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1.
Peptides ; 138: 170505, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539872

RESUMO

Neuropeptide Y is known to stimulate food intake in fish. In this study, we investigated tilapia NPY (tNPY) both for its effects on the growth of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, GIFT) in low fish meal and for its thermal stability. Three diets were formulated containing 0, 3 and 10 % fish meal (NF, LF and HF). From these diets, six experimental diets were prepared by spraying either tNPY solution (0.3 µg/g feed) or distilled water (DW) onto the surface of formulated feeds (NF + DW, NF + tNPY, LF + DW, LF + tNPY, HF + DW and HF + tNPY). Tilapia were fed the six experimental diets for 8 weeks. Fish in the NF + tNPY, LF + tNPY and HF + tNPY groups showed increasing trends in the weight gain rate and specific growth rate compared to its corresponding control group. The feed coefficient of group HF + tNPY was significantly lower than that of the control group. The growth performance of the LF + tNPY approached that of the HF + DW group. The mRNA levels of npy in NF + tNPY were significantly higher than those in NF + DW. A field experiment in which tNPY was sprayed in feeds by the vacuum spray method with doses of 0, 0.2 and 0.4 µg/g feed was performed for three months, and the FBW of tilapia receiving tNPY at 0.2 and 0.4 µg/g feed was higher than that of the control group although not significantly. The bioactivity of tNPY was confirmed by its ability to reduce cAMP levels and activate the ERK1/2 pathway. These results demonstrated that tNPY could promote tilapia growth with oral administration low fish meal diets.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Metastasis is the leading cause of recurrence in gastric cancer. However, the imaging techniques and pathological examinations for tumor metastasis have a high false-positive rate or a high false-negative rate, and many proposed that metastasis-related molecular biomarkers can hardly be validated in independent datasets. METHODS: We propose to use significantly stable gene pairs with reversal relative expression orderings (REOs) between non-metastasis and metastasis gastric cancer samples as the metastasis-related gene pairs. Based on the REOs of these gene pairs, we developed a qualitative transcriptional signature for predicting the recurrence risk of stages II-III gastric cancer patients after surgical resection. RESULTS: A REOs-based signature, consisting of 19 gene pairs (19-GPS), was selected from 77 stages II-III gastric cancer patients and validated in two independent datasets. Samples in the high-risk group had shorter disease-free survival time and overall survival time than those in the low-risk group. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the high- and low-risk groups classified by 19-GPS were highly reproducible comparing with those between lymph node metastasis and lymph node non-metastasis groups. Functional enrichment analysis showed that these DEGs were significantly enriched in metastasis-related pathways, such as PI3K-Akt and Rap1 signaling pathways. The multi-omics analyses suggested that the epigenetic and genomic features might cause transcriptional differences between two subgroups, which help to characterize the mechanism of gastric cancer metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: The signature could robustly identify patients at high recurrence risk after resection surgery, and the multi-omics analyses might aid in revealing the metastasis-related characteristics of gastric cancer.

3.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 80(2): 402-413, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534037

RESUMO

In this study, we assessed the effects of 11-day exposure of sulfadiazine (SD), sulfamethazine (SM2), norfloxacin (NOR), and enrofloxacin (ENR) on the growth, chlorophyll a (Chl. a) content, phycobiliproteins (PBPs) content, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of Chrysosporum ovalisporum, examined the removal rate of these antibiotics by C. ovalisporum, and performed acute toxicology test with Daphnia magna to determine the effect of interaction between antibiotics and cyanobacteria on aquatic animals. The results showed that the stress of SD and SM2 increased extracellular ALP activity and weakly inhibited the algal growth and the contents of Chl. a and PBPs compared with that noted in the control. ENR and NOR treatment groups exerted significant inhibition on algal growth as well as Chl. a and PBPs contents and ALP activity, although the cyanobacterium could degrade these two antibiotics more than SD and SM2. The results also revealed that the interaction between antibiotics and cyanobacteria could inhibit D. magna feeding.

