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1.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118469, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752792

RESUMO

Although it is a probable human carcinogen, propylene oxide is widely applied in industry and daily life. However, data on neurodevelopmental effects of propylene oxide exposure among children are extremely limited. We aimed to determine the urinary concentrations of propylene oxide metabolite among school-aged children and evaluate the potential association of propylene oxide exposure with risk of dyslexia. A total of 355 dyslexic children and 390 controls were recruited from three cities (Jining, Wuhan, and Hangzhou) in China, between 2017 and 2020. Urinary N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxypropyl)-L-cysteine (i.e., 2-hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid; 2-HPMA) was measured as the biomarker of propylene oxide exposure. The detection frequency of 2-HPMA was 100%. After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds ratio (OR) for dyslexia per 2-fold increase in urinary 2-HPMA was 1.19 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.01, 1.40, P = 0.042]. Compared with the lowest quartile of urinary 2-HPMA concentrations, children with the highest quartile of 2-HPMA had a 1.63-fold (95% CI: 1.03, 2.56, P = 0.036) significantly increased risk of dyslexia, with a dose-response relationship (P-trend = 0.047). This study provides epidemiological data on the potential association between propylene oxide exposure and the risk of dyslexia in children. Further studies are warranted to confirm the findings and reveal the underlying biological mechanisms.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Compostos de Epóxi , Acetilcisteína , Criança , Cidades , Dislexia/induzido quimicamente , Dislexia/epidemiologia , Humanos
2.
Int J Anal Chem ; 2021: 7195125, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858501

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the extract with high antioxidant activity of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg and identify the antioxidant components in vitro. α, α-Diphenyl-ß-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and hydroxyl radical scavenging method were used to screen the extract with high antioxidant activity. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by the free radical scavenging ability of DPPH. The ability of extracts to scavenge 2, 2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical was evaluated by TEAC assay. The FRAP method was used to evaluate the ability of extracts to reduce Fe3+. The ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals produced by the interaction of hydrogen peroxide and Fe2+ was measured by monitoring the change in the absorbance of the reaction mixture at 536 nm. Then, high-performance liquid chromatography-DPPH (HPLC-DPPH) and HPLC-hydroxyl radical scavenging methods were used to screen the antioxidant components in the extract. The molecular weight of the above antioxidant components was investigated using the qualitative analytical method of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF LC/MS). Based on the concentrations of the samples (0.2-4 mg/mL), the DPPH free radical scavenging ability, ABTS+ free radical scavenging ability, hydroxyl free radical scavenging ability, and Fe3+ reducing ability of the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) were stronger than that of the crude extract (CE), petroleum ether extract (PEE), and n-butanol extract (BE). The EAE has higher antioxidant activity than CE, PEE, and BE. Six antioxidant components, rutin, quercetin, isoquercetin, astragalin, kaempferol, and kaempferol-3-o-rutoside, were identified in the EAE.

3.
Balkan Med J ; 38(6): 394-396, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34860168
4.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2021: 6231-6234, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34892538

RESUMO

Temporal interference (TI) stimulation is a novel electrical stimulation technique which offers noninvasive deep brain stimulation (NDBS) in mice. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of TI stimulation on deep layers superior colliculus (SC) nerve activity and eye movements in mice. Six male C57BL / 6J mice were used in this study. Different parameters of TI stimulation were applied to the deep layers of mice SC. Each TI stimulation lasted for 20 seconds and were repeated five times. We analyzed the synchronous recording of Ca2+ signals in deep layers mice SC and the eye movement amplitudes. Our results show that TI stimulation can evoke eye movements and the neural activity in deep layers of mice SC. Changing the difference frequency of TI stimulation can regulate the frequency of the nerve activity and eye movements. Granger causality analysis indicates that the neural activity in deep layers of mice SC may cause the eye movements during TI stimulation.

