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1.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 152: 112235, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894295

RESUMO

We explored the effect of carboxymethylated wheat bran dietary fibers (DFs) on mice with type 2 diabetes (T2D) (induced by HFD combined with STZ) and their possible hypoglycemic mechanism. After feeding the diabetic mice with modified DFs for four weeks, the DFs had lipid lowering and anti-hyperglycemic effect, via increasing the levels of insulin, GLP-1, PYY, and SCFAs in diabetic mice, and improving the histopathology of liver and pancreas. qRT-PCR results showed that the intake of DFs up-regulated the expression levels of G6Pase and Prkce, and down regulated the expression levels of Glut2 and InsR in the liver of diabetic mice. It is suggested that DFs may play a role by inhibiting 1,2-DAG-PKCε pathway, improving insulin receptor activity and insulin signal transduction. 16 S rDNA high-throughput sequencing results showed that the DFs significantly improved the relative abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, increased the diversity of gut microbiota and reduced the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, thus promoting the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect on diabetic mice. Our study can foster the further understanding of the gut modulatory biomarkers and related metabolites, and may extend the basis for DFs as a potential dietary intervention to prevent or treat the T2D.

3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 181: 528-539, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794240

RESUMO

The clove essential oil (CEO) loaded nano and pickering emulsions prepared with Tween 80 and whey protein isolate/inulin mixture, respectively were incorporated into pullulan-gelatin film base fluid at three levels (0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.6%). The droplet sizes of NE and PE loaded with CEO were 15.93 nm and 266.9 nm, respectively. The PDI of CEOs with stable NE and PE were 0.262 and 0.259, respectively. Our results showed the improved compatibility between pullulan-gelatin and essential oil-loaded nanocarriers. The active film composed of PE carrier had the structural characteristics of high density, low water content, and low permeability, thus exhibiting excellent mechanical properties, water barrier properties, and appreciable antioxidant activities. Compared with NE, it was found that the CEO-loaded PE showed slow-release profile in the film sample. The prepared active film containing PE possessed a great potential to be used as effective and natural alternatives for active food packaging.

4.
Cancer Med ; 10(8): 2752-2762, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-ray repair cross-complementary 5 (XRCC5) and 6 (XRCC6) are critical for DNA repair. Few studies have assessed their association with breast cancer risk, and related gene-environment interactions remain poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the influence of XRCC5/6 polymorphisms on breast cancer risk, and their interactions with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and sleep satisfaction. METHODS: The study included 1039 patients with breast cancer and 1040 controls. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms of XRCC5 and two of XRCC6 were genotyped. Information about smoking, alcohol consumption, and sleep satisfaction was collected through questionnaires. Odds ratios (OR) and related 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were assessed using unconditional logistic regression models. Gene-environment interactions were analyzed using logistic regression with multiplicative interaction models. RESULTS: XRCC5 rs16855458 was associated with increased breast cancer risk in the co-dominant (ptrend  = 0.003) and dominant (CA + AA vs. CC, OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.07-1.56, p = 0.008) genetic models after Bonferroni correction. The CG + GG genotype of XRCC6 rs2267437 was associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-negative/progesterone receptor-negative (ER-/PR-) breast cancer (CG + GG vs. CC: OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.12-2.13, p = 0.008) after Bonferroni correction. Moreover, an antagonistic interaction between XRCC5 rs16855458 and alcohol consumption (pinteraction  = 0.017), and a synergistic interaction between XRCC6 rs2267437 and sleep satisfaction were associated with breast cancer risk (pinteraction  = 0.0497). However, these interactions became insignificant after Bonferroni correction. CONCLUSION: XRCC5 rs16855458 was associated with breast cancer risk, and XRCC6 rs2267437 was associated with the risk of ER-/PR- breast cancer. Breast cancer risk associated with XRCC5 and XRCC6 polymorphisms might vary according to alcohol consumption and sleep satisfaction, respectively, and merit further investigation.