4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 7326853, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542925

RESUMO

Owing to the remarkable heterogeneity of gastric cancer (GC), population-level differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified using case-control comparison cannot indicate the dysregulated frequency of each DEG in GC. In this work, first, the individual-level DEGs were identified for 1,090 GC tissues without paired normal tissues using the RankComp method. Second, we directly compared the gene expression in a cancer tissue to that in paired normal tissue to identify individual-level DEGs among 448 paired cancer-normal gastric tissues. We found 25 DEGs to be dysregulated in more than 90% of 1,090 GC tissues and also in more than 90% of 448 GC tissues with paired normal tissues. The 25 genes were defined as universal DEGs for GC. Then, we measured 24 paired cancer-normal gastric tissues by RNA-seq to validate them further. Among the universal DEGs, 4 upregulated genes (BGN, E2F3, PLAU, and SPP1) and 1 downregulated gene (UBL3) were found to be cancer genes already documented in the COSMIC or F-Census databases. By analyzing protein-protein interaction networks, we found 12 universally upregulated genes, and we found that their 284 direct neighbor genes were significantly enriched with cancer genes and key biological pathways related to cancer, such as the MAPK signaling pathway, cell cycle, and focal adhesion. The 13 universally downregulated genes and 16 direct neighbor genes were also significantly enriched with cancer genes and pathways related to gastric acid secretion. These universal DEGs may be of special importance to GC diagnosis and treatment targets, and they may make it easier to study the molecular mechanisms underlying GC.

5.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389038

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the changes of quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) and cortex structural magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and to explore the "composite marker"-based machine learning model in identifying PD-MCI. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients with PD identified 36 PD-MCI and 35 PD with normal cognition (PD-NC). QEEG features of power spectrum and structural MR features of cortex based on surface-based morphometry (SBM) were extracted. Support vector machine (SVM) was established using combined features of structural MR and qEEG to identify PD-MCI. Feature importance evaluation algorithm of mean impact value (MIV) was established to sort the vital characteristics of qEEG and structural MR. RESULTS: Compared with PD-NC, PD-MCI showed a statistically significant difference in 5 leads and waves of qEEG and 7 cortical region features of structural MR. The SVM model based on these qEEG and structural MR features yielded an accuracy of 0.80 in the training set and had a high prediction accuracy of 0.80 in the test set (sensitivity was 0.78, specificity was 0.83, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.77), which was higher than the model built by the feature separately. QEEG features of theta wave in C3 had a marked impact on the model for classification according to the MIV algorithm. CONCLUSIONS: PD-MCI is characterized by widespread structural and EEG abnormality. "Composite markers" could be valuable for the individualized diagnosis of PD-MCI by machine learning. KEY POINTS: • Explore the brain abnormalities in Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment by using the quantitative electroencephalogram and cortex structural MR simultaneously. • Multimodal features based support vector machine for identifying Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment has an acceptable performance. • Theta wave in C3 is the most influential feature of qEEG and cortex structure MR imaging in identifying Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment using support vector machine.

6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 255: 117337, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436180

RESUMO

Pathogens in the food and environment pose a great threat to human health. To solve this problem, we described a novel route to synthesize antibacterial epsilon-poly-L-lysine (EPL) anchored dicarboxyl cellulose beads. Cellulose beads were prepared via a sol-gel transition method and oxidized by sodium periodate and sodium chlorite to form carboxyl groups. EPL was anchored on the beads using carbodiimide mediated amidation. The structure and morphology of beads were characterized by FTIR, XPS, XRD, SEM, and TGA. After dissolution and regeneration, the crystalline form of cellulose is transformed from cellulose I to cellulose II. The thermal degradation temperature of the beads is 200∼300 °C.The samples displayed excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Escherichia coli within 12 h. The beads could be biodegraded in soil after 20 days. The biodegradable beads exhibited great potential in food and environmental applications.

