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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the rapid development of animal husbandry, the silage trade has increased in frequency. The re-ensiling of materials is often required before or after trading, resulting in the exposure of the silage to air before re-sealing. To develop a re-ensiling technique for silage, different silage exposure periods were simulated to check the possible effects on the fermentation quality and microbial community of silage. RESULTS: Fresh and wilted napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) were ensiled for 90 days, then exposed to air for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36 or 48 h, before being re-ensiled. As a control, grass was directly ensiled for 180 days. Wilting increased the relative abundance of Klebsiella. The relative abundance of Paenibacillus in the unwilted silage was much higher than that in the wilted silage. Re-ensiling increased the relative abundance of Lactobacillus, but decreased the relative abundances of Klebsiella, Bacillus, and Paenibacillus. In addition, Lactobacillus became the dominant bacteria in the re-ensiled fresh and wilted silages. Re-ensiling within 48 h of exposure did not affect the fermentation quality of the wilted silage, whereas that of the unwilted silage declined when exposed to air for over 24 h. CONCLUSION: Re-ensiling wilted napier grass silage within 48 h of aerobic exposure did not cause the fermentation quality to decline. The unwilted napier grass silage contained a higher relative abundance of Paenibacillus and significantly deteriorated when re-ensiled after over 24 h of aerobic exposure. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

2.
Global Spine J ; : 2192568221989291, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611986

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the safety and validity of posterior vertebral column resection (pVCR) for severe thoracolumbar kyphosis (TLK) in the achondroplasia (ACH) patients. METHODS: Seven ACH patients (male: female = 6:1) who underwent pVCR procedures due to severe TLK from December 2008 to December 2017 in the authors' hospital were included in this retrospective study. Their mean follow-up duration was 67 ± 35 months. Their clinical characteristics, radiologic characteristics, surgical characteristics and surgical complications were reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 8 vertebrae were removed with an average of 5 ± 2 levels of decompression and 9 ± 2 segments instrumented. The mean correction rates of TLKs and the main curves were 73 ± 15% and 87 ± 6%, respectively. Five patients (71%) had preoperative neurological symptoms with a mean Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score of 8 ± 3 points. Their neurological functions were all improved, with a recovery rate of 78 ± 32% for the JOA score at the last follow-up. Four patients (57%) suffered from surgical complications, including rod breakages (43%), neurological complications (28%), dural tears (14%), cerebrospinal fluid leaks (14%) and proximal junction kyphosis (14%). CONCLUSIONS: pVCR can offer a good correction for TLK and improve neurological function with extensive laminectomies in ACH patients. But the morbidity of surgical complications is relatively high. Therefore, it is a reserved surgical option for severe TLK in ACH patients by experienced spinal surgeons, especially with apical markedly hypoplastic vertebrae.

3.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 150: 112036, 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561516

RESUMO

Asparanin A (AA), a natural compound present in vegetables and medicinal herbs like Asparagus officinalis L., has been investigated extensively for its pharmacological attributes. So far, the effect of AA on endometrial cancer (EC) cell migration and invasion has not been explored. Herein, we elucidated the anti-metastasis mechanism of AA on Ishikawa cells based on miRNA-seq and mRNA-seq integrated analyses. AA treatment led to altered miRNAs expression in Ishikawa cells and inhibited the cell wound healing, cell migration and invasion. Gene Ontology and KEGG enrichment analyses showed that the target genes of different expression miRNAs were significantly enriched in Ras, Rap1 and MAPK signaling pathways. Further verification of these changes via qRT-PCR and Western blot assays in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that AA could suppress human EC cell migration and invasion through Ras/ERK/MAPK pathway. Furthermore, top two miRNAs (miR-6236-p5 and miR-12136_R+8) and top three target genes (KITLG, PDGFD, and NRAS) were identified as functional hub miRNAs and genes through miRNA-target gene network analysis. Our data presented a holistic approach to comprehend the anti-metastatic role of AA in EC after in vitro and in vivo analyses.

