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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 227: 115332, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590887

RESUMO

Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) based on activated persulfate have received extensive attention for sludge pretreatment. Persulfate (PS) is a persistent oxidant and the excess persulfate in the sludge affects the carbohydrate analysis using the traditional phenol-sulfuric acid method. In this study, an improved phenol-sulfuric acid method was developed for the determination of carbohydrates in the presence of persulfate, and a critical procedure was introduced before the conventional determination with the assistance of the chemical pretreatments. The best reagent was screened from four reductants (i.e. Na2S, KI, Na2SO3 and Na2S2O3) and two free-radical scavengers (i.e. phenol and benzoic), and the optimal conditions were determined based on the monosaccharides (i.e. glucose, galactose and mannose) and the polysaccharides in different EPS fractions from two activated sludges. The results showed that Na2SO3 was the best reagent for chemical pretreatment due to redox reaction, high selectivity and colorless oxidation product, and the others were not suitable as pretreatment reagents mainly since the reaction products affect the final spectral analysis. Besides, the optimal Na2SO3 concentration for eliminating the impact of PS was 150 mmol/L, and the relative deviation of measurement is less than 5% if the PS concentration was on more than 100 mmol/L, regardless of the kinds of carbohydrates. Compared with the anthrone-sulfuric acid method and the sulfuric method, the improved phenol-sulfuric acid method has a great advantage for determining the carbohydrate concentration in the presence of PS.

2.
Insect Sci ; 27(1): 14-21, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246335

RESUMO

Manipulating an exogenous or endogenous gene of interest at a defined level is critical for a wide variety of experiments. The Gal4/UAS system has been widely used to direct gene expression for studying complex genetic and biological problems in Drosophila melanogaster and other model organisms. Driven by a given tissue-specific Gal4, expressing UAS-transgene or UAS-RNAi (RNA interference) could be used to up- or down-regulate target gene expression, respectively. However, the efficiency of the Gal4/UAS system is roughly predefined by properties of transposon vector constructs and the insertion site in the transgenic stock. Here, we describe a simple way to modulate optomotor blind (omb) expression levels in its endogenous expression region of the wing disc. We co-expressed UAS-omb and UAS-omb-RNAi together under the control of dpp-Gal4 driver which is expressed in the omb expression region of the wing pouch. The repression effect is more sensitive to temperature than that of overexpression. At low temperature, overexpression plays a dominant role but the efficiency is attenuated by UAS-omb-RNAi. In contrast, at high temperature RNAi predominates in gene expression regulation. By this strategy, we could manipulate omb expression levels at a moderate level. It allows us to manipulate omb expression levels in the same tissue between overexpression and repression at different stages by temperature control.

3.
Adv Mater ; : e1903796, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573709

RESUMO

Electrocatalytic CO2 reduction (ECR) is a promising technology to simultaneously alleviate CO2 -caused climate hazards and ever-increasing energy demands, as it can utilize CO2 in the atmosphere to provide the required feedstocks for industrial production and daily life. In recent years, substantial progress in ECR systems has been achieved by the exploitation of various novel electrode materials. The anodic materials and cathodic catalysts that have, respectively, led to high-efficiency energy input and effective heterogenous catalytic conversion in ECR systems are comprehensively reviewed. Based on the differences in the nature of energy sources and the role of materials used at the anode, the fundamentals of ECR systems, including photo-anode-assisted ECR systems and bio-anode-assisted ECR systems, are explained in detail. Additionally, the cathodic reaction mechanisms and pathways of ECR are described along with a discussion of different design strategies for cathode catalysts to enhance conversion efficiency and selectivity. The emerging challenges and some perspective on both anode materials and cathodic catalysts are also outlined for better development of ECR systems.