7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 67, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, many cases of pneumonia in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection have been shown to have varying degrees of intrabronchial mucus plug formation. The clinical, laboratory, radiological characteristics, and treatment of patients with Mycoplasma infection are analyzed in this study. The risk factors for M. pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) mucus plug formation in children are explored, and a risk factor scoring system is established. METHODS: MPP patients treated with bronchoscopy were retrospectively enrolled in the study from February 2015 to December 2019. The children were divided into a mucus plug group and a control group according to the presence or absence of mucus plug formation. The clinical, laboratory, radiological characteristics, and treatment of the two groups of children were compared. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the risk factors for MPP mucus plug formation. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to evaluate the regression model and establish the MPP mucous plug risk factor scoring system. RESULTS: A univariate analysis showed that the children in the mucous group were older and had a longer fever duration, longer hospital stay, higher fever peak, more cases of wheezing symptoms and allergies, and azithromycin or corticosteroids were administered later. In addition, neutrophil, C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer (DD), sputum MP-DNA copy number, and total immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels were higher, while prealbumin (PA) levels were lower. The ROC curve analysis showed that children with MPP had PA ≤144.5 mg/L, had used corticosteroids during the course of the illness of ≥4.5 days, CRP ≥12.27 mg/L, an LDH ≥ 462.65 U/L, and there was a possibility of intra-airway mucus formation. The independent risk factors were scored according to their odds ratio (OR) value. Among the 255 children with MPP, the high-risk group had 44 (83.02%) mucus plugs out of 53; the middle-risk group had 35 (34.3%) mucus plugs out of 102; and the low-risk group had 11 (11%) mucus plugs out of 100. CONCLUSIONS: PA levels, timing of corticosteroid use (use in the first few days), CRP levels, and LDH levels were independent risk factors for MPP mucus plug formation. This provides a basis for the early identification of MPP in children combined with mucus plug formation.


Assuntos
Brônquios/fisiopatologia , Broncoscopia/métodos , Muco/metabolismo , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genética , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/imunologia , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/cirurgia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Febre , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Lactente , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Pré-Albumina/análise , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Bioorg Chem ; 107: 104528, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357982

RESUMO

A photosensitizer with high phototoxicity, suitable amphipathy and low dark toxicity could play a pivotal role in photodynamic therapy (PDT). In this study, a facile and versatile approach was adopted to synthesize a series of novel fluorinated hematoporphyrin ether derivatives (I1-I5 and II1-II4), and the photodynamic activities of these compounds were studied. Compared to hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), all PSs showed preferable photodynamic activity against A549 lung tumor cells. The longest visible absorption wavelength of these compounds was approximately 622 nm. Among them, II3 revealed the highest singlet oxygen yield (0.0957 min-1), the strongest phototoxicity (IC50 = 1.24 µM), the lowest dark toxicity in vitro, and exhibited excellent anti-tumor effects in vivo. So compound II3 could act as new drug candidate for photodynamic therapy.

9.
Food Chem ; 345: 128803, 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310561

RESUMO

This study demonstrated the contribution of peptides to umami soy sauce taste. Asn-Pro and Ala-His with remarkable umami taste and umami-enhancing capacity were found in original soy sauce, possessing umami thresholds of 175 and 160 mg/L and umami-enhancing thresholds of 10 and 13 mg/L, respectively. Firstly, an industrially viable two-stage hydrolysis at 55 °C (a 12-h hydrolysis with the neutral protease, then a 12-h hydrolysis with the aminopeptidase) was established to produce protein hydrolysates rich in umami-tasting and umami-enhancing peptides (e.g. Asn-Pro and Ala-His) from non-soy sauce protein preparations (soy protein isolate, rice proteins, wheat proteins, peanut proteins or pea proteins). The soy protein isolate hydrolysate produced via the two-stage hydrolysis had Asn-Pro and Ala-His contents 3.32 and 1.15 times higher than those produced via the one-stage hydrolysis using the neutral protease only. Adding the hydrolysate to original soy sauce at 5% w/v significantly increased umami and reduced bitterness.

