NH3), a three-fold increase compared to W18O49, is researched. The application of natural sunlight for the production of H2 is studied, and an obvious H2 production enhancement compared to the use of W18O49 (two-fold) is also observed. This remarkable enhancement in the catalytic activity of CeO2:Er,Yb@W18O49 heterostructures is ascribed to the re-excitation of LSPR by multiband emissions of CeO2:Er,Yb.

4.
Exp Cell Res ; 386(1): 111700, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678213

RESUMO

The immune system is felt to play an essential role in pulmonary fibrosis (PF). CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial in maintaining immune tolerance and immune homeostasis, but their role in the pathogenesis of PF is controversial and still unclear. We here explored the relationship between peripheral blood CD4+CD25+ Tregs and the course of bleomycin-induced PF in mice. Mouse PF models were established by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin. Lung histology, hydroxyproline, Th1/Th2 balanc, CD4+CD25+ Tregse were analyzed at the 3rd,7th,14th,21st and 28th days after instillation. CD4+CD25+ Tregs were also transferred into mice with or without PF by tail vein injection. The trend of CD4+CD25+ Tregs changes was increased firstly, decreased, increased again from 7th to 28th days after bleomycin instillation, which had great relevance with alveolitis and fibrosis scores. There also were high Th1 polarization index from 3rd to 14th days and high Th2 polarization index at 21st and 28th days after bleomycin treatment. CD4+CD25+ Tregs could promote the secretion of Th2 cytokines and inhibit the secretion of Th1 cytokines, allow the Th1/Th2 balance to Th2 direction in PF. Moreover, preventive adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ Tregs may ameliorate the process of PF, while acute adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ Tregs may aggravate the process of PF. These findings suggested that the dynamic changes of CD4+CD25+ Tregs as dependent factor might designate a different course of PF induced by bleomycin in mice, and might be a selected drug use indicator for therapy of PF.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845256

RESUMO

Drought is a severe climate fact that mainly results from low rainfall leading to serious threat of water shortages an ecological system of South Asia. Due to the current drought conditions and vegetation dynamics, the situation could further be intensified over South Asia. Thus, we study the drought impacts on vegetation dynamics over South Asia, aimed to find out the spatiotemporal differences in vegetation dynamics and seasons at which vegetation is determined by drought. Our approach is based on the using of advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data and (NASA's MERRA) air temperature and rainfall data (1990-2015). Due to the low vegetation and dryness in South Asia, the NDVI is more helpful in describing the drought condition. From April to October, there were fast improvements in NDVI, VHI, and VCI. During September, the monthly VHI and VCI were stabilized and enhanced in October once more and in December again indicated a declining trend. The PCI, TCI, VCI, and VHI monthly values confirmed that in 2001, an extreme drought year, and continuous up to 2003, which lead the maximum drought in the South Asia regions. A considerably significantly correlation value in summer (JJA) and autumn (SON) seasons are showed between precipitation and NDVI. While the relationship between NVSWI and NDVI presented considerably high relationship in DJF, JJA, and SON, which specify an excellent indication for monitoring water stress. From 1990 to 2015, the difference of vegetation trend was obvious showed among various regions. The drought frequency was reducing trends from 1990 to 2015 over South Asia.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16865, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727960