5.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 748388, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34955809

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. Mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to be an early event in the onset and progression of AD; however, the precise underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated mitochondrial proteins involved in organelle dynamics, morphology and energy production in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (HIPP) of young (1∼2 months), adult (4∼5 months) and aged (9∼10, 12∼18 months) APP/PS1 mice. We observed increased levels of mitochondrial fission protein, Drp1, and decreased levels of ATP synthase subunit, ATP5A, leading to abnormal mitochondrial morphology, increased oxidative stress, glial activation, apoptosis, and altered neuronal morphology as early as 4∼5 months of age in APP/PS1 mice. Electrophysiological recordings revealed abnormal miniature excitatory postsynaptic current in the mPFC together with a minor connectivity change between the mPFC and HIPP, correlating with social deficits. These results suggest that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, which worsen with disease progression, could be a biomarker of early-stage AD. Therapeutic interventions that improve mitochondrial function thus represent a promising approach for slowing the progression or delaying the onset of AD.

6.
Biotech Histochem ; : 1-11, 2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903132

RESUMO

For western blot analysis, a housekeeping protein, such as ß-actin or glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, is used as loading control with the assumption that these proteins are stable. In practice, these internal loading control proteins vary with different cell states and tissue types. These internal standards are not appropriate for use with serum, extracellular secretion, cerebrospinal fluid analysis or for protein purification. We investigated total protein measurement using Congo red staining and found it to be a superior alternative to routine loading controls. Advantages include lower cost, technical simplicity and improved linear regression. We propose using Congo red staining for total protein immunoblotting to evaluate protein loading in western blots.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948027

RESUMO

The cGAS-STING pathway is a key component of the innate immune system and exerts crucial roles in the detection of cytosolic DNA and invading pathogens. Accumulating evidence suggests that the intrinsic cGAS-STING pathway not only facilitates the production of type I interferons (IFN-I) and inflammatory responses but also triggers autophagy. Autophagy is a homeostatic process that exerts multiple effects on innate immunity. However, systematic evidence linking the cGAS-STING pathway and autophagy is still lacking. Therefore, one goal of this review is to summarize the known mechanisms of autophagy induced by the cGAS-STING pathway and their consequences. The cGAS-STING pathway can trigger canonical autophagy through liquid-phase separation of the cGAS-DNA complex, interaction of cGAS and Beclin-1, and STING-triggered ER stress-mTOR signaling. Furthermore, both cGAS and STING can induce non-canonical autophagy via LC3-interacting regions and binding with LC3. Subsequently, autophagy induced by the cGAS-STING pathway plays crucial roles in balancing innate immune responses, maintaining intracellular environmental homeostasis, alleviating liver injury, and limiting tumor growth and transformation.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151852, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826485

RESUMO

Exposure to organophosphate (OP) insecticides has been found to be related to neurodevelopmental disorders in children. However, no study has examined the association between OP insecticide exposure and the risk of dyslexia among children. We aimed to explore the association between OP insecticide exposure, indicated by urinary dialkylphosphate metabolites (DAPs), and the risk of dyslexia among Chinese Han children from three cities. A total of 845 children (422 dyslexics and 423 non-dyslexics) from Tongji Reading Environment and Dyslexia research program were included in the current case-control study. We measured six DAPs in urine samples, collected from November 2017 to December 2020. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for the association between DAPs and dyslexia risk, adjusting for potential confounders. The detection frequencies of DAPs were above 97.5%, except for diethyldithiophosphate and dimethyldithiophosphate. Diethyl phosphate metabolites (DEs) were significantly associated with the risk of dyslexia. Compared with the lowest quartile, the adjusted ORs of dyslexia risk for the highest quartile of urinary diethylthiophosphate (DETP) and diethylphosphate (DEP) were 1.82 (1.04, 3.20) and 1.85 (1.08, 3.17), respectively. In addition, the adjusted ORs for dyslexia per 10-fold of urinary DEP, DETP, and ∑DEs concentration were 1.87 (1.12, 3.13), 1.55 (1.03, 2.35), and 1.91 (1.13, 3.21), respectively. Analyses stratified by gender indicated that such associations were more significant among boys. This study suggested that exposure to OP insecticides may be related to dyslexia among Chinese Han children from the three studied cities. However, our results should be interpreted with caution because of the case-control design and the fact that only one-spot urine sample was collected from the children. More studies with children living in China are necessary concerning the relatively high levels of urinary OP metabolites in our study.

