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1.
Brain Res Bull ; 180: 131-146, 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032622

RESUMO

Sleep is a universal physiological need in all species and is essential for the maintenance and recovery of various physiological functions of the body. In late years, the gut microbiota (GM), a vast and extraordinarily complex ecosystem located in human gastrointestinal tract that oversees an array of critical bodily functions, has become a popular focus among researchers. Accumulated evidences in this field have revealed that it exerts important roles in the regulation of some biological characteristics, especially metabolic, immunological and neurobehavioral functions. With the increasing comprehension of brain-gut axis, a bidirectional communication channel linking the brain and gut, the roles of GM in sleep are paid much attention to. Evidences have shown that the GM is essential for the maintenance of normal sleep physiology. In turn, it has also been demonstrated that the abnormal sleep patterns and duration affect the composition, diversity and function of the GM through the brain-gut-microbiota axis (BGMA). Present contributions have described several underlying factors that could be involved in the BGMA in sleep, such as the immune system, the vagus nerve, the neuroendocrine system, and bacterial metabolites. Furthermore, several interventions targeting the GM have been proved to be beneficial for amelioration of sleep problems. On this basis, in this review, we aim to explore the interaction between sleep and GM, and elucidate the therapeutic microbiota manipulations with potential promoting effects on sleep quality.

2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 27, 2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35064103

RESUMO

(R, S)-ketamine has prophylactic antidepressant-like effects in rodents; however, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying its action remain unknown. Using RNA-sequencing analysis, we searched novel molecular target(s) that contribute to the prophylactic effects of (R)-ketamine, a more potent enantiomer of (R, S)-ketamine. Pretreatment with (R)-ketamine (10 mg/kg, 6 days before) significantly ameliorated body weight loss, splenomegaly, and increased immobility time of forced swimming test in lipopolysaccharide (LPS: 1.0 mg/kg)-treated mice. RNA-sequencing analysis of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and subsequent IPA (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) revealed that the nuclear factor of activated T cells 4 (NFATc4) signaling might contribute to sustained prophylactic effects of (R)-ketamine. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed that (R)-ketamine significantly attenuated the increased gene expression of NFATc4 signaling (Nfatc4, Cd4, Cd79b, H2-ab1, H2-aa) in the PFC of LPS-treated mice. Furthermore, pretreatment with NFAT inhibitors (i.e., NFAT inhibitor and cyclosporin A) showed prophylactic effects in the LPS-treated mice. Similar to (R)-ketamine, gene knockdown of Nfatc4 gene by bilateral injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV) into the mPFC could elicit prophylactic effects in the LPS-treated mice. In conclusion, our data implicate a novel NFATc4 signaling pathway in the PFC underlying the prophylactic effects of (R)-ketamine for inflammation-related depression.

4.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851843

RESUMO

In this article, a leader-follower asymptotic consensus control strategy is developed for a class of linear multiagent systems (MASs) with unknown external disturbances and measurement noises. First, the preconditions, the minimum phase condition (MPC) and observer matching condition (OMC), are discussed in detail, and an equivalent result under these two preconditions is given. In this way, the corresponding results from Corless and Tu (1998) are improved. Meanwhile, a reduced-order observer is designed for a constructed augmented system to estimate the system states and noises of each agent. Next, with the help of a traditional interval observer, a novel unknown disturbance reconstruction method is developed, and the reconstruction can converge to the unknown disturbance asymptotically and decouple from the control input. The subsequent asymptotic consensus is accomplished by utilizing an observer-based control scheme, with its design satisfying the so-called separation principle. Finally, two simulation examples are given to verify the effectiveness and show the advantages of the proposed methods.