4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 257: 117626, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541652

RESUMO

Constructing hybrid double network (DN) hydrogels has become an important strategy to prepare strong and tough hydrogels with good self-healing properties for durable usage. However, the recoverable and self-healing efficiencies of DN hydrogels are usually low. We develop a type of hybrid DN hydrogel, which contain the starch network for generating strong dynamic interactions within the gel matrix. The composite gels show tensile strength over 200 kPa with the elastic modulus of ∼29.7 kPa. Gelatinization of cassava starch is a key procedure that can significantly raise mechanical strengths. The healing efficiency of the composite gel gradually increased to as high as 99 % after 24 h at room temperature. This work shows that dynamic physical bonding in hydrogels can be greatly enhanced by a simple starch reinforcing tactic. The combination of naturally abundant starch with hydrophilic polymers provides a general approach to design functional soft materials for applications in various fields.

5.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 165, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568117

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze how pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) treatment of severe Scheuermann thoracolumbar kyphosis (STLK) using pedicle screw instrumentation affects sagittal spinopelvic parameters. BACKGROUND: The medical literature on the post-surgical effects of treatments such as Ponte osteotomy is limited, but suggests few effects on spinopelvic profiles. Currently, there is no research regarding changes in sagittal spinopelvic alignment upon PSO treatment in STLK patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study on 11 patients with severe STLK. These patients underwent posterior-only correction surgeries with PSO and pedicle screw instrumentation between 2012 to 2017 in a single institute. Patients were measured for the following spinopelvic parameters: global kyphosis (GK), thoracic kyphosis (TK), thoracolumbar kyphosis (TL), lumbar lordosis (LL), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tile (PT), sacral slope (SS), and administered a Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire (SRS-22) pre-operation, post-operation and at final follow-up. RESULTS: GK improved from a median of 74.1° to 40.0° after surgery, achieving a correction rate of 48.8% with a median correction loss of 0.8°. TK, TL and LL all showed significant difference (P < 0.05) and SVA improved 22.7 (11.6, 30.9) mm post operation. No significant difference was found in pelvic parameters (PI, PT, SS, all P < 0.05). The absolute value of LL- PI significantly improved from a median of 26.5° pre-operation to 6.1° at the final follow-up. 72.7% in this series showed an evident trend of thoracic and lumbar apices migrating closer to ideal physiological segments after surgery. Self-reported scores of pain, self-image, and mental health from SRS-22 revealed significant improvement at final follow-up (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: PSO treatment of severe STLK with pedicle screw instrumentation can improve spine alignment and help obtain a proper alignment of the spine and the pelvis.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581118

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Distant metastasis (DM) indicates a poor outcome from cancer treatment. The present study estimated the incidence of DM and identified risk factors associated with development of DM in patients with salivary gland carcinoma that achieved locoregional control after surgery combined with 125I internal brachytherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using consecutive patients treated with surgery combined with 125I internal brachytherapy at the Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. Variables that might be associated with DM, including clinical, treatment characteristics, pathologic findings, and time to DM were recorded. Kaplan-Meier was performed to estimate incidence of DM, and Cox proportional hazard model was used to identify factors associated with DM. RESULTS: Data from 156 patients were obtained for statistical analysis. The DM was observed in 16 of 156 with rate being 10.3%. The median interval from diagnosis of primary tumor to DM was 30.0 months. The 3-, 5-, 10-year overall survival rates were 97.0, 94.6, 85.2%, respectively, for patients without DM compared with 60.9, 52.2, 26.1%, respectively, for those with DM (P < .001). Univariate analysis revealed that the factors that significantly influenced DM were primary tumor site (P = .012) and histologic grade (P = .001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard model indicated that histologic grade was the most important risk factor for predicting the risk of DM (P = .005; hazard ratio: 2.79; 95% confidence interval: 1.36 to 5.72). CONCLUSIONS: Histologic grade was the major risk factor that significantly influenced DM in patients with salivary gland carcinoma that achieved locoregional control. Patients with high-grade tumors should be under close evaluation for DM.