9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(22): 24850-24865, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837887

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNA nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (lncRNA NEAT1) is abnormally expressed in numerous tumors and functions as an oncogene, but the role of NEAT1 in laryngocarcinoma is largely unknown. Our study validated that NEAT1 expression was markedly upregulated in laryngocarcinoma tissues and cells. Downregulation of NEAT1 dramatically suppressed cell proliferation and invasion through inhibiting miR-524-5p expression. Additionally, NEAT1 overexpression promoted cell growth and metastasis, while overexpression of miR-524-5p could reverse the effect. NEAT1 increased the expression of histone deacetylase 1 gene (HDAC1) via sponging miR-524-5p. Mechanistically, overexpression of HDAC1 recovered the cancer-inhibiting effects of miR-524-5p mimic or NEAT1 silence by deacetylation of tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) and inhibiting AKT signal pathway. Moreover, in vivo experiments indicated that silence of NEAT1 signally suppressed tumor growth. Taken together, knockdown of NEAT1 suppressed laryngocarcinoma cell growth and metastasis by miR-524-5p/HDAC1/PTEN/AKT signal pathway, which provided a potential therapeutic target for laryngocarcinoma.

10.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol ; 46(3): 101825, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757154
11.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0255666, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752472

RESUMO

We examine the learning effects of borrowers' failures in online lending. Based on funding ratios of borrowers' loan listings in online lending, we first explore the role of failure degree in borrowers' future funding performance. Further, we disaggregate borrowers' funding failure into complete failure and incomplete failure, and compare theirs learning effects. Using a large sample of 610,000 online loan applications over six years from a Chinese leading online lending platform Renrendai, we use funding ratio to quantifiably measure each loan listing's failure degree and conduct a series of tests. The results show that: (1) Borrowers' failure degree of prior loan applications is negatively associated with one's subsequent funding performance. (2) Borrowers' complete failure cannot promote learning, while incomplete failure is good for future performance. (3) Both incomplete failure and complete failure interacted to influence the value of each type of experience and generate improved learning. Our results are robust across a variety of settings. The study sheds light for deeply understanding of failure learning phenomenon, and can also provide important implications for online lending managers to support successful financial transactions.

12.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607440

RESUMO

A 60-year-old woman with a 20-years history of hepatitis B presented with 2 weeks of dull pain in the right upper quadrant and intermittent nausea. Abdominal MRI showed a solitary lesion in Segment VIII of the liver. It demonstrated multi-layered target appearance resembling a "maze" on diffusion-weighted image (DWI) and T2 weighted images (T2WI), and appeared as a low signal target with a hypointense core on the hepatobiliary phase. Histopathology confirmed hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE). Our case showed a solitary hepatic lesion with as many as six layers and overall appearances are more like a "maze", which was a diagnostic challenge. However, this maze-like manifestation actually makes hepatocellular carcinoma as the main differentials being very unlikely. Other differential diagnosis such as metastasis,cholangiocarcinoma or atypical hemangioma are also unlikely to show more than three layers. Core pattern, regarded as a noval imaging feature of HEHE, is different from general features of hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma. Our case highlights that HEHE needs to be taken into consideration when a multi-layer appearing hepatic lesion is found incidentally in the cirrhotic liver.