5.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 300, 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secreted from atrial myocytes is shown to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory effects. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of ANP on bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia-derived neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment. METHODS: LPS (5 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally to mice. Recombinant human ANP (rhANP) (1.0 mg/kg) was injected intravenously 24 h before and/or 10 min after LPS injection. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (SDV) was performed 14 days before LPS injection or 28 days before fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). ANA-12 (0.5 mg/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally 30 min prior to rhANP treatment. RESULTS: LPS (5.0 mg/kg) induced remarkable splenomegaly and an increase in the plasma cytokines at 24 h after LPS injection. There were positive correlations between spleen weight and plasma cytokines levels. LPS also led to increased protein levels of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule (iba)-1, cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the hippocampus. LPS impaired the natural and learned behavior, as demonstrated by an increase in the latency to eat the food in the buried food test and a decrease in the number of entries and duration in the novel arm in the Y maze test. Combined prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with rhANP reversed LPS-induced splenomegaly, hippocampal and peripheral inflammation as well as cognitive impairment. However, rhANP could not further enhance the protective effects of SDV on hippocampal and peripheral inflammation. We further found that PGF mice transplanted with fecal bacteria from rhANP-treated endotoxemia mice alleviated the decreased protein levels of hippocampal polyclonal phosphorylated tyrosine kinase receptor B (p-TrkB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cognitive impairment, which was abolished by SDV. Moreover, TrkB/BDNF signaling inhibitor ANA-12 abolished the improving effects of rhANP on LPS-induced cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that rhANP could mitigate LPS-induced hippocampal inflammation and cognitive dysfunction through subdiaphragmatic vagus nerve-mediated gut microbiota-brain axis.

6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 694754, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676222

RESUMO

To investigate the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and evaluate whether CT scans, especially at a certain CT level, could be used to predict the severity of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. In total 118 confirmed patients had been enrolled. All data including epidemiological, clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and images were collected and analyzed when they were administrated for the first time. All patients were divided into two groups. There were 106 severe/critical patients and 12 common ones. A total of 38 of the patients were women. The mean age was 50.5 ± 11.5 years. Overall, 80 patients had a history of exposure. The median time from onset of symptoms to administration was 8.0 days. The main symptoms included fever, cough, anorexia, fatigue, myalgia, headaches, and chills. Lymphocytes and platelets decreased and lactate dehydrogenase increased with increased diseased severity (P < 0.05). Calcium and chloride ions were decreased more significantly in severe/critical patients than in common ones (P < 0.05). The main comorbidities were diabetes, chronic cardiovascular disease, and chronic pulmonary disease, which occurred in 47 patients. In all 69 patients had respiratory failure, which is the most common SARS-CoV-2 complication, and liver dysfunction presented in 37 patients. Nine patients received mechanical ventilation therapy. One patient received continuous blood purification and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (EMCO) treatments. The average stay was 18.1 ± 10.8 days. Four patients died. The median of the radiographic score was four in common, and five in the severe/critical illness, which was a significant difference between the two groups. The radiographic score was in negative correlation with OI (ρ = -0.467, P < 0.01). The OI in severe/critically ill cases decreased significantly as the disease progressed, which was related to the lesion area in the left lung and right lungs (ρ = 0.688, R = 0.733). OI, the lesion area in the left lung and right lungs, lymphocytes, etc. were associated with different degrees of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (P < 0.05). The lesion area in both lungs were possible predictive factors for severe/critical cases. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia showed obvious clinical manifestations and laboratory result changes. Combining clinical features and the quantity of the lesion area in the fourth level of CT could effectively predict severe/critical SARS-CoV-2 cases.

7.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 5529-5539, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506261

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to explore the effect of argon preconditioning on myocardial ischemia reperfusion (MI/R) injury and its mechanism. Cardiomyocytes H2C9 were pre-treated with 50% argon, and a cell model of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) was established. CCK-8 and cytotoxicity detection kits were used to detect cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. The miR-21 expression was detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) and homologous phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) proteins. The levels of inflammatory factors (IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8) and oxidative stress factors (reactive oxygen species ROS], malondialdehyde [MDA], and superoxide dismutase [SOD]) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effect of argon on cell apoptosis was detected using flow cytometry. Argon increased the proliferation of cardiomyocytes induced by OGD, decreased the release of LDH in cell culture medium, increased miR-21 expression in cells, decreased the expression of miR-21 target proteins PDCD4 and PTEN, decreased the levels of inflammatory factors (interleukin-1ß [IL-1ß], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and interleukin-8 [IL-8]) and oxidative stress factors (ROS and MDA), increased the SOD content, and decreased the cell apoptosis rate. Our results suggest that argon preconditioning inhibited the PDCD4/PTEN pathway via miR-21, thereby inhibiting ROS oxidative stress and preventing MI/R injury.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480631