10.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290659

RESUMO

The emergence of immune checkpoint blockade to activate host T cells to attack tumor cells has revolutionized the cancer treatment landscape over the past decade. However, sustained response has only been achieved in a small proportion of patients. This can be attributed to physiological barriers, such as T-cell heterogeneity and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments. To this can be added obstacles intrinsic to traditional antibody-driven blockade methods, including the inability to inhibit checkpoint translocation from cytoplasm, systemic immune toxicity, and "bite back" effect on T cells. Using non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as the cancer model, here we report an unconventional, yet powerful, tumor-targeted checkpoint blocking strategy by RNAi nanoengineering for T-cell-independent cancer therapy. Unlike antibodies, such nanoblocker silences both membranous and cytoplasmic PD-L1 in cancer cells, thus eliminating the binding step. Moreover, it is demonstrated that silencing of PD-L1 by the nanoblocker can cause the direct programmed cell death of NSCLC H460 cells, without the need of T-cell intervention. In vivo results from xenograft tumor models further demonstrate that tumor-homing peptide modification enables the nanoblocker to accumulate in the tumor tissue, downregulate the PD-L1 expression, and inhibit the tumor growth more efficiently than the nontargeted group. These findings may offer an effective means toward overcoming barriers against traditional checkpoint blockade and provide different insights into the molecular mechanism(s) underlying immunotherapy.

11.
Front Med ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259040

RESUMO

The ability of tumor cells to sustain continuous proliferation is one of the major characteristics of cancer. The activation of oncogenes and the mutation or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes ensure the rapid proliferation of tumor cells. The PI3K-Akt-mTOR axis is one of the most frequently modified signaling pathways whose activation sustains cancer growth. Unsurprisingly, it is also one of the most commonly attempted targets for cancer therapy. FK506 binding protein 8 (FKBP8) is an intrinsic inhibitor of mTOR kinase that also exerts an anti-apoptotic function. We aimed to explain these contradictory aspects of FKBP8 in cancer by identifying a "switch" type regulator. We identified through immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis that the mitochondrial protein prohibitin 1 (PHB1) specifically interacts with FKBP8. Furthermore, the downregulation of PHB1 inhibited the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells and the mTOR signaling pathway, whereas the FKBP8 level in the mitochondria was substantially reduced. Moreover, concomitant with these changes, the interaction between FKBP8 and mTOR substantially increased in the absence of PHB1. Collectively, our finding highlights PHB1 as a potential regulator of FKBP8 because of its subcellular localization and mTOR regulating role.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373296

RESUMO

Establishing correct correspondences between two images should consider both local and global spatial context. Given putative correspondences of feature points in two views, in this paper, we propose Order-Aware Network, which infers the probabilities of correspondences being inliers and regresses the relative pose encoded by the essential or fundamental matrix. Specifically, this proposed network is built hierarchically and comprises three operations. First, to capture the local context of sparse correspondences, the network clusters unordered input correspondences by learning a soft assignment matrix. These clusters are in canonical order and invariant to input permutations. Next, the clusters are spatially correlated to encode the global context of correspondences. After that, the context-encoded clusters are interpolated back to the original size and position to build a hierarchical architecture. We intensively experiment on both outdoor and indoor datasets. The accuracy of the two-view geometry and correspondences are significantly improved over the state-of-the-arts. Besides, based on the proposed method and advanced local feature, we won the first place in CVPR 2019 image matching workshop challenge and also achieve state-of-the-art results in the Visual Localization benchmark.

13.
Front Genet ; 11: 566928, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193655

RESUMO

About 20-30% of early-stage breast cancer patients suffer relapses after surgery. To identify such high-risk patients, many signatures have been reported, but they lack robustness in data measured on different platforms. Here, we developed a signature which is robust across multiple profiling platforms, and identified reproducible omics features characterizing metastasis of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer from the Gene Expression Omnibus database with the aid of the signature. Based on the stable within-sample relative expression orderings (REOs), we constructed a signature consisting of five gene pairs, named 5-GPS, whose REOs were significantly correlated with relapse-free survival using the univariate Cox regression model. Using 5-GPS, patients were classified into the low-risk and high-risk groups. Patients in the high-risk group have worse survival compared to those in the low-risk group using Kaplan-Meier curve analysis with the log-rank test. Applying 5-GPS to the RNA-sequencing data of stage I-IV breast cancer samples archived in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we found that the proportion of the high-risk patients increases with the stage. The proposed REO-based signature shows potential in identifying early-stage ER+ breast cancer patients with high risk of relapse after surgery.