14.
Cancer Med ; 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maintenance therapy with proteasome inhibitors (PIs) can improve outcomes of multiple myeloma (MM) patients, however, the neurotoxicity and parenteral route of bortezomib limit its long-term use. An efficacious, tolerable, and convenient PI option is needed. METHODS: In this single-center, real-world study, we retrospectively analyzed the outcome and safety profile of ixazomib-based maintenance therapy in patients who plateaued with the responses of steady disease or better after bortezomib-based induction therapy in MM patients not undergoing transplantation. RESULTS: Of all the 71 patients, 37 cases (52.1%) were newly diagnosed MM (NDMM) and 34 cases (47.9%) were relapsed and/or refractory MM (RRMM). The overall response rate (ORR) was 81.7%, including 34 patients (47.9%) with a very good response rate or better (≥VGPR) after a median of nine cycles (6-14) of bortezomib-based induction therapy. Then the ORR was transformed to 74.6% including 39 patients of ≥VGPR (54.9%) after a median of six courses (2-25) of ixazomib-based maintenance therapy. Of these, 18 patients (25.4%) exhibited responses deepened. With 26.5 months median follow-up, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 28.4 and 16.5 months from the start of bortezomib and 16.2 and 10.0 months from the initiation of ixazomib in NDMM and RRMM group, respectively. Moreover, responses deepened during the maintenance phase (hazard ratio: 0.270, p = 0.007), and responses of ≥VGPR during the induction phase (hazard ratio: 0.218, p < 0.001) were confirmed to independently predict longer PFS after multivariate analyses. Severe adverse events (grade 3/4) were relatively rare. Bortezomib-emergent peripheral neuritis (PN) was significantly relived after the transition to ixazomib (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This real-world analysis has demonstrated oral ixazomib is a favorable option of long-term administration for maintenance with efficacy and feasibility and confirmed the association between deepening responses with ixazomib and prolonged PFS.

15.
Lancet HIV ; 8(11): e690-e700, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence of whether people living with HIV are at elevated risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes is inconclusive. We aimed to investigate this association using the population-based National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) data in the USA. METHODS: We included all adult (aged ≥18 years) COVID-19 cases with any health-care encounter from 54 clinical sites in the USA, with data being deposited into the N3C. The outcomes were COVID-19 disease severity, hospitalisation, and mortality. Encounters in the same health-care system beginning on or after January 1, 2018, were also included to provide information about pre-existing health conditions (eg, comorbidities). Logistic regression models were employed to estimate the association of HIV infection and HIV markers (CD4 cell count, viral load) with hospitalisation, mortality, and clinical severity of COVID-19 (multinomial). The models were initially adjusted for demographic characteristics, then subsequently adjusted for smoking, obesity, and a broad range of comorbidities. Interaction terms were added to assess moderation effects by demographic characteristics. FINDINGS: In the harmonised N3C data release set from Jan 1, 2020, to May 8, 2021, there were 1 436 622 adult COVID-19 cases, of these, 13 170 individuals had HIV infection. A total of 26 130 COVID-19 related deaths occurred, with 445 among people with HIV. After adjusting for all the covariates, people with HIV had higher odds of COVID-19 death (adjusted odds ratio 1·29, 95% CI 1·16-1·44) and hospitalisation (1·20, 1·15-1·26), but lower odds of mild or moderate COVID-19 (0·61, 0·59-0·64) than people without HIV. Interaction terms revealed that the elevated odds were higher among older age groups, male, Black, African American, Hispanic, or Latinx adults. A lower CD4 cell count (<200 cells per µL) was associated with all the adverse COVID-19 outcomes, while viral suppression was only associated with reduced hospitalisation. INTERPRETATION: Given the COVID-19 pandemic's exacerbating effects on health inequities, public health and clinical communities must strengthen services and support to prevent aggravated COVID-19 outcomes among people with HIV, particularly for those with pronounced immunodeficiency. FUNDING: National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, USA.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 477, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both underground rhizomes/buds and above-ground Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla) shoots/culms/branches are connected together into a close inter-connecting system in which nutrients are transported and shared among each organ. However, the starch storage and utilization mechanisms during bamboo shoot growth remain unclear. This study aimed to reveal in which organs starch was stored, how carbohydrates were transformed among each organ, and how the expression of key genes was regulated during bamboo shoot growth and developmental stages which should lay a foundation for developing new theoretical techniques for bamboo cultivation. RESULTS: Based on changes of the NSC content, starch metabolism-related enzyme activity and gene expression from S0 to S3, we observed that starch grains were mainly elliptical in shape and proliferated through budding and constriction. Content of both soluble sugar and starch in bamboo shoot peaked at S0, in which the former decreased gradually, and the latter initially decreased and then increased as shoots grew. Starch synthesis-related enzymes (AGPase, GBSS and SBE) and starch hydrolase (α-amylase and ß-amylase) activities exhibited the same dynamic change patterns as those of the starch content. From S0 to S3, the activity of starch synthesis-related enzyme and starch amylase in bamboo rhizome was significantly higher than that in bamboo shoot, while the NSC content in rhizomes was obviously lower than that in bamboo shoots. It was revealed by the comparative transcriptome analysis that the expression of starch synthesis-related enzyme-encoding genes were increased at S0, but reduced thereafter, with almost the same dynamic change tendency as the starch content and metabolism-related enzymes, especially during S0 and S1. It was revealed by the gene interaction analysis that AGPase and SBE were core genes for the starch and sucrose metabolism pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Bamboo shoots were the main organ in which starch was stored, while bamboo rhizome should be mainly functioned as a carbohydrate transportation channel and the second carbohydrate sink. Starch metabolism-related genes were expressed at the transcriptional level during underground growth, but at the post-transcriptional level during above-ground growth. It may be possible to enhance edible bamboo shoot quality for an alternative starch source through genetic engineering.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poaceae/genética , Amido/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/genética , Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/metabolismo , Amilases/genética , Amilases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/ultraestrutura , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/fisiologia , Poaceae/ultraestrutura , Rizoma/genética , Rizoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rizoma/fisiologia , Rizoma/ultraestrutura
17.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696285