RESUMO

PLX5622, a brain-penetrant highly specific inhibitor of the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), is used to eliminate microglia in the brain. Considering the role of microglia and gut microbiota in the brain homeostasis, this study was undertaken to investigate whether repeated intragastric administration of PLX5622 (65 mg/kg/day for consecutive 7 days) could affect the composition of gut microbiota and the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in fresh feces of adult mice. Repeated administration of PLX5622 caused significant reductions of the expression of genes and proteins for microglial markers in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus compared to control mice although the elimination of brain's microglia was partial. There was a significant alteration in the ß-diversity of intestine microbiota in the PLX5622-treated group. Linear discriminant analysis effect size identified eight significant enriched bacteria as microbial markers for PLX5622-treated group. Repeated administration of PLX5622 affected the relative abundance of several bacteria at the genus and species levels. Furthermore, repeated administration of PLX5622 caused a significant change in lactic acid compared to control group. Interestingly, we found significant correlations between microglial markers in the brain and the relative abundance of several bacteria, suggesting microbiome-microglia crosstalk through the brain-gut axis. These data demonstrate that repeated administration of PLX5622 leads to an abnormal composition of the gut microbiota and lactic acid in adult mice. Therefore, abnormalities in the composition of gut microbiota after repeated treatment of PLX5622 should be considered for behavioral and biological functions in animals treated with CSF1R inhibitors.

9.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(7)2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357247

RESUMO

People's health has been threatened by several common food hazards. Thus, it is very important to establish rapid and accurate methods to detect food hazards. In recent years, biosensors have inspired developments because of their specificity and sensitivity, short reaction time, low cost, small size and easy operation. Owing to their high precision and non-destructive characteristics, cell-based electrochemical detection methods can reflect the damage of food hazards to organisms better. In this review, the characteristics of electrochemical cell-based biosensors and their applications in the detection of common hazards in food are reviewed. The strategies of cell immobilization and 3D culture on electrodes are discussed. The current limitations and further development prospects of cell-based electrochemical biosensors are also evaluated.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26763, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: water is an imperfect agent for lens cleansing during endoscopy due to its incompetence to clean hydrophobic dirt, whereas amphiphilic surfactants have the potential to overcome the limitation of water. The trial was aimed to evaluate the cleansing effectiveness of 2 typical surfactants (simethicone solution and oolong tea) for colonoscopic lens. METHODS: Oolong tea (O-), low concentration simethicone solution (S1-), high concentration simethicone solution (S2-) and distilled water (D-) were used as washing solutions for colonoscopic lens. Study I: The tip of the colonoscope was immersed in lard oil in order to simulate the blur, and photographs were taken toward a standard colonoscopy image in-vitro pre- and post- each cleansing procedure. The blurred areas of each image were quantified and compared. Study II: 395 consecutive patients who were due to colonoscopy examination were enrolled and randomized into O-, S2-, D-group. The volume of washing solution used and cleansing level during the examination procedure, adenoma and polyp detected per colonoscopy, insertion time and withdraw time were analyzed. RESULTS: Study I: There were no differences in 4 groups for the blurred areas on images before lens cleansing. The blurred areas after lens cleansing were significantly smaller in 3 groups (O- 8.47 ±â€Š20.91 vs S1- 13.06 ±â€Š10.71 vs S2- 6.76 ±â€Š8.49 vs D- 38.24 ±â€Š29.69, P < .05) than water. The decline range of blurred areas after lens cleansing in oolong tea, low concentration simethicone solution, high concentration simethicone solution groups were significantly higher than that in distilled water group (O- 87.35 ±â€Š20.81 vs S1- 78.12 ±â€Š19.24 vs S2- 89.57 ±â€Š8.50 vs D- 53.39 ±â€Š28.45, P < .05). Study II: The volume of washing solution used in S2-group was significantly smaller than that in O-group and D-group. The cleansing level of the colonoscopic lens of O-group was significantly superior than that of S2-group and D-group. CONCLUSIONS: The in-vitro test showed oolong tea and simethicone solution can effectively cleans the colonoscopic lens. The clinical trial demonstrated that oolong tea instead of water is effective to provide better visualization during colonoscopy.Registration: Chictr.org.cn No: ChiCTR1900025606.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/instrumentação , Manutenção/normas , Simeticone/uso terapêutico , Chá , Colonoscopia/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Reutilização de Equipamento/normas , Humanos , Manutenção/métodos , Manutenção/estatística & dados numéricos , Simeticone/farmacologia , Água/administração & dosagem
11.
Life Sci ; 284: 119882, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384829