5.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(1): 25-31, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663658

RESUMO

Objective To summarize clinical characteristics and investigate possible pathogenic gene of Klippel-Feil syndrome(KFS)by the self-designed multigene panel sequencing,so as to decipher the molecular basis for early diagnosis and targeted therapy.Methods From January 2015 to December 2018,we consecutively recruited 25 patients who were diagnosed with KFS in Peking Union Medical College Hospital.The demographic information,clinical manifestations,physical examination and radiological assessments were analyzed.Multigene panel sequencing was performed after DNA extraction from peripheral blood.The possible pathogenic mutations of KFS were explored on the basis of bioinformatics analysis.Results The KFS cohort consisted of 25 patients,including 15 males and 10 females,with a mean age of(12.9±7.3)years.Limited cervical range of motion was the most common clinical feature(12 cases,48%).Based on the Samartzis classification,the proportion of patients suffered from short neck(P=0.031)and limited cervical range of motion(P=0.026)in type Ⅲ KFS was significantly higher than that in type Ⅱ and type Ⅰ KFS.Panel sequencing detected a total of 11 pathogenic missense mutations in eight patients,including COL6A1,COL6A2,CDAN1,GLI3,FLNB,CHRNG,MYH3,POR,and TNXB.There was no pathogenic mutation found in five reported pathogenic genes(GDF6,MEOX1,GDF3,MYO18B and RIPPLY2)associated with KFS.Conclusions Our study has shown that patients with multiple contiguous cervical fusions are more likely to manifest short neck,limited cervical range of motion,and clinical triad.Therefore,these patients need additional attention and follow-up.Our analysis highlights novel KFS-related genetic variants,such as COL6A and CDAN1,extending the spectrum of known mutations contributing to this syndrome and providing a basis for elucidating the pathogenesis of KFS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Klippel-Feil , Vértebras Cervicais , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Glicoproteínas , Humanos , Síndrome de Klippel-Feil/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Klippel-Feil/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares , Radiografia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
6.
Epilepsia ; 62(5): 1064-1073, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a model to predict seizure freedom in children undergoing cerebral hemispheric surgery for the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy. METHODS: We analyzed 1267 hemispheric surgeries performed in pediatric participants across 32 centers and 12 countries to identify predictors of seizure freedom at 3 months after surgery. A multivariate logistic regression model was developed based on 70% of the dataset (training set) and validated on 30% of the dataset (validation set). Missing data were handled using multiple imputation techniques. RESULTS: Overall, 817 of 1237 (66%) hemispheric surgeries led to seizure freedom (median follow-up = 24 months), and 1050 of 1237 (85%) were seizure-free at 12 months after surgery. A simple regression model containing age at seizure onset, presence of generalized seizure semiology, presence of contralateral 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography hypometabolism, etiologic substrate, and previous nonhemispheric resective surgery is predictive of seizure freedom (area under the curve = .72). A Hemispheric Surgery Outcome Prediction Scale (HOPS) score was devised that can be used to predict seizure freedom. SIGNIFICANCE: Children most likely to benefit from hemispheric surgery can be selected and counseled through the implementation of a scale derived from a multiple regression model. Importantly, children who are unlikely to experience seizure control can be spared from the complications and deficits associated with this surgery. The HOPS score is likely to help physicians in clinical decision-making.

7.
Food Chem ; 355: 129500, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780794

RESUMO

Noodles were prepared using wheat flour supplemented with 1%, 3%, and 5% grape seed power (GSP). The farinograph properties of wheat flour, the textural properties of the dough, and thermal properties of the gluten were determined. The microstructure was analyzed by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, and the effects of the addition of GSP on the physicochemical and structural properties (free sulfhydryl content, surface hydrophobic region, and secondary structure) of wheat gluten protein were analyzed. 1% GSP promoted the aggregation of gluten proteins by promoting hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding, thus enhanced the noodle quality. Whereas, 3% and 5% GSP addition disrupted the disulfide bonds between gluten protein molecules and formed macromolecular aggregates linked to gluten proteins through non-covalent bonds and hydrophobic interactions, which prevented the formation of the gluten protein reticulation structure. Our study emphasized the interaction between wheat proteins and GSP in noodle making dough.