7.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(1): 33-37, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of neutrophil to lymphocyte and platelet ratio (N/LPR) for predicting 28-day mortality in sepsis patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted. The clinical data of 154 sepsis patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of the Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University from June 2017 to June 2020 were enrolled. The time of first diagnosis of sepsis in ICU was taken as the research starting point, and the death or 28 days as the end point. The 28-day outcomes of patients were recorded. The counts of peripheral blood neutrophil (NEU), lymphocyte (LYM) and platelet (PLT) were collected from all the enrolled patients within 3 days after diagnosis of sepsis. The ratios of N/LPR and NEU/LYM (NLR) were calculated respectively. The differences of N/LPR and NLR between survival group and death group were compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to analyze the value of N/LPR and NLR on predicting the 28-day mortality of sepsis patients. According to the best cut-off value of ROC curve analysis, the 28-day mortality of patients with sepsis was analyzed by subgroup analysis, and the 28-day cumulative survival of patients with sepsis was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival curve. RESULTS: Of the 154 sepsis patients, the patients with age < 18 years, pregnancy, blood disease, taking aspirin or other antiplatelet drugs within 1 week, taking leucocyte drugs within 1 week, length of ICU stay < 3 days and incomplete data were excluded. Finally, 50 patients were enrolled. Among them, 30 patients survived on the 28th day and 20 died. Compared with the survival group, the levels of N/LPR and NLR in the death group were significantly increased (N/LPR: 23.85±11.99 vs. 12.41±5.25, NLR: 17.83±8.69 vs. 10.75±3.63), with statistical differences (both P < 0.01). ROC curve analysis indicated that the area under ROC curve (AUC) of N/LPR for predicting 28-day death of sepsis patients was 0.827, it was higher than that of NLR (AUC = 0.762). Base on N/LPR ≥ 15.48 as a predictor of cut-off value of death in 28 days of sepsis patients, the sensitivity was 75.0% and the specificity was 80.0%, respectively. Base on NLR ≥ 10.65 as a predictor of cut-off value of death in 28 days of sepsis patients, the sensitivity was 75.0% and specificity was 56.7%, respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that the 28-day mortality in the patients with N/LPR ≥ 15.48 (n = 21) was significantly higher than those with N/LPR < 15.48 (n = 29; 71.4% vs. 17.2%, χ2 = 14.901, P < 0.01); and the 28-day mortality in the patients with NLR ≥ 10.65 (n = 28) was also significantly higher than those with NLR < 10.65 (n = 22; 53.6% vs. 22.7%, χ2 = 4.884, P < 0.05). The results were consistent with Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral blood N/LPR has a good predictive value for 28-day mortality of sepsis patients, and which is better than NLR.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Sepse , Adolescente , Plaquetas , Humanos , Linfócitos , Neutrófilos , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-17, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567903

RESUMO

Traditionally, walnuts have occupied an imperative position in the functional food market with consistently recognized nutritious and functional properties. In the past years, the lipid profile of walnuts has brought much scientific attention via linking a cascade of biological attributes and health-promoting effects. Over time, researchers have focused on diversified composition (polyphenols and vitamins) of different parts of walnut (flower, pellicle, and kernel) and emphasized their physiological significance. Consequently, a plethora of reports has emerged on the potential role of walnut consumption against a series of diseases including cancer, gut dysbiosis, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we accumulated the updated data on composition and classification, extraction methods, and utilization of different parts of walnuts as well as associated beneficial effects under in vivo and clinical studies. Altogether, this review summarized the ameliorative effects of a walnut-enriched diet in chronic diseases which can be designated to the synergistic or individual effects of walnut components mainly through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory role.