4.
J Autoimmun ; : 102336, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601476

RESUMO

Excessive inflammatory cytokines play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that pentaxin 3 (PTX3), an essential component of innate immunity, was elevated in RA and preferentially bound to CD14+ monocytes. C1q promoted the binding and resulted in increased cell proliferation, activation and caspase-1-related late apoptotic cells (7-AAD+annexin V+), as well as enhanced release of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6. Serum from RA patients, compared with healthy controls, induced gasdermin D (GSDMD)-dependent pyroptosis in monocytes, and this ability was associated with disease activity. Moreover, PTX3 synergized with C1q to promote pyroptosis in RA-serum pre-incubated monocytes by coordinately enhancing NLRP3 inflammasome over-activation and inducing GSDMD cleavage, cell swelling with large bubbles, caspase-1-dependent cell death and inflammatory cytokine release including IL-6. On the other hand, IL-6 promoted PTX3 plus C1q-induced pyroptosis in both normal and RA serum pre-incubated monocytes. These findings collectively implicated an important role of IL-6 in driving PTX3 plus C1q-mediated pyroptosis in RA and shed lights on a potential new treatment strategy targeting pyroptosis-mediated persistent inflammatory cytokine release.

5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3368-3373, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602897

RESUMO

Tripterygium wilfordii preparations,with various biological activities such as immunosuppressive,anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects,are widely used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis,lupus erythematosus,and nephrotic syndrome. They have definite therapeutic effect,but often cause serious adverse reactions and result in damages to liver,kidney,blood,reproduction,and other systems due to their complex compositions,great toxicity,and narrow margin between the toxic and therapeutic dosages. At present,T. wilfordii preparations produced by different manufacturers exhibit large variations in clinical efficacy and side effects in account of their different chemical compositions and quality fluctuation due to differences in raw materials and production process. However,the existing quality standards are controversial in terms of index components and content limit,which cannot be effectively used for the overall quality control of the preparations. In this paper,the research progress on chemical constituents,quality standard and quality control methods of four T. wilfordii preparations including Tripterygium Tablets,Tripterygium Zongtie Tablets,Tripterygium Shuangceng Tablets and Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets was reviewed,in order to provide ideas and reference for the quality improvement of this type of preparations.

6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3558-3561, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602922

RESUMO

To preliminarily investigate the effect of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets( TGT) combined with traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) on the fertility and female menstruation on persons who have took during childhood. The children with henoch-schonlein purpura( HSP) or henoch-schonlein purpura nephritis( HSPN) who treated with TGT under 18 years old and now older than 18 years old( including 18 years old) during January 1998 to December 2010 were selected in our research. The content of follow-up visit included marriage,marriage age,fertility and child health; and unmarried female patients were asked whether they had menstrual abnormalities. The data of the unmarried female patients,including age,clinical classification,TCM syndrome type,initial dose and other related factors that may affect menstrual cycle,was analyzed by using binary logistic regression analysis. A total of 195 patients who met the criteria were followed up in this study,and 26 patients married for more than 1 year. Among the 26 married patients,1 HSP patient had no birth planning due to rheumatoid arthritis,and the remaining 25 patients all had given birth or were pregnant. The 169 unmarried patients included 89 female patients. Among the 89 female patients,4 cases refused to tell the menstrual situations,72 cases had normal menstruation( 84. 7%),13 cases had abnormal menstruation( 15. 3%),and there was no case of amenorrhea. Logistic regression analysis results showed that the age,clinical classification,TCM syndrome type and initial dose had no correlation with abnormal menstruation. Our results demonstrated that TGT has no effect on adulthood fertility among patients who took TGT combined with traditional Chinese medicine during childhood.