RESUMO

Located across the equator, the East Africa region is among regions of Africa which have previously known the severe vegetation degradation. Some known reasons are associated with the climate change events and unprofessional agricultural practices. For this purpose, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) version 3 NDVI (NDVI3g) and Climate Research Unit (CRU) datasets for precipitation and temperature were used to assess the impact of climate factors on vegetation dynamics over East Africa from 1982 to 2015. Pearson correlation of NDVI and climate factors were also explored to investigate the short (October - December) rainy seasons. The phenological metrics of the region was also extracted to understand the seasonal cycle of vegetation. The results show that a positive linear trend of 14.50 × 10-4 for mean annual NDVI before 1998, where as a negative linear trend of -9.64 × 10-4 was found after 1998. The Break Point (BP) was obtained in 1998, which suggests to nonlinear responses of NDVI to climate and non-climate drivers. ENSO-vegetation in El-nino years showed a weak teleconnection between ENSO and vegetation growth changes of croplands. Also, the analyzed correlations on NDVI data resulted to the higher correlation between NDVI and precipitation than that with temperature. The Hurst exponent result showed that about, 18.63% pixels exhibited a behavior, typical of random walk (H = 0.5) suggesting that NDVI growth changes may eventually persist, overturn or fluctuate randomly in the future depending on the drivers. Vegetation trends with sustainable (unsustainable) trends were 36.8% (44.6%). Strikingly, about 20% of the total vegetated area showed unsustainable trend from degradation to amelioration. More so, results reveal that the vegetation of the croplands (non-croplands) over East Africa changed insignificantly by 6.9 × 10-5/yr (5.16 × 10-4/yr), suggesting that non-croplands are fast getting reduced Nonetheless, the NDVI growth responses to monthly and seasonal changes in climate were adjudged to be complex and dynamic. Seasonally, the short rainy season showed the higher variability in NDVI than the long rainy season. Also, the DJF, MAM and SON seasons are strongly driven by precipitation variation effect of ENSO versus NDVI series.

7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(32): 33568-33581, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583522

RESUMO

South Asia is susceptible to drought due to high variation in monthly precipitation. The drought indices deriving from remote sensing data have been used to monitor drought events. To secure agricultural land in South Asia, timely and effective drought monitoring is very important. In this study, TRMM data was utilized along with remote sensing techniques for reliable drought monitoring. The Drought Severity Index (DSI), Temperature Vegetation Drought Index (TVDI), NDVI, and Normalized Vegetation Supply Water Index (NVSWI) are more helpful in describing the drought events in South Asia due to the dryness and low vegetation. To categorize drought-affected areas, the spatial maps of TRMM were used to confirm MODIS-derived TVDI, DSI, and NVSWI. The DSI, TVDI, NVSWI, and Normalized Monthly Precipitation Anomaly Percentage (NAP) indices with an integrated use of MODIS-derived ET/PET and NDVI were selected as a tool for monitoring drought in South Asia. The seasonal DSI, TVDI, NVSWI, NAP, and NDVI values confirmed that South Asia suffered an extreme drought in 2001, which continued up to 2003. The correlation was generated among DSI, NAP, NVWSI, NDVI, TVDI, and TCI on a seasonal basis. The significantly positive correlation values of DSI, TVDI, and NVSWI were in DJF, MAM, and SON seasons, which were described as good drought monitoring indices during these seasons. During summer, the distribution values of drought indicated that more droughts occurred in the southwest regions as compared to the northeast region of South Asia. From 2001 to 2017, the change trend of drought was characterized; the difference of drought trend was obviously indicated among different regions. In South Asia, generally, the frequency of drought showed declining trends from 2001 to 2017. It was verified that these drought indices are a comprehensive drought monitoring indicator and would reduce drought risk in South Asia.

8.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 220-229, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494279

RESUMO

Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an important transduction protein in the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. In this study, we identified the cDNA of the MpMyD88 gene in black carp. We found that MpMyD88 was widely distributed in the tissues tested and showed significant immune responses both in vitro and in vivo after stimulation with bacterial and pathogen-associated molecular patterns. After MpMyD88 overexpression/silencing, proinflame-matory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-α, IL-6, and IL-8) also showed significant up-regulation/down-regulation. Moreover, we found that the antibacterial ability of cells over-expressing MpMyD88 was significantly stronger than that of control cells, while that of silenced MpMyD88 was significantly lower than that in control cells. Besides, we found that the overexpression of MpMyD88 significantly increased the activity of NF-κB. These results indicate that MpMyD88 plays an important role in the innate immune response.