8.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 150: 112036, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561516

RESUMO

Asparanin A (AA), a natural compound present in vegetables and medicinal herbs like Asparagus officinalis L., has been investigated extensively for its pharmacological attributes. So far, the effect of AA on endometrial cancer (EC) cell migration and invasion has not been explored. Herein, we elucidated the anti-metastasis mechanism of AA on Ishikawa cells based on miRNA-seq and mRNA-seq integrated analyses. AA treatment led to altered miRNAs expression in Ishikawa cells and inhibited the cell wound healing, cell migration and invasion. Gene Ontology and KEGG enrichment analyses showed that the target genes of different expression miRNAs were significantly enriched in Ras, Rap1 and MAPK signaling pathways. Further verification of these changes via qRT-PCR and Western blot assays in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that AA could suppress human EC cell migration and invasion through Ras/ERK/MAPK pathway. Furthermore, top two miRNAs (miR-6236-p5 and miR-12136_R+8) and top three target genes (KITLG, PDGFD, and NRAS) were identified as functional hub miRNAs and genes through miRNA-target gene network analysis. Our data presented a holistic approach to comprehend the anti-metastatic role of AA in EC after in vitro and in vivo analyses.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610540

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of surgery combined with 125I seed brachytherapy for treatment of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) of the parotid gland and to identify the factors associated with prognosis. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data of patients with CXPA of the parotid gland treated with surgery plus 125I seed brachytherapy at the Peking University School of Stomatology Hospital between December 2003 and July 2018. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients (median age, 51 years) were included in the study. Median follow-up was 50.5 months. The 3-, 5-, and 10-year overall survival rates were 91.1%, 91.1%, and 81.5%, respectively. The 3-, 5-, and 10-year local control rates were all 85.2%. Grades 1-3 adverse effects occurred in 22 patients; no grade 4 reactions occurred. T stage, N stage, tumor invasiveness, perineural invasion, and surgical margins significantly affected local control rates. Lymph node metastasis and perineural invasion were independent predictors of poor local control. Lymph node metastasis was an independent predictor of poor survival. CONCLUSIONS: Surgery plus 125I seed brachytherapy appears to be an effective and safe treatment for CXPA of the parotid gland. T stage, N stage, tumor invasiveness, and perineural invasion are factors influencing prognosis.


Assuntos
Adenoma Pleomorfo , Braquiterapia , Neoplasias Parotídeas , Adenoma Pleomorfo/radioterapia , Adenoma Pleomorfo/cirurgia , Humanos , Radioisótopos do Iodo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glândula Parótida , Neoplasias Parotídeas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Parotídeas/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-17, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567903

RESUMO

Traditionally, walnuts have occupied an imperative position in the functional food market with consistently recognized nutritious and functional properties. In the past years, the lipid profile of walnuts has brought much scientific attention via linking a cascade of biological attributes and health-promoting effects. Over time, researchers have focused on diversified composition (polyphenols and vitamins) of different parts of walnut (flower, pellicle, and kernel) and emphasized their physiological significance. Consequently, a plethora of reports has emerged on the potential role of walnut consumption against a series of diseases including cancer, gut dysbiosis, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we accumulated the updated data on composition and classification, extraction methods, and utilization of different parts of walnuts as well as associated beneficial effects under in vivo and clinical studies. Altogether, this review summarized the ameliorative effects of a walnut-enriched diet in chronic diseases which can be designated to the synergistic or individual effects of walnut components mainly through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory role.