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes PRRS and is known to effectively suppress host innate immunity. The current strategies for controlling PRRSV are limited and complete understanding of anti-PRRSV innate immunity is needed. Here, we utilized nine porcine innate immune signaling adaptors which represent all currently known innate immune receptor signaling pathways for screening of anti-PRRSV activity. The analysis of PRRSV N gene transcription and protein expression both suggested that the multiple ectopic adaptors exhibited varying degrees of anti-PRRSV activities, with TRIF and MAVS most effective. To better quantify the PRRSV replication, the GFP signal of PRRSV from reverse genetics were measured by flow cytometry and similarly varying anti-PRRSV activities by different signaling adaptors were observed. Based on the screening data, and considering the importance of viral nucleic acid in innate immune response, endogenous TRIF, MAVS and STING were selected for further examination of anti-PRRSV activity. Agonist stimulation assay showed that MAVS and STING signaling possessed significant anti-PRRSV activities, whereas siRNA knockdown assay showed that TRIF, MAVS and STING are all involved in anti-PRRSV activity, with TLR3-TRIF displaying discrepancy in anti-PRRSV infection. Nevertheless, our work suggests that multiple pattern recognition receptor (PRR) signaling pathways are involved in anti-PRRSV innate immunity, which may have implications for the development of future antiviral strategies.

18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(12): 2217-2226, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end-products (AGE) are formed through nonenzymatic glycation of free amino groups in proteins or lipid. They are associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, and their accumulation in the body is implicated in chronic disease morbidity and mortality. We examined the association between postdiagnosis dietary Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML)-AGE intake and mortality among women diagnosed with breast cancer. METHODS: Postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years were enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) between 1993 and 1998 and followed up until death or censoring through March 2018. We included 2,023 women diagnosed with first primary invasive breast cancer during follow-up who completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) after diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards (PH) regression models estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of association between tertiles of postdiagnosis CML-AGE intake and mortality risk from all causes, breast cancer, and cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: After a median 15.1 years of follow-up, 630 deaths from all causes were reported (193 were breast cancer-related, and 129 were cardiovascular disease-related). Postdiagnosis CML-AGE intake was associated with all-cause (HRT3vsT1, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.09-1.74), breast cancer (HRT3vsT1, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.98-2.24), and cardiovascular disease (HRT3vsT1, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.09-3.32) mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of AGEs was associated with higher risk of major causes of mortality among postmenopausal women diagnosed with breast cancer. IMPACT: Our findings suggest that dietary AGEs may contribute to the risk of mortality after breast cancer diagnosis. Further prospective studies examining dietary AGEs in breast cancer outcomes and intervention studies targeting dietary AGE reduction are needed to confirm our findings.