9.
3 Biotech ; 9(9): 336, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475088

RESUMO

Litter size is considered to be the most important index for estimating domestic animal productivity. The number of indigenous goats in China with higher litter sizes than those of commercial breeds in other countries may be helpful for accelerating genetic improvements in goat breeding. We performed a genome-wide selective sweep analysis of 31 Dazu black goats with extreme standard deviation in litter size within the third fetus to identify significant genomic regions and candidate genes through different analyses. The analysis identified a total of 33,917,703 variants, including 32,262,179 SNPs and 1,655,524 indels. In addition, two novel candidate genes (LRP1B and GLRB), which are related to litter size, were obtained with π, Tajima's D, πA/πB, and F ST at the individual level with a 95% threshold for each parameter. These two genes were annotated in five GO terms (localization, binding, macromolecular complex, membrane part, and membrane) and two pathways (long-term depression and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway). Regarding the result of linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis, in LRP1B and GRID2, the high-yield Dazu black goats exhibit significantly different LD patterns from low-yield goats. Litter size variability has low heritability and is related to multiple complex factors found in domestic animals. Obtaining a clear explanation and significant signal by genome-wide selective sweep analysis with a small sample size is difficult. However, we investigated some candidate genes, particularly LRP1B and GLRB, which may provide useful information for further research.

10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(27): 24395-24403, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246396

RESUMO

For practical applications of carbon dots (CDs), a major challenge is to prevent the notorious aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect. Herein, a new type of CDs (CD1) has been developed that can transform from ACQ to an enhancement of fluorescence by aggregation-induced emission (AIE). The blue fluorescence of the CDs is suppressed by ACQ. However, this is accompanied by the phenomenon of AIE at a longer wavelength, resulting in the emergence and gradual enhancement of yellow fluorescence. The obtained CD1 solid powder shows a bright yellow emission with a photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of 65%. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra, absorption spectra, and time-resolved PL decay curves indicate that Förster resonant energy transfer from dispersed CD1 particles to large CD1 agglomerations leads to the enhancement of yellow fluorescence. To exploit its high PLQY and strong AIE, CD1 is applied as a color-converting layer on blue light-emitting diode (LED) chips to fabricate white LEDs (WLEDs). The obtained devices show white light coordinates of (0.29, 0.38) and (0.32, 0.42), which are close to pure white light (0.33, 0.33), and luminous efficiencies of 97.8 and 93.9 lm·W-1 and show good stability. The low cost, easy fabrication, controllability, and favorable fluorescence properties signify that CD1 of AIE will have superior performance in a variety of applications.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 58(12): 8245-8252, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145602

RESUMO

The optical thermometry properties of LuVO4:Yb3+/Er3+@SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) are studied in detail. In order to avoid the overheating effect for biological tissue caused by 980 nm radiation, 915 nm is employed as the excitation wavelength to investigate the upconversion (UC) and optical thermometry properties of the as-prepared NPs. In the visible region, the fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) of the 2H11/2 and 4S3/2 levels of Er3+ is utilized to measure the temperature. The relative sensitivity SR in this case can be written as 1077/ T2, which is higher than that of ß-NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ NPs, ß-NaLuF4:Yb3+/Er3+ NPs, YVO4:Yb3+/Er3+ NPs, etc. In the near-infrared (NIR) region, an anomalous enhancement of the 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition with increasing temperature is observed. What is more, the FIR of peak 2 (located at 1496 nm) to peak 1 (located at 1527 nm) is changed regularly with increasing temperature, which can also be used to measure the temperature. The combination of the visible and NIR regions for optical thermometry can provide a self-referenced temperature determination to make measurement of the temperature more precise. In addition, the UC mechanism is also investigated, especially the population route of the 4F9/2 level of Er3+. Through analysis of the decay curves, we propose that the dominant way for populating the Er3+ 4F9/2 level is energy transfer from the Yb3+ 2F5/2 level to the Er3+ 4I13/2 level. All of the results reveal the potential application of LuVO4:Yb3+/Er3+@SiO2 NPs for dual-mode optical thermometry.