RESUMO

AIMS: Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction syndrome arising from infection-induced uncontrolled systemic inflammatory responses. Patients surviving severe sepsis also exhibit increased mortality due to enhanced vulnerability to infections. In this study, we examined whether (R)-ketamine could prevent against lethal sepsis-induced systemic inflammation and inflammatory organ injury. MAIN METHODS: Septic model was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery on adult mice. (R)-ketamine (10 or 15 mg/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally (i.p.) 24 h before and/or immediately after CLP. KEY FINDINGS: Combined prophylactic and therapeutic use of (R)-ketamine (10 mg/kg), as well as either prophylactic or therapeutic use of (R)-ketamine at a single dose of 15 mg/kg did not reduce 14-day mortality after CLP. However, combined prophylactic and therapeutic use of (R)-ketamine (15 mg/kg) significantly increased 14-day survival rate, attenuated sepsis-induced marked drop in the rectal temperature and increase in the plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines [i.e., interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17A, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1ß, and IL-10] 12 h after CLP. Furthermore, (R)-ketamine alleviated sepsis-induced increase in the organ injury markers such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), myocardial kinase (CK-MB), and creatinine 24 h after CLP. Moreover, the increased lung wet/dry weight ratio, pulmonary morphological injury and the pulmonary levels of inflammatory cytokines were also attenuated by (R)-ketamine. SIGNIFICANCE: Combined prophylactic and therapeutic use of (R)-ketamine could attenuate systemic inflammation and inflammatory multi-organ injury in mice after CLP-induced lethal sepsis. Therefore, (R)-ketamine would be a potential prophylactic and therapeutic drug for patients prone to sepsis.


Assuntos
Ceco/patologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Ketamina/farmacologia , Ligadura , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/sangue , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Punções , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(10): 2743-2753, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313805

RESUMO

RATIONALE: (R)-Ketamine produced beneficial effects in a variety of models of inflammatory diseases, including low dose of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (0.5-1.0 mg/kg)-induced endotoxemia. LPS-treated mice have been used as animal model of delirium. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of (R)-ketamine in neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in rodents after administration of high dose of LPS. METHODS: LPS (5 mg/kg) or saline was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) to mice. (R)-Ketamine (10 mg/kg) was administrated i.p. 24 h before and/or 10 min after LPS injection. RESULTS: LPS (5.0 mg/kg) caused a remarkable splenomegaly and increased plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines [i.e., interleukin (IL-6), IL-17A, and interferon (IFN)-γ]. There were positive correlations between spleen weight and plasma cytokines levels. Furthermore, LPS led to increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. Moreover, LPS impaired the natural and learned behaviors, as demonstrated by a decrease in the number of mice's entries and duration in the novel arm in the Y maze test and an increase in the latency of mice to eat the food in the buried food test. Interestingly, the treatment with (R)-ketamine (twice 24 h before and 10 min after LPS injection) significantly attenuated LPS-induced splenomegaly, central and systemic inflammation, and cognitive impairment. CONCLUSION: Our results highlighted the importance of combined prophylactic and therapeutic use of (R)-ketamine in the attenuation of LPS-induced systemic inflammation, neuroinflammation, and cognitive impairment in mice. It is likely that (R)-ketamine could be a prophylactic drug for delirium.