14.
Proteins ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210347

RESUMO

Cobaltochelatase in aerobic cobalamin biosynthesis is a complex composed of three subunits. The large subunit CobN is a 140-kDa protein and is homologous to the ChlH subunit of magnesium chelatase. Previously we have reported the 2.5-Å structure of a cyanobacterial ChlH. Here we present the 1.8-Å structure of CobN from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The overall structure of CobN and ChlH is similar, but significant difference occurs in the head domain. Structural comparison of domains between the two proteins unravels candidate regions for substrate binding and helps to locate a triad of residues that may be essential for metal ion binding.

15.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241572, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147295

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neurosyphilis can occur at any stage of syphilis. After treatment, 30%-40% of syphilis patients remained serofast. But the prevalence of asymptomatic neurosyphilis (ANS) among serofast syphilis patients remains unclear. Untimely treatment or improper management for ANS may result in neurological complications. So we perform the meta-analysis to evaluate the prevalence of ANS cases among HIV-negative serofast syphilis patients for exploring their relationship and addressing their clinical management. METHODS: We searched CNKI, Wan Fang, VIP, CBMdisc, PubMed, Embase and Medline from January 1st 1990 to September 22nd 2020 for both English and Chinese records. We strictly restrict the eligibility criteria. STROBE was used for reporting quality assessment. We examined forest plots and conducted both fix-effects and random-effects to estimate prevalence by R version 3.6.2/R studio 1.2.1335 statistical software packages META version 4.9-9. If appropriate, between-study heterogeneity was examined using the I2 statistic and subgroup analysis. RESULTS: Of 77 screened records, 5 were included. The pooled prevalence of ANS among HIV-negative serofast syphilis patients was 13% (95% CI 3%-23%; I2 = 93% P<0.01, 417 people). The prevalence of ANS for the verified ANS classification definition was 3% (95% CI 0%-7%; I2 = 67% P = 0.08, two studies, 189 people), and 21% (95% CI 6%-36%; I2 = 86% P<0.01, three studies, 228 people) for the likely ANS classification. The prevalence of ANS among the serofast syphilis patients who were followed up for one year was 29% (95% CI 22%-36%; I2 = 0% P = 0.5, two studies, 167 people) and 5% (95% CI 0%-13%; I2 = 79% P = 0.03, two studies, 144 people) for two years. The prevalence in the studies from different geographical subgroups was as follows: 9% (95% CI 0%-19%; I2 = 82% P<0.01, three studies, 169 people) in South-central China, 6% (95% CI 1%-10%; one study, 106 people) in East China, and 30% (95% CI 23%-38%; one study, 142 people) in North China. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis showed a high estimated prevalence of ANS in HIV-negative serofast syphilis patients, the prevalence of ANS among patients diagnosed with the verified ANS case definition is much lower than that for the likely ANS classification. It may be necessary to carry out nontreponemal test, protein test and leukocyte count for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in treated serofast patients for better clinical management to avoid neurological complications. The case classification definition of ANS is a key factor to evaluate the prevalence. Geographical heterogeneity needs more studies to detect. In future we need better-design studies to explore relationship between ANS and serofast status.

16.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 13: 563054, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117129