12.
Dalton Trans ; 48(16): 5263-5270, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942227

RESUMO

In Ce3+ activated SrLn2O4 type phosphors (Ln = Y, Lu, Sc, etc.) only one Ce3+ center was previously reported to show a blue emission band. In this paper, we report the observation of a second Ce3+ center in SrLu2O4:Ce3+. The new center shows a red emission band peaking at 600 nm with an excitation band at 485 nm. We attributed the new center (Ce(ii)) to the substitution of the Lu3+ site and the original blue center (Ce(i)) to the substitution of the Sr2+ site. Spectroscopy studies indicate that Ce(i) centers are preferentially formed at a low doping concentration and the number ratio of Ce(i)/Ce(ii) decreases with increasing Ce3+ concentration until beyond 0.002. The fluorescence lifetimes of the two centers were measured for various doping concentrations. Energy transfer from Ce(i) to Ce(ii) was observed. It was found that the emission intensity of Ce(ii) centers reduces much faster than that of Ce(i) with increasing temperature from 83 K up to 350 K, implying their potential application in temperature sensing based on their temperature dependent intensity ratios. A relative sensing sensitivity as high as 2.28% K-1 at 283 K was achieved.

13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 88: 189-197, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826411

RESUMO

Complement is traditionally recognized as part of the innate immune system, defending the host against the invasion of foreign pathogens. In complement system, C3 (complement component 3) is a central component. Therefore, research into C3 can help us better understand the functions of fish complement system. In this study, we detected the grass carp C3 (gcC3) mRNA expression in all sample tissues from healthy grass carp, which was highest in the liver, followed by the heart and the spleen, and lowest in the muscle, head kidney, trunk kidney, blood and intestine. After infection with Aeromonas hydrophila, gcC3 mRNA expression levels were significantly upregulated in the gill, liver, spleen, intestine, trunk kidney and head kidney. Interestingly, C3 protein levels were downregulated and subsequently upregulated in the liver and serum. Histologically, C3 protein at 24 h pi was over expressed in necrotic liver sites, and the liver index (LI) at this point was significantly higher than that of the control. These findings are indicated that C3 plays an important role in the immune response of grass carp after A. hydrophila infection, and C3 protein may play an assistant role in repairing liver tissues from A. hydrophila injury.


Assuntos
Aeromonas hydrophila , Carpas/imunologia , Complemento C3/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Animais , Carpas/microbiologia , Complemento C3/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Expressão Gênica , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Fígado/microbiologia , Fígado/patologia
14.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 13: 68, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873010

RESUMO

The present study was designed to observe the effect of COX2/PGD2-related autophagy on brain injury in type 2 diabetes rats. The histopathology was detected by haematoxylin-eosin staining. The learning and memory functions were evaluated by Morris water maze. The levels of insulin and PGD2 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expressions of COX2, p-AKT(S473), p-AMPK(T172), Aß, Beclin1, LC3BII, and p62 were measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. In model rats, we found that the body weight was significantly decreased, the blood glucose levels were significantly increased, the plasma insulin content was significantly decreased, the learning and memory functions were impaired and the cortex and hippocampus neurons showed significant nuclear pyknosis. The levels of COX2, p-AKT(S473), PGD2, Aß, Beclin1 and p62 were significantly increased, whereas the expression of p-AMPK(T172) and LC3BII was significantly decreased in the cortex and hippocampus of model rats. In meloxicam-treated rats, the body weight, blood glucose and the content of plasma insulin did not significantly change, the learning and memory functions were improved and nuclear pyknosis was improved in the cortex and hippocampus neurons. The expression of p-AMPK(T172), Beclin1 and LC3BII was significantly increased, and the levels of COX2, p-AKT(S473), PGD2, Aß, and p62 were significantly decreased in the cortex and hippocampus of meloxicam-treated rats. Our results suggested that the inhibition of COX2/PGD2-related autophagy was involved in the mechanism of brain injury caused by type 2 diabetes in rats.