9.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 13, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the risk factors for blood transfusion in a great number of adolescent cases with different types of scoliosis who received scoliosis surgery. METHODS: Data of patients who were diagnosed as scoliosis and received one-stage posterior correction and spinal fusion from January 2014 to December 2017 were prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed. Patients' demographic characteristics, segments of spinal fusion, Cobb angle of the major curve,osteotomy pattern, preoperative and postoperative levels of hemoglobin, and allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: In this study, 722 cases with adolescent scoliosis were included, of whom 32.8% (237/722) received ABT. Risk factors included diagnosis: neurofibromatosis (OR = 5.592), syndromic (OR = 3.029),osteotomy: Ponte osteotomy (OR = 5.997), hemivertebrae resection (OR = 29.171), pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO)(OR = 8.712), vertebral column resection (VCR)(OR = 32.265);fusion segments (OR = 1.224) and intraoperative blood loss (OR = 1.004). In the subgroup analysis of cases with idiopathic scoliosis, Ponte osteotomy (OR = 6.086), length of segments of spinal fusion (OR = 1.293), and intraoperative blood loss (OR = 1.001) were found as risk factors for ABT. Results of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that length of segments of spinal fusion equal to 11.5 vertebrae was the best cutoff value for cases with idiopathic scoliosis who did not receive osteotomy in both ABT group and non-ABT group. In the subgroup analysis of congenital scoliosis, Ponte osteotomy (OR = 5.087), hemivertebra resection (OR = 5.457), PSO (OR = 4.055), VCR (OR = 6.940), and intraoperative blood loss (OR = 1.004) were risk factors for ABT. CONCLUSIONS: Method of diagnosis, osteotomy pattern, segments of spinal fusion, and intraoperative blood loss were risk factors for ABT in cases with adolescent scoliosis. In cases with idiopathic scoliosis, Ponte osteotomy and segments of spinal fusion longer than 11.5 vertebrae were risk factors for ABT. In cases with congenital scoliosis, osteotomy pattern was the main risk factor for ABT. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(2): 337-345, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434492

RESUMO

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) is associated with congenital absence of the uterus, cervix, and the upper part of the vagina; it is a sex-limited trait. Disrupted development of the Müllerian ducts (MD)/Wölffian ducts (WD) through multifactorial mechanisms has been proposed to underlie MRKHS. In this study, exome sequencing (ES) was performed on a Chinese discovery cohort (442 affected subjects and 941 female control subjects) and a replication MRKHS cohort (150 affected subjects of mixed ethnicity from North America, South America, and Europe). Phenotypic follow-up of the female reproductive system was performed on an additional cohort of PAX8-associated congenital hypothyroidism (CH) (n = 5, Chinese). By analyzing 19 candidate genes essential for MD/WD development, we identified 12 likely gene-disrupting (LGD) variants in 7 genes: PAX8 (n = 4), BMP4 (n = 2), BMP7 (n = 2), TBX6 (n = 1), HOXA10 (n = 1), EMX2 (n = 1), and WNT9B (n = 1), while LGD variants in these genes were not detected in control samples (p = 1.27E-06). Interestingly, a sex-limited penetrance with paternal inheritance was observed in multiple families. One additional PAX8 LGD variant from the replication cohort and two missense variants from both cohorts were revealed to cause loss-of-function of the protein. From the PAX8-associated CH cohort, we identified one individual presenting a syndromic condition characterized by CH and MRKHS (CH-MRKHS). Our study demonstrates the comprehensive utilization of knowledge from developmental biology toward elucidating genetic perturbations, i.e., rare pathogenic alleles involving the same loci, contributing to human birth defects.


Assuntos
Transtornos 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/anormalidades , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mutação , Ductos Mesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 7/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Pleiotropia Genética , Proteínas Homeobox A10/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/genética , Herança Paterna , Penetrância , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Ductos Mesonéfricos/anormalidades
11.
Genomics ; 113(2): 782-794, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516847

