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1.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have shown that genetic overexpression of cell cycle proteins can increase the proliferation of transplanted cardiomyocytes derived from human induced-pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-CMs) in animal models of myocardial infarction (MI). Here, we introduce a new, non-genetic approach to promote hiPSC-CM cell cycle activity and proliferation in transplanted human cardiomyocyte patches (hCMPs). METHODS: Mice were randomly distributed into 5 experimental groups (n = 10 per group). One group underwent Sham surgery, and the other 4 groups underwent MI induction surgery followed by treatment with hCMPs composed of hiPSC-CMs and nanoparticles that contained CHIR99021 and FGF1 (the NPCF-hCMP group), with hCMPs composed of hiPSC-CMs and empty nanoparticles (the NPE-hCMP group); with patches containing the CHIR99021/FGF-loaded nanoparticles but lacking hiPSC-CMs (the NPCF-Patch group), or patches lacking both the nanoparticles and cells (the E-Patch group). Cell cycle activity was evaluated via Ki67 and Aurora B expression, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, and phosphorylated histone 3 levels (immunofluorescence); engraftment via human cardiac troponin T or human nuclear antigen expression (immunofluorescence) and bioluminescence imaging; cardiac function via echocardiography; infarct size and wall thickness via histology; angiogenesis via isolectin B4 expression (immunofluorescence); and apoptosis via TUNEL and caspace 3 expression (immunofluorescence). RESULTS: Combined CHIR99021- and FGF1-treatment significantly increased hiPSC-CM cell cycle activity both in cultured cells (by 4- to 6-fold) and in transplanted hCMPs, and compared to treatment with NPE-hCMPs, NPCF-hCMP transplantation increased hiPSC-CM engraftment by ~4-fold and was associated with significantly better measurements of cardiac function, infarct size, wall thickness, angiogenesis, and hiPSC-CM apoptosis four weeks after MI induction. CONCLUSIONS: Nanoparticle-mediated CHIR99021 and FGF1 delivery promotes hiPSC-CM cell cycle activity and proliferation, as well as the engraftment and regenerative potency of transplanted hCMPs, in a mouse MI model.

2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(10): 1159-1174, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although cardiomyopathy has emerged as a leading cause of death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), limited studies and therapies have emerged for dystrophic heart failure. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to model DMD cardiomyopathy using DMD patient-specific human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes and to identify physiological changes and future drug therapies. METHODS: To explore and define therapies for DMD cardiomyopathy, the authors used DMD patient-specific hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes to examine the physiological response to adrenergic agonists and ß-blocker treatment. The authors further examined these agents in vivo using wild-type and mdx mouse models. RESULTS: At baseline and following adrenergic stimulation, DMD hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes had a significant increase in arrhythmic calcium traces compared to isogenic controls. Furthermore, these arrhythmias were significantly decreased with propranolol treatment. Using telemetry monitoring, the authors observed that mdx mice, which lack dystrophin, had an arrhythmic death when stimulated with isoproterenol; the lethal arrhythmias were rescued, in part, by propranolol pre-treatment. Using single-cell and bulk RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), the authors compared DMD and control hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes, mdx mice, and control mice (in the presence or absence of propranolol and isoproterenol) and defined pathways that were perturbed under baseline conditions and pathways that were normalized after propranolol treatment in the mdx model. The authors also undertook transcriptome analysis of human DMD left ventricle samples and found that DMD hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes have dysregulated pathways similar to the human DMD heart. The authors further determined that relatively few patients with DMD see a cardiovascular specialist or receive ß-blocker therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight mechanisms and therapeutic interventions from human to animal and back to human in the dystrophic heart. These results may serve as a prelude for an adequately powered clinical study that examines the impact of ß-blocker therapy in patients with dystrophinopathies.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229933, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191723