7.
Org Lett ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589451

RESUMO

A range of Ru-, Rh-, or Pd-catalyzed vinylic C-H/C-H cross-coupling reactions of olefins have been demonstrated to provide 1,3-dienes, using a quantitative amount of metal oxidants. Although transfer hydrogenation and C-H alkenylation are two important areas that evolved independently, we herein report the first iridium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of alkenes by integration of directed C(alkenyl)-H alkenylation and transfer hydrogenation to obviate the usage of a metal oxidant, employing a hydrogen acceptor such as inexpensive chloranil.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591794

RESUMO

The controllable oxidation of Spiro-OMeTAD and improving stability of hole transport materials (HTMs) layer are crucial for good performance and stability of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Herein, we report an efficient hybrid polyoxometalate@metal-organic framework (POM@MOF) material -[Cu2(BTC)4/3(H2O)2]6[H3PMo12O40]2 or POM@Cu-BTC - for oxidation of Spiro-OMeTAD with Li-TFSI and TBP. When POM@Cu-BTC is introduced to the HTM layer as dopant, the PSCs achieve a superior fill factor of 0.80 and enhanced power conversion efficiency 21.44%, as well as improved long-term stability in an ambient atmosphere without encapsulation. The enhanced performance is attributed to the oxidation activity of POM anions and solid state nanoparticles. Therefore, this research presents a facile way by using hybrid porous materials to accelerate oxidation of Spiro-OMeTAD, further improving the efficiency and stability of PSCs.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593361

RESUMO

Transition metal phosphides (TMPs) have emerged as a fascinating class of narrow-gap semiconductors and electrocatalysts. However, they are intrinsic non-layered materials that cannot be delaminated into two-dimensional (2D) sheets. Here, we demonstrate a general bottom-up topochemical strategy to synthesize a series of 2D TMPs (e.g. Co 2 P, Ni 12 P 5 and Co x Fe 2-x P) using phosphorene sheets as the phosphorous precursor and 2D templates. Notably, 2D Co 2 P serves as a p-type semiconductor, revealing a hole mobility of 20.8 cm 2 V -1 s -1 at 300 K in field effect transistors. It also behaves as a promising electrocatalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), thanks to the charge-transport modulation and improved surface exposure. Especially, iron-doped Co 2 P (i.e. Co 1.5 Fe 0.5 P) delivers a low overpotential of only 278 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm -2 that outperforms the commercial Ir/C benchmark (304 mV). The method developed for the synthesis of 2D TMPs thus provides new insights into the future development of other non-layered 2D materials.

10.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; : 1-6, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: rt-PA intravenous thrombolytic therapy and its efficacy have been widely recognized and proved for strokes. However, for patients with wake-up ischemic stroke (WUIS), they lose the opportunity to receive rt-PA intravenous thrombolytic therapy because of the difficulty of determining the onset time window. AIM: This study is aimed at investigating the intravenous thrombolytic therapy of WUIS guided by rapid MRI. METHODS: Data were collected from patients with acute ischemic stroke within 4.5 h and from WUIS patients with uncertain onset time window, who received the treatment of rt-PA intravenous thrombolytic therapy in our hospital from November 2006 to April 2018. The improved Rankin scale was used to evaluate neurological function recovery. According to the Rankin scale score, patients were divided into two groups: those with good prognosis (modified Rankin scale [mRS] score 0-1) and those with poor prognosis (mRS score 2-6). RESULTS: A total of 253 patients received rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis after head MRI evaluation; this included 177 cases of acute ischemic stroke and 76 cases of WUIS (which contains 2 death cases, 0.8% mortality; 3 cases of symptomatic bleeding, 1.2% bleeding rate; and 5 cases of aggravation, 2.0% aggravation rate). There was no statistical difference between the baseline data from the acute ischemic stroke patients with 4.5 h onset time window and the baseline data from the WUIS patients with undetermined onset time window, when the treatment was guided by rapid MRI. There were also no significant statistical differences in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, Rankin scale score, symptomatic bleeding, death and aggravation of the disease between the 2 groups at 24 h, 3 days, and 7 days after admission (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: According to the characteristic of undetermined onset time window of WUIS, more WUIS patients would be benefited from the rt-PA intravenous thrombolytic treatment when it is conducted under the guidance of rapid MRI.