Assuntos
Delírio , Ketamina , Animais , Citocinas , Endotoxinas , Ketamina/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Camundongos
13.
J Affect Disord ; 292: 565-573, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The brain-gut-microbiota axis plays a crucial role in the bidirectional interactions between the brain and the gut. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (coded by the Ephx2 gene) plays an important role in inflammation, which has been implicated in stress-related depression. Ephx2 knock-out (KO) mice exposed to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) did not show depression-like behaviors, indicating stress resilience. Here we examined whether the brain-gut-microbiota axis influences the resilience in Ephx2 KO mice. METHODS: Effects of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from CSDS-susceptible (or control) mice in wild-type (WT) mice and Ephx2 KO mice treated with an antibiotic cocktail (ABX) were investigated. Behavioral, biochemical tests and 16S ribosome RNA analysis were performed. RESULTS: FMT from CSDS-susceptible mice produced anhedonia-like behavior in ABX-treated WT and Ephx2 KO mice. The 16S ribosome RNA analysis showed that Faecalibaculum rodentium (F. rodentium) may be responsible for the observed anhedonia-like behavior following FMT from CSDS-susceptible mice. Ingestion of F. rodentium for 14 days produced depression- and anhedonia-like behaviors, higher blood levels of interleukin-6, and reduced expression of synaptic proteins in the prefrontal cortex of ABX-treated Ephx2 KO mice. Furthermore, subdiaphragmatic vagotomy blocked the development of these behavioral abnormalities after ingestion of F. rodentium. LIMITATIONS: Detailed mechanisms are unclear. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that F. rodentium might contribute to the conversion of resilient Ephx2 KO mice into KO mice with depression-like phenotypes. The brain-gut-microbiota axis via the subdiaphragmatic vagus nerve plays a crucial role in susceptibility and resilience to stress.


Assuntos
Depressão , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Encéfalo , Depressão/genética , Ingestão de Alimentos , Epóxido Hidrolases , Firmicutes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo , Estresse Psicológico , Nervo Vago
14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 656615, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109195

RESUMO

Sleep plays an important role in immune function. However, the effects of very-short-term sleep deprivation on the early recovery of immune function after sepsis remain unclear. This study was conducted in the intensive care unit to investigate the effects of 2 consecutive days of sleep deprivation (SD) on lymphocyte recovery over the following few days in septic patients who were recovering from a critical illness. The patients' self-reports of sleep quality was assessed using the Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire at 0 and 24 h after inclusion. The demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were collected and compared between the good sleep group and poor sleep group. We found that 2 consecutive days of SD decreased the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and ALC recovery at 3 days after SD. Furthermore, post-septic poor sleep decreased the plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) immediately after 2 consecutive days of SD. The ANP levels at 24 h after inclusion were positively correlated with ALC recovery, the number of CD3+ T cells, or the number of CD3+ CD4+ cells in the peripheral blood on day 5 after inclusion. Our data suggested that very-short-term poor sleep quality could slow down lymphocyte recovery over the following few days in septic patients who were recovering from a critical illness. Our results underscore the significance of very-short-term SD on serious negative effects on the immune function. Therefore, it is suggested that continuous SD or several short-term SD with short intervals should be avoided in septic patients.

15.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251300, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010329

RESUMO

Dynamic changes in flavonoid, total phenol, and antioxidant potential in different Prunus humilis accessions during fruit development stages were studied in order to provide a reference for the optimum harvest time for flavonoid extraction. 'Nongda 4', 'Nongda 5', 'DS-1' and '02-16' were selected as plant materials to determine the content of flavonoid, total phenol and antioxidant indices during six fruit development stages. Changes in total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenol content (TPC) in different accessions of P. humilis were slightly different depending on the development stage of P. humilis fruit. TFC and TPC in 'Nongda 5' fruit showed a trend of continuous decline. There was a small increase in TFC and TPC from the young fruit stage to the stone hardening stage, followed by a decreasing trend, and then to the lowest level at the ripening stage of 'Nongda 4', 'DS-1', and '02-16' fruits. The trend of antioxidant capacity (ABTS, FRAP, DPPH) with the TFC and TPC of P. humilis fruit was basically the same, and the correlation analysis results showed that the TFC of P. humilis fruit was positively correlated with the antioxidant indices (P<0.01). Catechin (CC), rutin (RT), and quercetin-7-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (Q7G) were detected in all the fruit development stages of the four P. humilis fruits. Among them, catechin was the most abundant component, accounting for approximately 10%. Myricetin (MC) and quercetin (QC) were generally detected only in the early fruit development stage, but not in the later fruit development stage. Correlation analysis showed that the flavonoid components with TFC, TPC, and antioxidant indices differed between the different accessions. RT, CC, and liquiritigenin (LR) had a stronger correlation with TFC and antioxidant indices. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) was not detected until the coloring stage in two red P. humilis accessions ('Nongda 4' and 'DS-1'), and so it is better to choose a red P. humilis fruit to extract C3G at the ripening stage. Selecting an early stage of fruit development, especially the stone hardening stage, was important for extracting flavonoids, total phenols and other components. We believe that our results will provide basic information and reference for evaluation of fruit nutrition and health benefits, breeding of functional new varieties, and efficient utilization of P. humilis fruit.