RESUMO

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide and involves deficiencies in alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) degradation. Effective therapeutic strategies for PD are urgently needed. L-asparaginase (L-ASNase) has been developed for therapeutic applications in many fields because it catalyzes the hydrolysis of asparagine and glutamine in cancer cells, which may also activate autophagy and induce the degradation of accumulated α-Syn. However, the efficacy and related mechanism of L-ASNase in PD remain poorly understood. Methods: We determined the correlation between L-ASNase and autophagic degradation of α-Syn in a cell model of PD. Mitochondrial function and apoptosis were examined in the presence or absence of L-ASNase. Then, we applied GC-MS/MS targeted amino acid metabolomics analysis to validate the amino acid regulation induced by L-ASNase treatment. Glutamine was added to verify whether the neuroprotective effect was induced by deprivation of glutamine. α-Syn-related autophagy and mitochondrial fusion/fission dynamics were detected to explore the mechanism of L-ASNase-based therapy in PD. Results: L-ASNase activated the autophagic degradation of α-Syn in a cell model of PD without cytotoxicity at specific concentrations/times. Under these conditions, L-ASNase showed substantial neuroprotective effects, including improvements in mitochondrial function and decreased apoptosis. Through GC-MS/MS targeted analysis, glutamine metabolism was identified as the target of L-ASNase in PD treatment, and the neuroprotective effect of L-ASNase was reduced after glutamine supplementation. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated for the first time that L-ASNase had a neuroprotective effect on a cell model of PD through a moderate deprivation of glutamine, which induced autophagic activation and mitochondrial fusion. Therefore, we demonstrated that L-ASNase could be a promising and effective drug for PD treatment.

17.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 170: 108493, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039489

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the association of severe hypoglycemia (SH) with all-cause mortality and complication risks among Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Cohort study and nested case-control studies were conducted based on medical insurance database 2008-2015. The incidence of outcomes or the exposure of previous SH was compared among matched patients, respectively. The association between SH and outcomes was investigated and validated by different models. RESULTS: Among cohort study participants (mean age of 59.0 ± 11.2 years), SH was associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 1.80, P < 0.001) and transient ischemic attacks (TIA, HR = 1.51, P < 0.001), while no association was observed between SH and complications including myocardial infarction (MI), angina, arrhythmia and stroke. Similarly, SH was associated with about doubled all-cause mortality (OR = 1.76, P < 0.001) and TIA (OR = 2.00, P < 0.001), but not associated with risk of MI or stroke in nested case-control studies. CONCLUSIONS: In Chinese patients with T2DM, SH is associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and TIA, but no significant differences were found regard to the other examined complication risks, which need to be further explored in future studies.