11.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(3): 326-333, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective method of controlling epilepsy, especially temporal lobe epilepsy. Mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) plays an indispensable role in the pathogenesis and progression of epilepsy, but the effect of ATN-DBS on MFS in the chronic stage of epilepsy and the potential underlying mechanisms are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ATN-DBS on MFS, as well as potential signaling pathways by a kainic acid (KA)-induced epileptic model. METHODS: Twenty-four rhesus monkeys were randomly assigned to control, epilepsy (EP), EP-sham-DBS, and EP-DBS groups. KA was injected to establish the chronic epileptic model. The left ATN was implanted with a DBS lead and stimulated for 8 weeks. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining were used to evaluate MFS and levels of potential molecular mediators in the hippocampus. One-way analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey post hoc correction, was used to analyze the statistical significance of differences among multiple groups. RESULTS: ATN-DBS is found to significantly reduce seizure frequency in the chronic stage of epilepsy. The number of ectopic granule cells was reduced in monkeys that received ATN stimulation (P < 0.0001). Levels of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) in the hippocampus, together with Akt phosphorylation, were noticeably reduced in monkeys that received ATN stimulation (P = 0.0030 and P = 0.0001, respectively). ATN-DBS also significantly reduced MFS scores in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and CA3 sub-regions (all P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: ATN-DBS is shown to down-regulate the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and Akt phosphorylation and to reduce the number of ectopic granule cells, which may be associated with the reduced MFS in chronic epilepsy. The study provides further insights into the mechanism by which ATN-DBS reduces epileptic seizures.

12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 148: 111941, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359023

RESUMO

The present study emphasized on the anti-cancerous effects of dioscin and its underlying molecular mechanism in human endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells. Dioscin significantly suppressed the proliferation of Ishikawa cells at IC50 of 2.37 µM. Besides, dioscin could inhibit the proliferation of Ishikawa cells by blocking the G0/G1 cell cycle through up-regulation of p16, p21, and p27 and down-regulation of cycle-cellular protein (Cyclin A/D/E) and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK2/4/6). Also, it promoted apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway, including the regulation of Bcl family proteins, the increase of ROS levels, the activation of caspases (Caspase 9/3), and the decrease of mitochondrial membrane permeability. Whereas dioscin also effectively activated the marker genes and proteins (Fas, TNF-R1, and Caspase 8) related to the death receptor-mediated pathway which confirmed the involvement of both the pathways for dioscin-induced apoptosis. The current results demonstrated that dioscin possessed potential health benefits with respect to endometrial cancer prevention and treatment.

13.
Brachytherapy ; 20(2): 383-392, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309285

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and safety of the combination of surgery plus postoperative iodine-125 interstitial brachytherapy for treatment of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the parotid. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This study included a retrospective analysis of the data of patients who underwent postoperative iodine-125 interstitial brachytherapy for histology-confirmed ACC of the parotid between January 2002 and November 2018 in Peking University Hospital of Stomatology. Acute and long-term radiation-related toxicities were assessed by the criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Multivariate analysis was used to identify the factors affecting overall survival, disease-free survival (DFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). RESULTS: A total of 86 patients (53 women; median age 50 years, SD = 13.1) were included. Median followup was for 45.5 months. About half the patients (44/86, 51.3%) had clinical stage IV disease. Local recurrence occurred in 11 of 86 (12.8%) patients. No patient had nodal metastases in the followup period. The five- and 10-year DFS rates were 74.8% and 66.6%, respectively. The mean DMFS was 60.6 months. On multivariate analysis, preoperative facial palsy, type of surgery, perineural spread (PNS), and distant metastases were independent prognostic factors for DFS; preoperative facial palsy, nodal metastases, and PNS were independent prognostic factors for overall survival; and preoperative facial palsy, type of surgery, PNS, and pathological type were independent prognostic factor for DMFS. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of surgery and iodine-125 interstitial brachytherapy appears to be an effective and safe treatment for primary ACC of the parotid.

14.
Macromol Biosci ; 21(3): e2000291, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326167

RESUMO

To well adapt to the complicated physiological environments, it is necessary to engineer dual- and/or multi-stimuli responsive drug carriers for more effective drug release. For this, a novel temperature responsive lateral chain photosensitive block copolymer, poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide) -block-propyleneacylalkyl-4-azobenzoate] (P(NIPAM-co-DMAA)-b-PAzoHPA), is synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization. The structure is characterized by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry and laser light scattering gel chromatography system. The self-assembly behavior, morphology, and sizes of micelles are investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope, and laser particle analyzer. Dual responsiveness to light and temperature is explored by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. The results show that the copolymer micelles take on apparent light and temperature dual responsiveness, and its lower critical solution temperature (LCST) is above 37 °C, and changes with the trans-/cis- isomerization of azobenzene structure under UV irradiation. The blank copolymers are nontoxic, whereas the paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded counterparts possessed comparable anticancer activities to free PTX, with entrapment efficiency of 83.7%. The PTX release from the PTX-loaded micelles can be mediated by changing temperature and/or light stimuli. The developed block copolymers can potentially be used for cancer therapy as drug controlled release carriers.