Assuntos
Prunus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prunus/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , China , Produção Agrícola , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Fenóis/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Comestíveis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Comestíveis/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal
16.
Brain Res Bull ; 173: 66-73, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004259

RESUMO

Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) are known as genetically modified G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which can be activated by synthetic ligands such as clozapine N-oxide (CNO) and DREADD agonist 21 (compound 21: C21). The brain-gut-microbiota axis has a crucial role in bidirectional interactions between the brain and the gastrointestinal microbiota. In this study, we investigated whether repeated administration of CNO or C21 could influence the gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces of adult mice. Repeated administration of CNO or C21 as drinking water did not alter the α- and ß-diversity of gut microbiota in mice compared with control mice. However, we found significant changes in relative abundance for several bacteria in the CNO (or C21) group at the taxonomic level compared to the control group. The linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) algorithm distinguished the family Prevotellaceae, the genus Anaerocolumna, the genus Prevotella, and the genus Frisingicoccus, these four specific microbial markers for the CNO group relative to the control group. In addition, the LEfSe algorithm identified the family Clostridiaceae, the genus Faecalicatena and the genus Marinisporobacter, these three bacteria of different taxonomic as potential microbial markers for the C21 group relative to the control group. In contrast, repeated administration of CNO (or C21) did not alter SCFAs in feces samples of adult mice. The data suggest that repeated administration of CNO or C21 contributes to an unusual organization of the gut microbiota in adult mice. Therefore, abnormalities in the composition of gut microbiota by repeated dosing of DREADD ligands should be taken into consideration for behavioral and biological functions in rodents treated with DREADD ligands.

17.
Front Physiol ; 12: 636485, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854440

RESUMO

Aim: The aim was to study the effect of Allitridum (Allicin) on the heterologous expression of the late sodium current on the ΔKPQ-SCN5A mutations in HEK293 cells, with a view to screening new drugs for the treatment of long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3). Methods and Results: The ΔKPQ-SCN5A plasmid was transiently transferred into HEK293 cells by liposome technology and administered by extracellular perfusion, and the sodium current was recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp technology. Application of Allicin 30 µM reduced the late sodium current (I Na,L ) of the Nav1.5 channel current encoded by ΔKPQ-SCN5A from 1.92 ± 0.12 to 0.65 ± 0.03 pA/pF (P < 0.01, n = 15), which resulted in the decrease of I Na,L /I Na,P (from 0.94% ± 0.04% to 0.32% ± 0.02%). Furthermore, treatment with Allicin could move the steady-state inactivation of the channel to a more negative direction, resulting in an increase in channel inactivation at the same voltage, which reduced the increase in the window current and further increased the inactivation of the channel intermediate state. However, it had no effect on channel steady-state activation (SSA), inactivation mechanics, and recovery dynamics after inactivation. What's more, the Nav1.5 channel protein levels of membrane in the ΔKPQ-SCN5A mutation were enhanced from 0.49% ± 0.04% to 0.76% ± 0.02% with the effect of 30 mM Allicin, close to 0.89% ± 0.02% of the WT. Conclusion: Allicin reduced the late sodium current of ΔKPQ-SCN5A, whose mechanism may be related to the increase of channel steady-state inactivation (SSI) and intermediate-state inactivation (ISI) by the drug, thus reducing the window current.

18.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(2): 829-834, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070233

RESUMO

A novel Gram-stain-negative, aerobic strain, designated Y22T, was isolated from peanut field soil in Laoshan Mountain in China. Cells of strain Y22T were rod-shaped and motile by a single flagellum. The strain was found to be oxidase- and catalase-positive. 16S rRNA gene sequence based on phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain Y22T belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, and showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.0% to Pseudomonas pelagia JCM 15562T, followed by Pseudomonas salina JCM 19469T (98.4%), Pseudomonas sabulinigri JCM 14963T (97.9%), Pseudomonas bauzanensis CGMCC 1.9095T (97.6%) and Pseudomonas litoralis KCTC23093T (97.5%). The phylogenetic analysis based on multilocus sequence analyses with concatenated 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoD and rpoB genes indicated that strain Y22T belonged to Pseudomonas pertucinogena lineage. The average nucleotide identity scores between strain Y22T and closely related species were 74.6-82.8%, and the Genome-to-Genome Distance Calculator scores were 16.4-44.9%. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain Y22T were C18:1ω7c (29.6%), C17:0 cyclo (17.5%) and summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c) (17.4%). The genomic DNA G+C content was 57.9 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analyses and in silico DNA-DNA relatedness, a novel species, Pseudomonas laoshanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Y22T (= JCM 32580T = KCTC 62385T = CGMCC 1.16552T).