15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 113: 108768, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889486

RESUMO

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) progression may be involved with arginine (Arg) metabolism and immune balance. The present study aimed to explore the effects of L-Arginine (L-Arg) and L-Norvaline (L-Nor) on bleomycin (BLM)-induced PF in mice, meanwhile, and observe dynamic changes of Arg metabolism, immune balance and crosstalk between them in PF progression. Followed intratracheal instillation of BLM or saline, Kunming mice were treated orally with saline, L-Arg, L-Nor and L-Arg + L-Nor three times a day. And the mice were sacrificed on Day 3, 14 and 28 after treatment. Changes of body weight, lung index, lung hydroxyproline and histopathology were analyzed to evaluate the PF degree. Peripheral blood Arg, Citrulline (Cit), Ornithine (Orn) and Proline (Pro), lung NO, NOS and arginase were analyzed to evaluate the Arg metabolism. Peripheral blood Tregs, Th17 and γδT cells were analyzed to evaluate the immune balance. Our data showed that combination of L-Arg and L-Nor dynamically reversed the weight loss, decreased lung index and hydroxyproline, and improved lung histopathological damages induced by BLM. The combination dynamically and significantly rectified Tregs, Th17, γδT and Tregs/Th17 abnormal changes. Meanwhile, these disorders of peripheral blood Arg, Cit, Orn, Pro, Orn/Cit and Pro/Orn, and lung NO, iNOS and TNOS were also improved accordingly. These results demonstrated that combination of L-Arg and L-Nor had inhibitory effects on BLM-induced PF progression, possibly due to their corrective action on immune imbalance, Arg metabolism disorder and crosstalk abnormality in the progression of PF.


Assuntos
Arginina/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Valina/análogos & derivados , Administração Oral , Animais , Arginina/farmacologia , Bleomicina/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Quimioterapia Combinada , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Fibrose Pulmonar/imunologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Valina/administração & dosagem , Valina/farmacologia
16.
Fundam Clin Pharmacol ; 33(5): 535-543, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903708

RESUMO

This study was designed to observe the compensation between cyclooxygenase-2 pathway and 5-lipoxygenase pathway in chronic aluminum overload-induced liver injury rats. A rat hepatic injury model of chronic aluminum injury was established by the intragastric administration of aluminum gluconate (Al3 + 200 mg/kg per day, 5 days a week for 20 weeks). The COX-2 inhibitor [meloxicam (1 mg/kg)] and 5-LOX inhibitor [caffeic acid (30 mg/kg)] were intragastrically administered 1 h after aluminum administration. The histopathology was detected by hematoxylin-eosin staining. A series of biochemical indicators were measured with biochemistry assay or ELISAs. The expressions of COX-2 and 5-LOX were measured by immunohistochemistry. Our experimental results showed that aluminum overload caused a significant damage to the liver and also significantly increased the expressions of COX-2, 5-LOX and the levels of inflammation and oxidative stress. The administration of meloxicam and caffeic acid significantly protected livers against histopathological injury, significantly decreased plasma ALT, AST, and ALP levels, significantly decreased TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß levels, and oxidative stress. However, the administration of caffeic acid did not significantly increase the expression of COX-2 compared with the model group. On the other hand, the administration of meloxicam also did not significantly increase the expression of 5-LOX compared with the model group. Our results indicate that there is no compensation between COX-2 pathway and 5-LOX pathway by inhibiting either COX-2 or 5-LOX in chronic aluminum overload-induced liver injury rat.

17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(11): 11470-11481, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806929