11.
Br J Cancer ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The progression and metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is highly dependent on the tumour microenvironment. Most tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) are M2 phenotype macrophages, which normally show anti-inflammatory functions in numerous disorders. Previously, we found that alternatively activated macrophages showed pro-inflammatory characteristics upon stimulation with hepatoma cell-derived debris; however, the molecular mechanism was unclear. METHODS: In vitro and in vivo experiments were employed to investigate the molecular mechanism. Using pancreatic cancer cell lines, mouse models and human tissues, we obtained a general picture of tumour cell-derived debris promoting metastasis of pancreatic cancer by inducing inflammation via TAMs. RESULTS: We showed that M2 macrophage-derived inflammation also exists in PDAC. Debris from PDAC cells induced potent IL-1ß release by M2 macrophages via TLR4/TRIF/NF-κB signalling, and this effect was further boosted by IgG that was also derived from PDAC cells. Increased IL-1ß promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition and consequent metastasis of PDAC cells. A selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, enhanced the anti-tumoural efficacy of gemcitabine. CONCLUSIONS: These data revealed a pro-inflammatory mechanism in PDAC, which indicated that IL-1ß and COX-2 could be therapeutic targets of an anti-inflammatory strategy to treat PDAC.

12.
Cogn Neuropsychiatry ; : 1-20, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583951

RESUMO

Introduction: Negative symptoms, particularly amotivation and anhedonia, are important predictors of poor functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia. There has been interest in the efficacy and mechanism of non-pharmacological interventions to alleviate these symptoms. The present study aimed to examine the remediation effect of working memory (WM) training in patients with schizophrenia with prominent negative symptoms. Methods: Thirty-one schizophrenia patients with prominent negative symptoms were recruited and assigned to either a WM training group or a treatment-as-usual (TAU) control group. The WM training group underwent 20 sessions of training using the dual n-back task over one month. A functional neuroimaging paradigm of the Affective Incentive Delay (AID) task was administered before and after the training intervention to evaluate the remediation effect of the intervention. Results: Our results showed that the WM training group demonstrated significant improvement in the WM training task and inattention symptoms. Compared with the TAU group, increased brain activations were observed at the right insula and the right frontal sub-gyral after WM training in the training group. Conclusions: These findings support the efficacy of WM training in ameliorating hedonic dysfunction in schizophrenia patients with prominent negative symptoms.

13.
ISA Trans ; 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585670

RESUMO

In order to guarantee the system reliability and enhance post-fault maintenance efficiency of inverters, this paper presents an current observer-based online open-switch fault diagnosis method for the voltage-source inverters (VSI). Analyzing the state space model of VSI when fault occurs, a state observer of the system is built to estimate phase currents. Once the open-switch fault occurs, the current residual vector between the estimated currents on observer and the measured currents, and fault diagnosis is realized by exploiting the featured amplitude and phase of the current residual vector. In order to realize on-line diagnosis with high reliability and speed, the average value of current residuals in a fundamental period is obtained and Clark transformation is performed so as to acquire vector angle. In addition, the sum of absolute values of measured currents is normalized to serve as the sign of fault occurrence. The simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of proposed method.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574178

RESUMO

MicroRNA-520e (miR-520e) is increasingly being recognized as a cancer-related miRNA in multiple cancer types; however, little is known about its role in colorectal cancer. In this study, we determined the specific role of miR-520e in colorectal cancer. Expression of miR-520e was lower in colorectal cancer tissues compared to normal tissues. Overexpression of miR-520e significantly decreased the proliferation, colony formation and invasion of colorectal cancer cells, while inhibition of miR-520e exhibited the opposite effect. Moreover, miR-520e was found to target the 3'-untranslated region of astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) and inhibit AEG-1 expression in colorectal cancer cells. An inverse correlation between miR-520e and AEG-1 expression was confirmed in colorectal cancer tissues. Notably, miR-520e suppressed the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3ß and decreased the expression of ß-catenin, leading to inactivation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling in colorectal cells. A rescue assay confirmed that miR-520e regulates cell proliferation, invasion and Wnt/ß-catenin signaling through targeting AEG-1. Taken together, these results indicate that miR-520e plays a critical role in regulating colorectal cancer cell proliferation and invasion by inhibiting Wnt/ß-catenin signaling via AEG-1. Our study highlights the importance of the miR-520e/AEG-1/Wnt/ß-catenin signaling axis in colorectal cancer, thus targeting miR-520e may represent an effective therapeutic strategy.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566263