RESUMO

Maize (Zea mays L.) is a thermophilic plant and a minor drop in temperature can prolong the maturity period. Plants respond to cold stress through structural and functional modification in cell membranes as well as changes in the photosynthesis and energy metabolism. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying cold tolerance and adaptation, we employed leaf transcriptome sequencing together with leaf microstructure and relative electrical conductivity measurements in two maize inbred lines, having different cold stress tolerance potentials. The leaf physiological and transcriptomic responses of maize seedlings were studied after growing both inbred lines at 5 °C for 0, 12 and 24 h. Differentially expressed genes were enriched in photosynthesis antenna proteins, MAPK signaling pathway, plant hormone signal transduction, circadian rhythm, secondary metabolites related pathways, ribosome, and proteasome. The seedlings of both genotypes employed common stress responsive pathways to respond to cold stress. However, the cold tolerant line B144 protected its photosystem II from photooxidation by upregulating D1 proteins. The sensitive line Q319 was unable to close its stomata. Collectively, B144 exhibited a cold tolerance owing to its ability to mediate changes in stomata opening as well as protecting photosystem. These results increase our understanding on the cold stress tolerance in maize seedlings and propose multiple key regulators of stress responses such as modifications in photosystem II, stomata guard cell opening and closing, changes in secondary metabolite biosynthesis, and circadian rhythm. This study also presents the signal transduction related changes in MAPK and phytohormone signaling pathways in response to cold stress during seedling stage of maize.

12.
Theranostics ; 11(5): 2137-2148, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500716

RESUMO

Aggregation induced emission (AIE)-active bright two-photon fluorescent probes with second near-infrared (NIR-II) light excitability can be used for efficient brain bioimaging studies, wherein the fabrication of water-dispersible nanoparticles by encapsulating the hydrophobic probes with amphiphilic polymer holds the key to ensuring biocompatibility and in vivo adaptability. However, barely any study has evaluated the structural requirements that can substantially affect the water-dispersible nanoparticle formation ability of an organic AIE-active dye with amphiphilic polymers. The present study systematically assessed the structural dependency of a well-known acrylonitrile based AIE system/fluorogenic core upon the formation of water-dispersible nanoparticles and elucidated how the structural modifications can impact the in vivo two-photon imaging. Methods: A total of four acrylonitrile-based aggregation induced emission (AIE)-active two-photon (TP) fluorescent probes (AIETP, AIETP C1, AIETP C2 and AIETP C3) have been judiciously designed and synthesized with structural variations to realize how the structural alterations could substantially influence the water-dispersible nanoparticle formation ability (with amphiphilic polymers) and photo-stability to impact the in vivo imaging. Results: It has been found that the incorporation of the phenyl-thiazole unit in AIETP, AIETP C2 and AIETP C3 facilitated the formation of water-dispersible nanoparticles (NPs) with amphiphilic polymers (Pluronic F127) whereas the presence of only phenyl moiety instead in AIETP C1 could not meet the suitable condition to form the NPs with good aqueous dispersibility. Rationally designed AIETP NPs that exhibited higher brightness, improved photostability and good two-photon absorption cross section was successfully employed for in vivo brain vasculature imaging. Conclusions: Robust noninvasive 2D and 3D two-photon (NIR-II light, 1040 nm) brain vasculature imaging with beneficial attributes such as outstanding penetration depth (800 µm) and exceptional spatial resolution (1.92 µm), were achieved by utilizing AIETP NPs in this study.

13.
Epilepsy Behav ; 115: 107661, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is one of the most common types of intractable epilepsy. The hippocampus and amygdala are two crucial structures of the mesial temporal lobe and play important roles in the epileptogenic network of MTLE. This study aimed to explore the effective connectivity among the hippocampus, amygdala, and temporal neocortex and to determine whether differences in effective connectivity exist between MTLE patients and non-MTLE patients. METHODS: This study recruited 20 patients from a large cohort of drug-resistant epilepsy patients, of whom 14 were MTLE patients. Single-pulse electrical stimulation (SPES) was performed to acquire cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs). The root mean square (RMS) was used as the metric of the magnitude of CCEP to represent the effective connectivity. We then conducted paired and independent sample t-tests to assess the directionality of the effective connectivity. RESULTS: In both MTLE patients and non-MTLE patients, the directional connectivity from the amygdala to the hippocampus was stronger than that from the hippocampus to the amygdala (P < 0.01); the outward connectivity from the amygdala to the cortex was stronger than the inward connectivity from the cortex to the amygdala (P < 0.01); the amygdala had stronger connectivity to the neocortex than the hippocampus (P < 0.01). In MTLE patients, the neocortex had stronger connectivity to the hippocampus than to the amygdala (P < 0.01). No significant differences in directional connectivity were noted between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: A unique effective connectivity pattern among the hippocampus, amygdala, and temporal neocortex was identified through CCEPs analysis. This study may aid in our understanding of physiological and pathological networks in the brain and inspire neurostimulation protocols for neurological and psychiatric disorders.