RESUMO

Drought is the most complex climate-related disaster issue in South Asia, because of the various land-cover changes, vegetation dynamics, and climates. The aims of the current research work were to analyze the performance of AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and spatiotemporal differences in vegetation dynamics on a seasonal basis by correlating the results with NASA's MERRA precipitation and air temperature for monitoring vegetation dynamics and drought over South Asia. Our approach is based on the use of AVHRR NDVI data and NASA's MERRA rainfall and air temperature data (1990-2011). Due to the low vegetation and dryness, the NDVI is more helpful in describing the drought condition in South Asia. There were rapid increases in NDVI, VHI, and VCI from April to October. Monthly NDVI, VHI, and VCI stabilize in September and improved once more in October and then show a declining trend in December. The monthly PCI, TCI, VHI, and VCI values showed that the South Asia goes through an extreme drought in 2000, which continues up to 2002, which lead the highest water stress. Spatial correlation maps among NDVI, precipitation, air temperature, VHI, and VCI on a seasonal basis. The correlation between NDVI and precipitation showed a significantly higher correlation value in JJA and SON seasons; the spatial correlation between NDVI and air temperature showed significant high values in DJF, JJA, and SON periods, while the correlation between VHI and TCI showed a significantly higher values in MAM and SON seasons, which indicated a good sign for dryness monitoring, mainly for farming regions during these seasons in South Asia. It was confirmed that these indexes are a comprehensive drought monitoring indicator and a step to monitoring the climate change in South Asia, which will play a relevant role ongoing studies on vegetation types, monitoring climate change, and drought over South Asia.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Secas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Agricultura , Ásia , Chuva , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(6): 5539-5553, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612366

RESUMO

Determining the effect of ridge-furrow cultivation mode on 13C carbon isotope discrimination, photosynthetic capacity, and leaf gas exchange characteristics of winter wheat leaves will help to increase wheat production. To verify these effects of cultivation modes with deficit irrigation will provide scientific basis for determining water-saving strategy. Therefore, a mobile rainproof shelter was used to explore the potential benefit of two cultivation modes: (1) the ridge-furrow (RF) precipitation system and (2) traditional flat planting (TF) with two deficit irrigation levels (150, 75 mm) and three precipitation levels (275 mm, 200 mm, 125 mm) were tested in this study. Plastic film mulching on ridges had significant effects on rainwater collection and improved soil water retention. Analysis of the light-response curve showed that RF2150 treatment significantly increased flag leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr), leaf WUE, and total contents of chlorophyll ab of wheat at flowering stage than that of TF planting. The RF system significantly increases maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pnmax) (16.2%), light saturation points (LSP) (6.7%), and Pn under CO2-response curves compared to the TF cultivation across the two irrigation and three simulated rainfall levels. The RF system significantly increased Δ13C (0.7%) and caused a notable increase in the intercellular to ambient CO2 concentration ratio (7.6%), dry matter translocation (54.9%), and grain yield plant-1 (19%) compared to the TF planting. Furthermore, Δ13C was significantly positively correlated with Pn, Gs, Ci/Ca, Ci, Tr, Pnmax, LSP, and grain yield. This study suggested that the RF2150 treatment was the best water-saving technique because it increased soil water content, Δ13C, biomass, grain yield, and leaf WUE.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Clima Desértico , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Biomassa , Isótopos de Carbono , Clorofila , Grão Comestível , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Plásticos , Poaceae , Estações do Ano , Solo
19.
Inorg Chem ; 58(1): 234-242, 2019 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566334

RESUMO

The so-called Shockley-Queisser converting efficiency limit of Si solar cells is believed to be surpassed by using the spectral converter. However, searching for efficient spectral converting materials is still a challenging task. In this paper, efficient visible-to-NIR spectral conversion for polycrystalline Si solar cells has been demonstrated in Ce3+ and Yb3+ codoped Lu3Al5O12. Moreover, the underlying energy transfermechanism from Ce3+ to Yb3+ is systematically re-investigated by the detailed excitation and emission spectra as well as fluorescent decay curves, and our results demonstrate that fast metal-to-metal charge transfer from Ce3+ to nearby Yb3+ is the dominant energy transfermechanism. Finally, we provide new evidence that Ce4+-Yb2+ charge-transfer state is responsible for the relatively low quantum efficiency of NIR emission in Ce3+ and Yb3+ codoped system.

20.
Nanoscale ; 10(48): 23198, 2018 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499580

RESUMO

Correction for 'Dye-embedded YAG:Ce3+@SiO2 composite phosphors toward warm wLEDs through radiative energy transfer: preparation, characterization and luminescence properties' by Guo-Hui Pan, Jiahua Zhang et al., Nanoscale, 2018, DOI: 10.1039/c8nr07360k.

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