RESUMO

Antibiotics have great functions in farm animal. However, the harm of antibiotics can't be ignored. The effects of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) supplementation to basal diet instead of antibiotics (CSP, Chlortetracycline, sulphonamide dimethazine and procaine penicillin, 1:1:1) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood profile in growing pigs were studied. A total of 140 growing pigs (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) with an average body weight of 27.84 ± 0.42 kg were allotted to four treatments of seven replicates/treatment and five pigs/replicate. The four experimental diets included: CON (basal diet, non-antibiotic, negative control); CSP (CON + CSP 0.1%, positive control); M1 (CON + MCFA 0.15%) and M2 (CON + MCFA 0.3%). After 5 weeks, the fresh faecal and blood samples were collected from rectum and jugular vein respectively. The average daily gain (ADG) was significantly improved for pigs fed 0.3% MCFAs in relation to basal diet. Meanwhile, CSP supplementation had comparable effect on ADG. The lymphocyte percentage and IgG concentration were higher in blood of pigs-fed MCFAs in relation to that of CON and CSP treatment while white blood cell and red blood cell were not affected. In relation to basal diet and CSP treatment, the digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy (E) were unaffected with MCFAs supplementation. In conclusion, MCFAs improved growth performance on body weight gain and immune profile. Addition 0.3% MCFAs into the diet indicated that its partial positive effect as an alternative to antibiotic.

16.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; : 1538574419879849, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The carotid sheath contains clinically important and vital anatomical neurogenic, vascular, and lymphatic structures that allow for a great variety of lesions. Vascular anomalies found in the carotid sheath are rarely reported and may be easily misdiagnosed as arterial aneurysms, neurogenic tumors, paragangliomas, or lymphatic masses. METHOD: We present a 60-year-old woman with a vascular malformation arising within the carotid sheath at the right carotid bifurcation, which mimics carotid body tumor. RESULT: The mass was excised successfully with an uneventful postoperative course, and histological analysis suggested a vascular malformation with thin-walled blood vessels, lined by endothelial cells and separated by fibrous tissue. The patient was in good clinical condition without signs of relapse of the mass at 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: Vascular malformation is a rare but existing possibility of pathology in the carotid sheath, which can be effectively removed by meticulous surgery.

17.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598675

RESUMO

Transcription factors (TFs) and their target genes have important functions in human diseases and biological processes. Gene expression profile analysis before and after knockdown or knockout is one of the most important strategies for obtaining target genes of TFs and exploring TF functions. Human gene expression profile datasets with TF knockdown and knockout are accumulating rapidly. Based on the urgent need to comprehensively and effectively collect and process these data, we developed KnockTF (http://www.licpathway.net/KnockTF/index.html), a comprehensive human gene expression profile database of TF knockdown and knockout. KnockTF provides a number of resources for human gene expression profile datasets associated with TF knockdown and knockout and annotates TFs and their target genes in a tissue/cell type-specific manner. The current version of KnockTF has 570 manually curated RNA-seq and microarray datasets associated with 308 TFs disrupted by different knockdown and knockout techniques and across multiple tissue/cell types. KnockTF collects upstream pathway information of TFs and functional annotation results of downstream target genes. It provides details about TFs binding to promoters, super-enhancers and typical enhancers of target genes. KnockTF constructs a TF-differentially expressed gene network and performs network analyses for genes of interest. KnockTF will help elucidate TF-related functions and potential biological effects.