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Creatine Kinase (CK) reaction plays an important role in energy metabolism and estimate of its reaction rate constant in heart provides important insight into cardiac energetics. Fast saturation transfer method ([Formula: see text] nominal) to measure CK reaction rate constant (kf) was previously demonstrated in open chest swine hearts. The goal of this work is to further develop this method for measuring the kf in human myocardium at 7T. [Formula: see text] approach is combined with 1D-ISIS/2D-CSI for in vivo spatial localization and myocardial CK forward rate constant was then measured in 7 volunteers at 7T. METHODS: [Formula: see text] method uses two partially relaxed saturation transfer (ST) spectra and correction factor to determine CK rate constant. Correction factor is determined by numerical simulation of Bloch McConnell equations using known spin and experimental parameters. Optimal parameters and error estimate in calculation of CK reaction rate constant were determined by simulations. The technique was validated in calf muscles by direct comparison with saturation transfer measurements. [Formula: see text] pulse sequence was incorporated with 1D-image selected in vivo spectroscopy, combined with 2D-chemical shift spectroscopic imaging (1D-ISIS/2D-CSI) for studies in heart. The myocardial CK reaction rate constant was then measured in 7 volunteers. RESULTS: Skeletal muscle kf determined by conventional approach and [Formula: see text] approach were the same 0.31 ± 0.02 s-1 and 0.30 ± 0.04 s-1 demonstrating the validity of the technique. Results are reported as mean ± SD. Myocardial CK reaction rate constant was 0.29 ± 0.05 s-1, consistent with previously reported studies. CONCLUSION: [Formula: see text] method enables acquisition of 31P saturation transfer MRS under partially relaxed conditions and enables 2D-CSI of kf in myocardium. This work enables applications for in vivo CSI imaging of energetics in heart and other organs in clinically relevant acquisition time.

4.
Microb Biotechnol ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207561

RESUMO

The development of DNA sequencing technology has provided an effective method for studying foodborne and phytopathogenic microorganisms on fruits and vegetables (F & V). DNA sequencing has successfully proceeded through three generations, including the tens of operating platforms. These advances have significantly promoted microbial whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and DNA polymorphism research. Based on genomic and regional polymorphisms, genetic markers have been widely obtained. These molecular markers are used as targets for PCR or chip analyses to detect microbes at the genetic level. Furthermore, metagenomic analyses conducted by sequencing the hypervariable regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) have revealed comprehensive microbial communities in various studies on F & V. This review highlights the basic principles of three generations of DNA sequencing, and summarizes the WGS studies of and available DNA markers for major bacterial foodborne pathogens and phytopathogenic fungi found on F & V. In addition, rDNA sequencing-based bacterial and fungal metagenomics are summarized under three topics. These findings deepen the understanding of DNA sequencing and its application in studies of foodborne and phytopathogenic microbes and shed light on strategies for the monitoring of F & V microbes and quality control.

5.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 318(4): H801-H815, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057252

RESUMO

DNA damage accrued in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes during in vitro culture practices lessens their therapeutic potential. We determined whether DNA-damage-free iPSCs (DdF-iPSCs) can be selected using stabilization of p53, a transcription factor that promotes apoptosis in DNA-damaged cells, and differentiated them into functionally competent DdF cardiomyocytes (DdF-CMs). p53 was activated using Nutlin-3a in iPSCs to selectively kill the DNA-damaged cells, and the stable DdF cells were cultured further and differentiated into CMs. Both DdF-iPSCs and DdF-CMs were then characterized. We observed a significant decrease in the expression of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in DdF-iPSCs compared with control (Ctrl) iPSCs. Next-generation RNA sequencing and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed improved molecular, cellular, and physiological functions in DdF-iPSCs. The differentiated DdF-CMs had a compact beating frequency between 40 and 60 beats/min accompanied by increased cell surface area. Additionally, DdF-CMs were able to retain the improved molecular, cellular, and physiological functions after differentiation from iPSCs, and, interestingly, cardiac development network was prominent compared with Ctrl-CMs. Enhanced expression of various ion channel transcripts in DdF-CMs implies DdF-CMs are of ventricular CMs and mature compared with their counterparts. Our results indicated that DdF-iPSCs could be selected through p53 stabilization using a small-molecule inhibitor and differentiated into ventricular DdF-CMs with fine-tuned molecular signatures. These iPSC-derived DdF-CMs show immense clinical potential in repairing injured myocardium.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Culture-stress-induced DNA damage in stem cells lessens their performance. A robust small-molecule-based approach, by stabilizing/activating p53, to select functionally competent DNA-damage-free cells from a heterogeneous population of cells is demonstrated. This protocol can be adopted by clinics to select DNA-damage-free cells before transplanting them to the host myocardium. The intact DNA-damage-free cells exhibited with fine-tuned molecular signatures and improved cellular functions. DNA-damage-free cardiomyocytes compared with control expressed superior cardiomyocyte functional properties, including, but not limited to, enhanced ion channel signatures. These DNA-intact cells would better engraft, survive, and, importantly, improve the cardiac function of the injured myocardium.