15.
Food Funct ; 12(2): 614-632, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338094

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer (EC) is a malignancy that severely threatens women's health and there is an urgent need to find novel natural compounds as effective treatment drugs. At the same time, multi-omics analysis of cells has been widely used in basic research to find new pathogenesis and mechanisms. Due to the lack of data on the functional importance of mRNAs and miRNAs in plant-derived asparanin A (AA) induced cancer cells, the underlying mechanisms of AA on endometrial cancer (EC) Ishikawa cells were investigated using mRNA-seq and miRNA-seq, qRT-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. The combined analysis of 37 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and 489 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with negative regulatory relationships revealed that AA not only induced apoptosis, but also triggered autophagy through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and DNA damage-related pathways. 23 DEMs and 39 DEGs participated in protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum (PPER) and p53 signaling pathways, as shown by miRNA-target gene network analyses. Among them, we concluded that miR-6236-p5, miR-1246-p5, miR-11987_L-1, PC-5p-21544, and miR-5100-p3_1ss17TC function as hub miRNAs, and their regulation may be essential for the anti-cancer activity of AA. This study may provide a comprehensive understanding of the potential anticancer regulation of AA on EC, suggesting AA as a potential candidate for dietary supplementation in cancer medication and prevention.

16.
Food Funct ; 12(2): 519-542, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367423

RESUMO

Due to recent lifestyle shifts and health discernments among consumers, synthetic drugs are facing the challenge of controlling disease development and progression. Various medicinal plants and their constituents are recognized for their imminent role in disease management via modulation of biological activities. At present, research scholars have diverted their attention on natural bioactive entities with health-boosting perception to combat the lifestyle-related disarrays. In particular, Zingiber officinale is a medicinal herb that has been commonly used in food and pharmaceutical products. Its detailed chemical composition and high value-added active components have been extensively studied. In this review, we have summarized the pharmacological potential of this well-endowed chemo preventive agent. It was revealed that its functionalities are attributed to several inherent chemical constituents, including 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 6-hydroshogaol, and oleoresin, which were established through many studies (in vitro, in vivo, and cell lines). In this review, we also focused on the therapeutic effects of ginger and its constituents for their effective antioxidant properties. Their consumption may reduce or delay the progression of related diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and obesity, via modulation of genetic and metabolic activities. The updated data could elucidate the relationship of the extraction processes with the constituents and biological manifestations. We have collated the current knowledge (including the latest clinical data) about the bioactive compounds and bioactivities of ginger. Their detailed mechanisms, which can lay foundation for their food and medical applications are also discussed.

17.
Food Chem ; 340: 127880, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877847

RESUMO

We applied oven-roasting on soybean in order to investigate their physicochemical, sensory, and volatile profiles using electronic nose and HS-SPME-GC-MS. Results revealed a temperature dependent kinetic on the physicochemical index except fat content. Roasting at 200 °C for 20 min decreased the protein dispersibility index about 38%; while, lipoxygenase and peroxidase were entirely inactivated. The primary heat sensitive amino acids were methionine, arginine, and cysteine. Electronic nose showed certain capacity to discriminate varying roasted soybeans. Out of 41 volatile compounds identified in soybean headspace, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine showed the highest abundance of 411.18 µg/Kg. Regression model suggested the association of hexanal and aliphatic alcohols with beany flavor, while pyrazines, heterocycles, and furanoids showed a positive correlation with roasted flavor. The selected flavor markers can be used to predict the development of flavor in roasted soybeans. Our study emphasized the effect of roasting level on nutritive value and flavor profiles of soybeans.