18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17244, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577716

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Gitelman syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive hereditary salt-losing tubulopathy caused by loss-of-function mutations in the SLC12A3 gene. It is usually characterized by hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalciuria. There are only a few reports on GS combined with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). PATIENT CONCERNS: Three patients presented with weakness, spasm, and growth retardation, respectively. DIAGNOSES: GS was diagnosed based on the clinical symptoms, laboratory test results, and genetic analysis. GH stimulation tests were performed when the magnesium level returned to normal under magnesium oxide (MgO) therapy. INTERVENTIONS: Initially, all patients received oral replacement of MgO and potassium chloride, and 2 of them received simultaneous spironolactone therapy. Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy was initiated after they were diagnosed with GHD. OUTCOMES: All 3 patients exhibited satisfactory growth velocity and normal serum magnesium level, although the potassium level was still slightly lower than normal. LESSONS: We suggest that all GS patients should undergo genetic evaluation, especially regarding SLC12A3 gene mutation. GHD should be considered if these patients have short stature. rhGH therapy is useful for stimulating the patients' growth, and it may increase the serum magnesium level.

19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14184, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578439

RESUMO

The success of checkpoint inhibitors in cancer therapy is largely attributed to activating the patient's immune response to their tumor's neoantigens arising from DNA mutations. This realization has motivated the interest in personal cancer vaccines based on sequencing the patient's tumor DNA to discover neoantigens. Here we propose an additional, unrecognized source of tumor neoantigens. We show that errors in transcription of microsatellites (MS) and mis-splicing of exons create highly immunogenic frameshift (FS) neoantigens in tumors. The sequence of these FS neoantigens are predictable, allowing creation of a peptide array representing all possible neoantigen FS peptides. This array can be used to detect the antibody response in a patient to the FS peptides. A survey of 5 types of cancers reveals peptides that are personally reactive for each patient. This source of neoantigens and the method to discover them may be useful in developing cancer vaccines.

20.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595034

RESUMO

Predictive models have succeeded in distinguishing between individuals with Alcohol use Disorder (AUD) and controls. However, predictive models identifying who is prone to develop AUD and the biomarkers indicating a predisposition to AUD are still unclear. Our sample (n = 656) included offspring and non-offspring of European American (EA) and African American (AA) ancestry from the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) who were recruited as early as age 12 and were unaffected at first assessment and reassessed years later as AUD (DSM-5) (n = 328) or unaffected (n = 328). Machine learning analysis was performed for 220 EEG measures, 149 alcohol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a recent large Genome-wide Association Study (GWAS) of alcohol use/misuse and two family history (mother DSM-5 AUD and father DSM-5 AUD) features using supervised, Linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to test which features assessed before developing AUD predict those who go on to develop AUD. Age, gender, and ancestry stratified analyses were performed. Results indicate significant and higher accuracy rates for the AA compared with the EA prediction models and a higher model accuracy trend among females compared with males for both ancestries. Combined EEG and SNP features model outperformed models based on only EEG features or only SNP features for both EA and AA samples. This multidimensional superiority was confirmed in a follow-up analysis in the AA age groups (12-15, 16-19, 20-30) and EA age group (16-19). In both ancestry samples, the youngest age group achieved higher accuracy score than the two other older age groups. Maternal AUD increased the model's accuracy in both ancestries' samples. Several discriminative EEG measures and SNPs features were identified, including lower posterior gamma, higher slow wave connectivity (delta, theta, alpha), higher frontal gamma ratio, higher beta correlation in the parietal area, and 5 SNPs: rs4780836, rs2605140, rs11690265, rs692854, and rs13380649. Results highlight the significance of sampling uniformity followed by stratified (e.g., ancestry, gender, developmental period) analysis, and wider selection of features, to generate better prediction scores allowing a more accurate estimation of AUD development.

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