Assuntos
Filogenia , Pseudomonas/classificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Arachis , China , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Pseudomonas/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Life Sci ; 265: 118736, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176177

RESUMO

AIMS: Sleep deprivation (SD) correlates with exacerbated systemic inflammation after sepsis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the roles and mechanisms of SD in inflammatory organ injury after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. MAIN METHODS: Mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS followed by 3 consecutive days of SD. The pseudo germ-free (PGF) mice received fecal microbiota transplant by being gavaged with supernatant from fecal suspension of septic mice with or without SD. The subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (SDV) or splenectomy was performed 14 days prior to LPS injection or antibiotics administration. KEY FINDINGS: Post-septic SD increased the plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), reduced IL-10 plasma level, increased spleen weight, and promoted inflammatory injury of the lung, liver and kidney. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria and its subgroups were increased after post-septic SD. PGF mice transplanted with fecal bacteria from septic mice subjected to SD developed splenomegaly, systemic inflammation, organ inflammation and damage as their donors did. Intriguingly, SDV abolished the aggravated effects of SD on splenomegaly and inflammatory organ injury in septic mice received SD or in PGF mice transplanted with fecal bacteria from septic mice subjected to SD. Furthermore, splenectomy also abrogated the increase in IL-6 and TNF-α plasma levels and the decrease in IL-10 plasma level in PGF mice transplanted with fecal bacteria from septic mice subjected to SD. SIGNIFICANCE: Gut microbiota-vagus nerve axis and gut microbiota-spleen axis play key roles in modulating systemic inflammation induced by SD after LPS administration.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Baço/metabolismo , Nervo Vago/fisiologia , Animais , Citocinas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação , Interleucina-10 , Interleucina-6 , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Sepse , Privação do Sono/metabolismo , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/fisiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Nervo Vago/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervo Vago/metabolismo
20.
Thromb Res ; 210: 53-62, 2021 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anticoagulation is important for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Heparin is widely used; however, in some cases, it is not suitable for patients. Bivalirudin has been recently proposed for ECMO patients, and there is no evidence regarding its effectiveness and safety. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically review the effectiveness and safety of bivalirudin in ECMO patients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE were searched to find relevant research on the use of bivalirudin versus heparin for anticoagulation in ECMO patients. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality, ECMO duration, major bleeding events, thrombosis events and circuit intervention events. Types of studies included randomized control trials (RCTs), cohort studies, and case-control studies. Case reports, studies lacking comparison with heparin, and where patients transitioned between heparin and bivalirudin, were excluded. Publication bias was evaluated when the number of included studies was more than ten. Sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the stability of the results. RESULTS: Ten articles were selected, and nine articles were included in the meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis showed hospital mortality [OR = 0.65, 95%CI (0.44, 0.95), P = 0.03] and thrombosis events decreased (OR = 0.55, 95%CI [0.37, 0.83], P = 0.004) in bivalirudin group compared with heparin in adult patients. Major bleeding events (OR = 0.66, 95%CI [0.17, 2.55], P = 0.55), ECMO duration (MD = 18.92, 95%CI [-29.33, 67.17], P = 0.44) and circuit intervention events (OR = 1.67, 95%CI [0.54, 5.18], P = 0.37) in the bivalirudin group was not statistically significant compared with the heparin group. CONCLUSION: Bivalirudin may provide survival benefits and reduce thrombosis in adult patients on ECMO compared with heparin. There is no difference in treating major bleeding events between bivalirudin and heparin group. However, because all included studies were retrospective observational studies, the evidence level of this systematic review is low and heterogeneity could not be avoided. More high-quality clinical studies are urgently needed to confirm these benefits.

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