18.
Plant Dis ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021916

RESUMO

Amygdalus triloba (Rosaceae; previously Prunus triloba) is a deciduous, flowering shrub that is widely used in the greening and beautification of lawns, parks and courtyards in China. In late May 2019, a leaf spot disease of A. triloba was observed on approximately 35% of plants in the Xinjiang Alaer city (40˚33'20''N, 81˚17'19''E). The disease symptoms began as small, suborbicular, brown spots on the leaves. As the disease progressed, the spots enlarged and coalesced into large necrotic areas and resulted in premature defoliation. Leaf sections (5 x 5 mm) from infected leaves were surface - sterilized with 75% ethanol for 30 s and 0.1% HgCl2 for 1 min, rinsed three times in sterile distilled water and then incubated on potato dextrose agar (PDA). Fifteen fungal isolates showing similar morphological characteristics were obtained by single-spore isolation. On the PDA plates, all fungal colonies had a dark olive color with loose, cottony mycelium. On the potato carrot agar, the fungus formed unbranched spore chains, but occasionally formed one or two lateral branches. Conidiophores were short, hazel-colored, septae, arising singly, and measuring 15.1 to 61.8 × 1.8 to 4.2 µm (35.2 ± 1.4 × 2.3 ± 0.1 µm, n = 50). Mature conidia were ellipsoidal to ovoid with a short conical beak at the tip, light brown with zero to three longitudinal septa and one to five transverse septa, and measuring 19.3 to 30.8 × 7.2 to 12.5 µm (21.8 ± 0.3 × 9.5 ± 0.2 µm, n = 50). Based on the cultural and morphological traits, the pathogen was preliminary identified as Alternaria tenuissima (Simmons 2007). Genomic DNA was extracted from the representative isolate YALAR-1, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the partial coding sequence of endopolygalacturonase (endoPG), the glyceradehyde -3- phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDA), the partial region of the histone 3 (H3) genes were amplified using primers ITS1/ITS4 (White et al. 1990), PG2b/PG3a (Andrew et al. 2009), GDF1/GDR1 (Berbee et al. 1999) and H3-1a/H3-1b (Glass and Donaldson 1995), respectively. The amplicons were sequenced and deposited in GenBank [MT459807 (ITS), MT459808 (endoPG), MT459805 (GAPDA), MT459806 (H3)]. MegaBLAST analyses revealed that our ITS, endoPG, GAPDA, and H3 sequences were 99-100% identical to those of A. tenuissima isolates in GenBank [AF347032 (ITS), KP124026 (endoPG), AY278809 (GAPDA), KF997086 (H3)], confirming the identity of the pathogen as A. tenuissima. Pathogenicity tests were performed by inoculating the fungus onto healthy, mature leaves of A. triloba in the field. Twenty five leaves (five leaves/plant) were sprayed with spore suspensions (1 × 106 spores/ml) of each fungal pathogen, and the same number of leaves were sprayed with distilled water as controls. Inoculated and control leaves were covered with clear plastic bags for 3 days. The experiment was repeated three times. Twelve days after inoculation, the observed symptoms were similar to the original symptoms and the same fungal pathogen was reisolated from the inoculated leaves and identified as A. tenuissima based on morphological features and sequence analysis. The control leaves remained asymptomatic and no fungus was isolated from these leaves. Previously, a leaf spot of A. triloba caused by Alternaria brassicae was reported in Dalian, China (Xie et al. 2017). In order to control this disease effectively, further studies are needed on the biology and ecology of A. tenuissima and A. brassicae respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of A. tenuissima associated with leaf spot disease on A. triloba in China. In late September 2020, the diseased plant rate increased to 38% in Alaer city. If the disease control and prevention is neglected, the landscape of Alaer city will be affected seriously. So, in order to effectively control the spread of the disease, it is urgent now to study the sensitivity of pathogen to fungicide and carry out the field efficacy trials. References: Andrew, M., et al. 2009. Mycologia. 101:95. Berbee, M. L., et al. 1999. Mycologia. 91:964. Glass, N. L., and Donaldson, G. C. 1995. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:1323. Simmons, E. G. 2007. Alternaria: An Identification Manual. CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands. White, T. J., et al. 1990. PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. Xie, Y., et al. 2017. Liaoning Agricultural Sciences. 6: 73.

19.
R Soc Open Sci ; 7(7): 200457, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874639

RESUMO

A new elastic polyurethane (PU) adhesive was reported in this study to improve the stability and durability of the dental adhesion interface. A polyurethane oligomer was synthesized by the solution polymerization method, and a diluent and solvent were added to prepare PU adhesives. The water sorption, water solubility, contact angle, thermal stability, degree of conversion and mechanical properties of the PU adhesives were evaluated. Experimental applications for tooth restoration (microtensile bond strength and microleakage) were also performed, and cytotoxicity test was carried out. The water sorption and solubility of the PU adhesives were significantly lower than those of three commercial adhesives. The microtensile bond strength of the PU adhesives was improved after thermocycling test, and the extent of microleakage was diminished when compared with that of commercial adhesives. Biocompatibility testing demonstrated that the PU adhesive was non-toxic to L929 fibroblasts. This study shows the ability of PU adhesive to improve the stability and durability of the dental adhesion interface and may refocus the attention of scientists from rigid bonding to flexible bonding for dental adhesion, and it sheds light on a new strategy for the stable and durable bonding interface of dentine adhesives.

20.
Clin Transl Med ; 10(4): e158, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898340

RESUMO

The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). More than 18 million people were infected with a total of 0.7 million deaths in ∼188 countries. Controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 is therefore inherently dependent on identifying and isolating infected individuals, especially since COVID-19 can result in little to no symptoms. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the different primary technologies used to test for COVID-19 infection, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each technology, and highlight the studies that have employed them. We also describe technologies that have the potential to accelerate SARS-CoV-2 detection in the future, including digital PCR, CRISPR, and microarray. Finally, remaining challenges in COVID-19 diagnostic testing are discussed, including (a) the lack of universal standards for diagnostic testing; (b) the identification of appropriate sample collection site(s); (c) the difficulty in performing large population screening; and (d) the limited understanding of SARS-COV-2 viral invasion, replication, and transmission.

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