Assuntos
Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Soja/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Adulto , Aldeídos/análise , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/química , Cor , Nariz Eletrônico , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Odorantes/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Paladar
18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(11): 3639-3646, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300713

RESUMO

Calligonum mongolicum is one of the dominant species in the Taklimakan Desert highway shelterbelt, the litter of which plays an important role in carbon cycling. After litter addition, we carried out a laboratory incubation experiment to investigate the dynamics of soil CO2 emission, soil organic carbon (SOC), soluble organic carbon (DOC), pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) under the condition of salt water (SW) and fresh water (FW) with field water holding capacity of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. The results showed that saline water irrigation had an inhibitory effect on soil CO2 emission. Under the four soil water content treatments, the cumulative CO2 emission of freshwater irrigation increased by 1.9%-29.1% compared with that of saline irrigation. Cumulative soil CO2 emissions increased with increasing soil water content. With litter addition, SOC decreased rapidly in the early stage, then gradually increased, and finally tended to be stable. The DOC contents of each treatment following the incubation increased by 41.3%-92.4% compared with that before the incubation. At the end of incubation, soil pH of each treatment increased by 0.20-0.35. The EC increased with the increases of soil water content. Under the four water content conditions and compared with the situation before the incubation, the EC values irrigated with SW increased by 0.11-0.79 mS·cm-1, while those with FW increased or decreased at the end of incubation. Cumulative soil CO2 emission was positively correlated with SOC, DOC, and pH, but not with soil water content. Both saline irrigation and lower water content could inhibit CO2 emission of aeolian sandy soil under litter addition, while EC was significantly affected by the quality of irrigation water and soil water content.

19.
Elife ; 92020 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264090

RESUMO

The dendritic cell receptor Clec9A facilitates processing of dead cell-derived antigens for cross-presentation and the induction of effective CD8+ T cell immune responses. Here, we show that this process is regulated by E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF41 and define a new ubiquitin-mediated mechanism for regulation of Clec9A, reflecting the unique properties of Clec9A as a receptor specialized for delivery of antigens for cross-presentation. We reveal RNF41 is a negative regulator of Clec9A and the cross-presentation of dead cell-derived antigens by mouse dendritic cells. Intriguingly, RNF41 regulates the downstream fate of Clec9A by directly binding and ubiquitinating the extracellular domains of Clec9A. At steady-state, RNF41 ubiquitination of Clec9A facilitates interactions with ER-associated proteins and degradation machinery to control Clec9A levels. However, Clec9A interactions are altered following dead cell uptake to favor antigen presentation. These findings provide important insights into antigen cross-presentation and have implications for development of approaches to modulate immune responses.

20.
Epilepsy Behav ; : 107614, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277200

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The role of the Rolandic operculum in in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is to produce oroalimentary automatisms (OAAs). In insulo-opercular epilepsy (IOE), the Rolandic operculum may produce perioral muscle clonic or tonic movements or contractions. This paper aims to confirm the symptomatogenic zone of facial symptoms in IOE and to explain this phenomenon. METHODS: A total of 45 IOE patients and 15 MTLE patients were analyzed. The patients with IOE were divided into facial (+) and (-) groups according to the facial symptoms. The interictal positron emission tomography (PET) data were compared among groups. Furthermore, electroclinical correlation, functional connectivity and energy ratio (ER) were analyzed with stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG). RESULTS: Intergroup PET differences were observed mainly in the Rolandic operculum. Electroclinical correlation showed that the Rolandic operculum was the only brain area showing any correlations. Compared with the facial (-) group, the facial (+) group showed stronger functional connectivity and a higher ER in the alpha 1, alpha 2 and beta sub-bands. In the Rolandic operculum, compared with those of the MTLE group, the h2 and ER of the facial (+) group were higher in the high frequency sub-bands. Intergroup comparison of the ER in the seizure onset zones (SOZ) showed no significant difference. SIGNIFICANCE: The symptomatogenic zone of facial symptoms in IOE is the Rolandic operculum. Seizure propagation to the Rolandic operculum generates different semiologies because of the different synchronization frequencies and energies of the sub-bands depending on the site of seizure origin. This may be due to the complex spreading pathway from the SOZ to the symptomatogenic zone.

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