6.
FASEB J ; 34(2): 2238-2251, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907992

RESUMO

RNA-binding proteins like human antigen R (HuR) are key regulators in post-transcriptional control of gene expression in several pathophysiological conditions. Diabetes adversely affects monocyte/macrophage biology and function. It is not known whether diabetic milieu affects cellular/exosome-HuR and its implications on cardiac inflammation and fibrosis. Here, we evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of diabetic milieu on macrophage cellular/exosome-HuR, alterations in intercellular cross talk with fibroblasts, and its impact on cardiac remodeling. Human failing hearts show higher HuR levels. Diabetic milieu activates HuR expression in cardiac- and cultured bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMØ) and stimulates HuR nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation and exosome transfer. Exosomes from macrophages exposed to diabetic milieu (high glucose or db/db mice) significantly increase inflammatory and profibrogenic responses in fibroblast (in vitro) and cardiac fibrosis in mice. Intriguingly, Exo-HuR deficiency (HuR knockdown in macrophage) abrogates the above effects. In diabetic mice, macrophage depletion followed by reconstitution with BMMØ-derived HuR-deficient exosomes inhibits angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibrosis response and preserves left ventricle function as compared to control-exosome administration. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that diabetes activates BMMØ HuR expression and its transfer into exosome. The data suggest that HuR might be targeted to alleviate macrophage dysfunction and pathological fibrosis in diabetes.

7.
EBioMedicine ; 51: 102617, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911270

RESUMO

The transcription factor Bach1 impairs angiogenesis after ischemic injury by suppressing Wnt/ß-catenin signaling; however, the specific domains responsible for the anti-angiogenic effects of Bach1 remain unclear. This study determined the role of the BTB domain of Bach1 in ischemic angiogenesis. Bach1 is highly expressed in circulating endothelial cells from acute myocardial infarction patients and is the early induction gene after ischemia. Mice were treated with adenoviruses coding for GFP (AdGFP), Bach1 (AdBach1), or a Bach1 mutant lacking the BTB domain (AdBach1-ΔBTB) after surgically induced hind-limb ischemia. Measures of blood-flow recovery, capillary density, and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were significantly lower and ROS levels were higher in the AdBach1 group, but not in AdBach1-ΔBTB animals. Furthermore, transfection with AdBach1, but not AdBach1-ΔBTB, in human endothelial cells was associated with significant declines in 1) capillary density and hemoglobin content in the Matrigel-plug assay, 2) proliferation, migration, tube formation, and VEGF and HO-1 expression in endothelial cells. Bach1 binds directly with TCF4, and this interaction is mediated by residues 81-89 of the Bach1 BTB domain and the N-terminal domain of TCF4. Bach1, but not Bach1-ΔBTB, also co-precipitated with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), while the full-length HDAC1 proteins, but not HDAC1 mutants lacking the protein-interaction domain, co-precipitated with Bach1. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the anti-angiogenic activity of Bach1 is crucially dependent on molecular interactions that are mediated by the protein's BTB domain, and this domain could be a drug target for angiogenic therapy.