14.
Mol Immunol ; 131: 191-200, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446392

RESUMO

Emerging evidence has indicated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in various pathophysiological processes of disease, such as cancer occurrence, viral invasion, and inflammatory damage. The main inflammatory body component, nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), is the trigger point of inflammatory reactions and inflammation-related diseases and coordinates the body's response to inflammation. At present, increasing evidence shows that the interaction of lncRNAs and the NLRP3 inflammasome plays an important role in the inflammatory response and different diseases. This may be involved in the development and progression of various diseases by activating signalling pathways and a variety of molecular regulatory mechanisms-this article reviews progress in research on the relationship between lncRNAs and the NLRP3 inflammasome under different conditions.

15.
Anal Chem ; 93(4): 2596-2602, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464055

RESUMO

Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles with interconnected tubule structures that are sensitive to environmental stress and light illumination. Super-resolution optical imaging of mitochondrial dynamics is of significance for understanding such biological events. Direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy has the advantages of a high spatial resolution, low phototoxicity in live-cell imaging, and the capacity to incorporate smart fluorescent probes. However, dSTORM imaging in live cells is challenging because of the requirement for an imaging buffer and a low temporal resolution. In this work, we achieved dSTORM imaging of mitochondrial dynamics in live cells with a disulfide-substituted Cy5 probe without using any toxic imaging buffer. Under the illumination of very low laser power, the probe exhibited spontaneous photoblinking triggered by disulfide-bond reduction in mitochondria of live cells. The obtained thiol attacked nearby carbon to form a six-membered ring and the reversible opening/closing of the ring produced spontaneous photoblinking behavior. With this new STORM strategy, we achieved observation of mitochondrial dynamics for more than 3 min, which provides a promising tool for further studies of mitochondria with an ultrafine structure.

16.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(3): 326-333, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective method of controlling epilepsy, especially temporal lobe epilepsy. Mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) plays an indispensable role in the pathogenesis and progression of epilepsy, but the effect of ATN-DBS on MFS in the chronic stage of epilepsy and the potential underlying mechanisms are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ATN-DBS on MFS, as well as potential signaling pathways by a kainic acid (KA)-induced epileptic model. METHODS: Twenty-four rhesus monkeys were randomly assigned to control, epilepsy (EP), EP-sham-DBS, and EP-DBS groups. KA was injected to establish the chronic epileptic model. The left ATN was implanted with a DBS lead and stimulated for 8 weeks. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining were used to evaluate MFS and levels of potential molecular mediators in the hippocampus. One-way analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey post hoc correction, was used to analyze the statistical significance of differences among multiple groups. RESULTS: ATN-DBS is found to significantly reduce seizure frequency in the chronic stage of epilepsy. The number of ectopic granule cells was reduced in monkeys that received ATN stimulation (P < 0.0001). Levels of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) in the hippocampus, together with Akt phosphorylation, were noticeably reduced in monkeys that received ATN stimulation (P = 0.0030 and P = 0.0001, respectively). ATN-DBS also significantly reduced MFS scores in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and CA3 sub-regions (all P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: ATN-DBS is shown to down-regulate the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and Akt phosphorylation and to reduce the number of ectopic granule cells, which may be associated with the reduced MFS in chronic epilepsy. The study provides further insights into the mechanism by which ATN-DBS reduces epileptic seizures.

17.
J Mol Model ; 27(2): 24, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411063

RESUMO

A series of novel bis-triazole compounds was designed by combining high-energy functionalities (nitro and nitramino groups) as substituents with each triazole and incorporating of varying linkages into the bis-triazoles. Then, their heats of formation (HOFs), energetic properties, HOMO-LUMO, electrostatic potential, and impact sensitivity were studied theoretically to facilitate further developments. In general, all the designed compounds possess much higher HOFs than RDX, -CH2-CH2-, -N=N-, or -NH-NH- linkages contribute to increase the HOFs, while incorporation of the bridge group -O-CH2-CH2-O- shows negative effect on HOFs. Detonation properties of most of the designed compounds can be comparable with or even better than ones of RDX, suggesting that designing the bridged bis-triazoles-based derivatives with energy-rich substituents is an efficient method to obtain potential energetic compounds. Considering the detonation performance and impact sensitivity, -NH-(I), -N=N- (V), and -NH-NH- (VI) are favorable bridged groups between energetic moieties for designing efficient energetic materials (EMs).