19.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(9): ofab428, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552997

RESUMO

Background: Current literature examining the clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients under-represent COVID-19 cases who were either asymptomatic or had mild symptoms. Methods: We analyzed statewide data from 280 177 COVID-19 cases from various health care facilities during March 4-December 31, 2020. Each COVID-19 case was reported using the standardized Case Report Form (CRF), which collected information on demographic characteristics, symptoms, hospitalization, and death. We used multivariable logistic regression to analyze the associations between sociodemographics and disease severity, hospitalization, and mortality. Results: Among a total of 280 177 COVID-19 cases, 5.2% (14 451) were hospitalized and 1.9% (5308) died. Older adults, males, and Black individuals had higher odds of hospitalization and death from COVID-19 (all P < 0.0001). In particular, individuals residing in rural areas experienced a high risk of death (odds ratio [OR], 1.16; 95% CI, 1.08-1.25). Regarding disease severity, older adults (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.03-1.10) and Hispanic or Latino patients (OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.95-2.18) had higher odds of experiencing moderate/severe symptoms, while male and Asian patients, compared with White patients, had lower odds of experiencing moderate/severe symptoms. Conclusions: As the first statewide population-based study using data from multiple health care systems with a long follow-up period in the United States, we provide a more generalizable picture of COVID-19 symptoms and clinical outcomes. The findings from this study reinforce the fact that rural residence and racial/ethnic social determinants of health, unfortunately, remain predictors of adverse health outcomes for COVID-19 patients.

20.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1739, 2021 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A variety of strategies have been used to reach men with HIV self-testing services, including social network-based HIV self-test kits distribution. However, few studies have assessed men's comfort to distribute to or receive HIV self-test kits from close male friends within the same social network. In this study, we assessed men's comfort to distribute to and/or receive HIV self-test kits from close male friends and associated factors among men who socialize in networks locally referred to as "camps" in Tanzania. METHODS: Data are from the baseline survey of a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in June 2019 with 18 social networks or "camps" in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Participants were 18-year-old or older male camp members who were HIV-negative at the time of enrolment. We used the Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) to assess factors associated with being comfortable to distribute to and/or receive HIV self-test kits from close male members within one's social network. RESULTS: Of 505 participants, 67.9% (n = 342) reported being comfortable to distribute to while 68.2% (n = 344) were comfortable to receive HIV self-test kits from their close male friends. Ever having heard about HIV self-testing (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio (Adj. PR): 1.6; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.3, 1.9), willingness to self-test for HIV in front of a sexual partner (Adj. PR: 3.0; 95%CI: 1.5, 6.1) and exposure to peer-led HIV self-testing education and promotion (Adj. PR: 1.4; 95%CI: 1.2, 1.7) were significantly associated with being comfortable to distribute HIV self-test kits to close male members within one's social network. Similar results were observed for being comfortable to receive HIV self-test kits from a close male friend within one's social network. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these findings suggest that distribution of HIV self-test kits through close male friends could improve the proportion of men reached with HIV self-testing services and improve HIV testing rates in this population where uptake remains low. However, additional promotional strategies such as peer-led HIV self-testing education are needed to raise awareness and increase the proportion of men who are comfortable to receive and/or distribute HIV self-testing kits.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Autoteste , Adolescente , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Homens , Rede Social , Tanzânia
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