8.
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(3): 671-685, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350544

RESUMO

AIMS: In regenerative medicine, cellular cardiomyoplasty is one of the promising options for treating myocardial infarction (MI); however, the efficacy of such treatment has shown to be limited due to poor survival and/or functional integration of implanted cells. Within the heart, the adhesion between cardiac myocytes (CMs) is mediated by N-cadherin (CDH2) and is critical for the heart to function as an electromechanical syncytium. In this study, we have investigated whether the reparative potency of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes (hiPSC-CMs) can be enhanced through CDH2 overexpression. METHODS AND RESULTS: CDH2-hiPSC-CMs and control wild-type (WT)-hiPSC-CMs were cultured in myogenic differentiation medium for 28 days. Using a mouse MI model, the cell survival/engraftment rate, infarct size, and cardiac functions were evaluated post-MI, at Day 7 or Day 28. In vitro, conduction velocities were significantly greater in CDH2-hiPSC-CMs than in WT-hiPSC-CMs. While, in vivo, measurements of cardiac functions: left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, reduction in infarct size, and the cell engraftment rate were significantly higher in CDH2-hiPSC-CMs treated MI group than in WT-hiPSC-CMs treated MI group. Mechanistically, paracrine activation of ERK signal transduction pathway by CDH2-hiPSC-CMs, significantly induced neo-vasculogenesis, resulting in a higher survival of implanted cells. CONCLUSION: Collectively, these data suggest that CDH2 overexpression enhances not only the survival/engraftment of cultured CDH2-hiPSC-CMs, but also the functional integration of these cells, consequently, the augmentation of the reparative properties of implanted CDH2-hiPSC-CMs in the failing hearts.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19389, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852937

RESUMO

Differentiation of cardiomyocytes (CMs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is critically dependent upon the regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway. The mechanisms remain unclear with regard to the dose and timing of each differentiation inducer, and the interaction of the inducers that regulate the Wnt in mesendoderm specification to cardiac mesoderm. Consequently, it remains far from optimal in differentiation efficiency and consistency from hiPSC lines to CMs. Here, we have carefully deciphered the role of Wnt signaling pathway manipulation on mesoderm specification in a dosage and time dependent manner. To examine the hypothesis of that fate specification of hiPSC-CMs differentiation is dictated by temporal and spatial factors that regulate Wnt, we evaluate hiPSC-CM differentiation with: (1) two-phase modulation of Wnt, (2) dosage variant of GSK3ß inhibitors, (3) treatment with insulin, and (4) 3-dimentional suspension culture environment on iPSC-CM differentiation. The results highlight the importance of mesendoderm specification to cardiac mesoderm, which needs precisely regulation of Wnt in a dosage dependent and temporal on/off manner. This temporal regulation dictates the final efficiency and purity of derived cardiomyocytes. After the initial activation of Wnt signaling pathway to generate mesendoderm, the maintenance of Wnt signaling at an appropriate dose is critical to direct the cell fate into cardiac mesoderm. Otherwise, lower Wnt signals lead to definitive endoderm and higher Wnt signals induce presomitic mesoderm differentiation. The precisely specification of cardiac mesoderm results in not only greater than 90% of cTnT+ cardiomyocytes but also high cardiomyocytes yield under both monolayer and suspension culture conditions. Thus, the current findings provide critical insights to decipher the temporal mechanism of Wnt activation in regulation of hiPSC-CMs differentiation, and more importantly provide the guidelines for the consistent and high-yield and high-quality hiPSC-CMs production in cardiovascular research.