18.
Food Funct ; 12(2): 519-542, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367423

RESUMO

Due to recent lifestyle shifts and health discernments among consumers, synthetic drugs are facing the challenge of controlling disease development and progression. Various medicinal plants and their constituents are recognized for their imminent role in disease management via modulation of biological activities. At present, research scholars have diverted their attention on natural bioactive entities with health-boosting perception to combat the lifestyle-related disarrays. In particular, Zingiber officinale is a medicinal herb that has been commonly used in food and pharmaceutical products. Its detailed chemical composition and high value-added active components have been extensively studied. In this review, we have summarized the pharmacological potential of this well-endowed chemo preventive agent. It was revealed that its functionalities are attributed to several inherent chemical constituents, including 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 6-hydroshogaol, and oleoresin, which were established through many studies (in vitro, in vivo, and cell lines). In this review, we also focused on the therapeutic effects of ginger and its constituents for their effective antioxidant properties. Their consumption may reduce or delay the progression of related diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and obesity, via modulation of genetic and metabolic activities. The updated data could elucidate the relationship of the extraction processes with the constituents and biological manifestations. We have collated the current knowledge (including the latest clinical data) about the bioactive compounds and bioactivities of ginger. Their detailed mechanisms, which can lay foundation for their food and medical applications are also discussed.

19.
Food Funct ; 12(2): 614-632, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338094

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer (EC) is a malignancy that severely threatens women's health and there is an urgent need to find novel natural compounds as effective treatment drugs. At the same time, multi-omics analysis of cells has been widely used in basic research to find new pathogenesis and mechanisms. Due to the lack of data on the functional importance of mRNAs and miRNAs in plant-derived asparanin A (AA) induced cancer cells, the underlying mechanisms of AA on endometrial cancer (EC) Ishikawa cells were investigated using mRNA-seq and miRNA-seq, qRT-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. The combined analysis of 37 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and 489 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with negative regulatory relationships revealed that AA not only induced apoptosis, but also triggered autophagy through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and DNA damage-related pathways. 23 DEMs and 39 DEGs participated in protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum (PPER) and p53 signaling pathways, as shown by miRNA-target gene network analyses. Among them, we concluded that miR-6236-p5, miR-1246-p5, miR-11987_L-1, PC-5p-21544, and miR-5100-p3_1ss17TC function as hub miRNAs, and their regulation may be essential for the anti-cancer activity of AA. This study may provide a comprehensive understanding of the potential anticancer regulation of AA on EC, suggesting AA as a potential candidate for dietary supplementation in cancer medication and prevention.

20.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 148: 111941, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359023

RESUMO

The present study emphasized on the anti-cancerous effects of dioscin and its underlying molecular mechanism in human endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells. Dioscin significantly suppressed the proliferation of Ishikawa cells at IC50 of 2.37 µM. Besides, dioscin could inhibit the proliferation of Ishikawa cells by blocking the G0/G1 cell cycle through up-regulation of p16, p21, and p27 and down-regulation of cycle-cellular protein (Cyclin A/D/E) and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK2/4/6). Also, it promoted apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway, including the regulation of Bcl family proteins, the increase of ROS levels, the activation of caspases (Caspase 9/3), and the decrease of mitochondrial membrane permeability. Whereas dioscin also effectively activated the marker genes and proteins (Fas, TNF-R1, and Caspase 8) related to the death receptor-mediated pathway which confirmed the involvement of both the pathways for dioscin-induced apoptosis. The current results demonstrated that dioscin possessed potential health benefits with respect to endometrial cancer prevention and treatment.

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