11.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 137: 25-33, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiomyocytes that have been differentiated from CCND2-overexpressing human induced-pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-CCND2OE CMs) can proliferate when transplanted into mouse hearts after myocardial infarction (MI). However, it is unknown whether remuscularization can replace the thin LV scar and if the large muscle graft can electrophysiologically synchronize to the recipient myocardium. Our objectives are to evaluate the structural and functional potential of hiPSC-CCND2OE CMs in replacing the LV thin scar. METHODS: NOD/SCID mice were treated with hiPSC-CCND2OE CMs (i.e., the CCND2OE group), hiPSC-CCND2WT CMs (the CCND2WT group), or an equal volume of PBS immediately after experimentally-induced myocardial infarction. The treatments were administered to one site in the infarcted zone (IZ), two sites in the border zone (BZ), and a fourth group of animals underwent Sham surgery. RESULTS: Six months later, engrafted cells occupied >50% of the scarred region in CCND2OE animals, and exceeded the number of engrafted cells in CCND2WT animals by ~8-fold. Engrafted cells were also more common in the IZ than in the BZ for both cell-treatment groups. Measurements of cardiac function, infarct size, wall thickness, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy were significantly improved in CCND2OE animals compared to animals from the CCND2WT or PBS-treatment groups. Measurements in the CCND2WT and PBS groups were similar, and markers for cell cycle activation and proliferation were significantly higher in hiPSC-CCND2OE CMs than in hiPSC-CCND2WT CMs. Optical mapping of action potential propagation indicated that the engrafted hiPSC-CCND2OE CMs were electrically coupled to each other and to the cells of the native myocardium. No evidence of tumor formation was observed in any animals. CONCLUSIONS: Six months after the transplantation, CCND2-overexpressing hiPSC-CMs proliferated and replaced >50% of the myocardial scar tissue. The large graft hiPSC-CCND2OE CMs also electrically integrated with the host myocardium, which was accompanied by a significant improvement in LV function.

12.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 137: 82-92, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The role of Src-associated-in-mitosis-68-kDa (Sam68) in cardiovascular biology has not been studied. A recent report suggests that Sam68 promotes TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation in fibroblasts. Here we sought to dissect the molecular mechanism by which Sam68 regulates NF-κB signaling and its functional significance in vascular injury. APPROACH AND RESULTS: The endothelial denudation injury was induced in the carotid artery of Sam68-null (Sam68-/-) and WT mice. Sam68-/- mice displayed an accelerated re-endothelialization and attenuated neointima hyperplasia, which was associated with a reduced macrophage infiltration and lowered expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the injured vessels. Remarkably, the ameliorated vascular remodeling was recapitulated in WT mice after receiving transplantation of bone marrow (BM) from Sam68-/- mice, suggesting the effect was attributable to BM-derived inflammatory cells. In cultured Raw264.7 macrophages, knockdown of Sam68 resulted in a significant reduction in the TNF-α-induced expression of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 and in the level of nuclear phospho-p65, indicating attenuated NF-κB activation; and these results were confirmed in peritoneal and BM-derived macrophages of Sam68-/- vs. WT mice. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation and mass-spectrometry identified Filamin A (FLNA) as a novel Sam68-interacting protein upon TNF-α treatment. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments suggest that Sam68 and FLNA are mutually dependent for NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and that the N-terminus of Sam68 is required for TRAF2-FLNA interaction. CONCLUSIONS: Sam68 promotes pro-inflammatory response in injured arteries and impedes recovery by interacting with FLNA to stabilize TRAF2 on the cytoskeleton and consequently potentiate NF-κB signaling.

13.
Chem Rev ; 119(21): 11352-11390, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490059

RESUMO

The adult myocardium has a limited regenerative capacity following heart injury, and the lost cells are primarily replaced by fibrotic scar tissue. Suboptimal efficiency of current clinical therapies to resurrect the infarcted heart results in injured heart enlargement and remodeling to maintain its physiological functions. These remodeling processes ultimately leads to ischemic cardiomyopathy and heart failure (HF). Recent therapeutic approaches (e.g., regenerative and nanomedicine) have shown promise to prevent HF postmyocardial infarction in animal models. However, these preclinical, clinical, and technological advancements have yet to yield substantial enhancements in the survival rate and quality of life of patients with severe ischemic injuries. This could be attributed largely to the considerable gap in knowledge between clinicians and nanobioengineers. Development of highly effective cardiac regenerative therapies requires connecting and coordinating multiple fields, including cardiology, cellular and molecular biology, biochemistry and chemistry, and mechanical and materials sciences, among others. This review is particularly intended to bridge the knowledge gap between cardiologists and regenerative nanomedicine experts. Establishing this multidisciplinary knowledge base may help pave the way for developing novel, safer, and more effective approaches that will enable the medical community to reduce morbidity and mortality in HF patients.

14.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 10(9)2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470604

RESUMO

Free from the limitations posed by exogenous scaffolds or extracellular matrix-based materials, scaffold-free engineered tissues have immense clinical potential. Biomaterials may produce adverse responses, interfere with cell-cell interaction, or affect the extracellular matrix integrity of cells. The scaffold-free Kenzan method can generate complex tissues using spheroids on an array of needles but could be inefficient in terms of time, as it moves and places only a single spheroid at a time. We aimed to design and construct a novel scaffold-free bioprinter that can print an entire layer of spheroids at once, effectively reducing the printing time. The bioprinter was designed using computer-aided design software and constructed from machined, 3D printed, and commercially available parts. The printing efficiency and the operating precision were examined using Zirconia and alginate beads, which mimic spheroids. In less than a minute, the printer could efficiently pick and transfer the beads to the printing surface and assemble them onto the 4 × 4 needles. The average overlap coefficient between layers was measured and found to be 0.997. As a proof of concept using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived spheroids, we confirmed the ability of the bioprinter to place cellular spheroids onto the needles efficiently to print an entire layer of tissue. This novel layer-by-layer, scaffold-free bioprinter is efficient and precise in operation and can be easily scaled to print large tissues.

15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 8740674, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380440

RESUMO

Music exposure is known to play a positive role in learning and memory and can be a complementary treatment for anxiety and fear. However, whether juvenile music exposure affects adult behavior is not known. Two-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to music for 2 hours daily or to background noise (controls) for a period of 3 weeks. At 60 days of age, rats were subjected to auditory fear conditioning, fear extinction training, and anxiety-like behavior assessments or to anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) assays. We found that the music-exposed rats showed significantly less freezing behaviors during fear extinction training and spent more time in the open arm of the elevated plus maze after fear conditioning when compared with the control rats. Moreover, the BDNF levels in the ACC in the music group were significantly higher than those of the controls with the fear conditioning session. This result suggests that music exposure in juvenile rats decreases anxiety-like behaviors, facilitates fear extinction, and increases BDNF levels in the ACC in adulthood after a stressful event.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Musicoterapia , Música , Transtornos Fóbicos/terapia , Animais , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medo/fisiologia , Humanos , Memória/fisiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
Biophys J ; 117(4): 631-645, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400914

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in many pathological conditions and diseases. The normal functioning of mitochondria relies on maintaining the inner mitochondrial membrane potential (also known as ΔΨm) that is essential for ATP synthesis, Ca2+ homeostasis, redox balance, and regulation of other key signaling pathways such as mitophagy and apoptosis. However, the detailed mechanisms by which ΔΨm regulates cellular function remain incompletely understood, partially because of the difficulty of manipulating ΔΨm with spatiotemporal resolution, reversibility, or cell type specificity. To address this need, we have developed a next generation optogenetic-based technique for controllable mitochondrial depolarization with light. We demonstrate successful targeting of the heterologous channelrhodopsin-2 fusion protein to the inner mitochondrial membrane and formation of functional cationic channels capable of light-induced selective ΔΨm depolarization and mitochondrial autophagy. Importantly, we for the first time, to our knowledge, show that optogenetic-mediated mitochondrial depolarization can be well controlled to differentially influence the fate of cells expressing mitochondrial channelrhodopsin-2; whereas sustained moderate light illumination induces substantial apoptotic cell death, transient mild light illumination elicits cytoprotection via mitochondrial preconditioning. Finally, we show that Parkin overexpression exacerbates, instead of ameliorating, mitochondrial depolarization-mediated cell death in HeLa cells. In summary, we provide evidence that the described mitochondrial-targeted optogenetics may have a broad application for studying the role of mitochondria in regulating cell function and fate decision.

18.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219442, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276558

RESUMO

Functional myocardium derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can be impactful for cardiac disease modeling, drug testing, and the repair of injured myocardium. However, when hiPSCs are differentiated into cardiomyocytes, they do not possess characteristics of mature myocytes which limits their application in these endeavors. We hypothesized that mechanical and electrical stimuli would enhance the maturation of hiPSC-derived cardiomyocyte (hiPSC-CM) spheroids on both a structural and functional level, potentially leading to a better model for drug testing as well as cell therapy. Spheroids were generated with hiPSC-CM. For inducing mechanical stimulation, they were placed in a custom-made device with PDMS channels and exposed to cyclic, uniaxial stretch. Spheroids were electrically stimulated in the C-Pace EP from IONOptix for 7 days. Following the stimulations, the spheroids were then analyzed for cardiomyocyte maturation. Both stimulated groups of spheroids possessed enhanced transcript and protein expressions for key maturation markers, such as cTnI, MLC2v, and MLC2a, along with improved ultrastructure of the hiPSC-CMs in both groups with enhanced Z-band/Z-body formation, fibril alignment, and fiber number. Optical mapping showed that spheroids exposed to electrical stimulation were able to capture signals at increasing rates of pacing up to 4 Hz, which failed in unstimulated spheroids. Our results clearly indicate that a significantly improved myocyte maturation can be achieved by culturing iPSC-CMs as spheroids and exposing them to cyclic, uniaxial stretch and electrical stimulation.

19.
J Vis Exp ; (149)2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355804

RESUMO

A crucial factor in improving cellular therapy effectiveness for myocardial regeneration is to safely and efficiently increase the cell engraftment rate. Y-27632 is a highly potent inhibitor of Rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase (RhoA/ROCK) and is used to prevent dissociation-induced cell apoptosis (anoikis). We demonstrate that Y-27632 pretreatment for human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs+RI) prior to implantation results in a cell engraftment rate improvement in a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Here, we describe a complete procedure of hiPSC-CMs differentiation, purification, and cell pretreatment with Y-27632, as well as the resulting cell contraction, calcium transient measurements, and transplantation into mouse MI models. The proposed method provides a simple, safe, effective, and low-cost method which significantly increases the cell engraftment rate. This method cannot only be used in conjunction with other methods to further enhance the cell transplantation efficiency but also provides a favorable basis for the study of the mechanisms of other cardiac diseases.

20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6182-6190, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apples from different regions of China show different qualities and internal characteristics, and appeal to different customers. However, these aspects have not been studied in depth. We characterized the profiles of 14 elements in 317 apple samples collected from five regions of China. Principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and back-propagation artificial neural networks analysis (BP-ANN) were used to build models for apple authentication. RESULTS: Fourteen elements were successfully identified in apple samples by performing graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analyses. Comparative analysis showed significantly different element profiles in samples from different regions. The first five principal components obtained by PCA accounted for 71.8% of the total variance. The LDA obtained 70.0% classification rates. The BP-ANN obtained 82.7% classification rates. CONCLUSION: This study indicated the possibility that apples could be authenticated based on differences in their element profiles, and provided a basis for further geographical origin studies. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Malus/química , Oligoelementos/química , China , Análise Discriminante , Frutas/química , Frutas/classificação , Malus/classificação , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrofotometria Atômica
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