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1.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684489

RESUMO

Few studies have examined the secular trend of energy intake distribution. This study aims to describe trajectories of energy intake distribution and determine their association with dyslipidemia risk. Data of 2843 adult participants from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were analyzed. Trajectory groups of energy intake distribution were identified by multi-trajectory model over 27 years. Multilevel mixed-effects modified Poisson regression with robust estimation of variance was used to calculate risk ratio for incident dyslipidemia in a 9-year follow-up. Four trajectory groups were identified: "Energy evenly distributed group" (Group 1), "Lunch and dinner energy dominant group" (Group 2), "Dinner energy dominant group" (Group 3), "breakfast and dinner energy dominant group" (Group 4). Compared with Group 1, Group 3 was associated with higher risk of dyslipidemia (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.26, 1.75), hypercholesterolemia (RR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.37, 2.81) and high low-density lipoproteins cholesterols (LDL-C) (RR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.82, 3.20). A U-shape was observed between cumulative average proportion of dinner energy and dyslipidemia risk (p for non-linear = 0.01), with stronger relationship at 40% and above. Energy intake distribution characterized by higher proportion of dinner energy, especially over 40% was associated with higher dyslipidemia risk in Chinese adults.

2.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-11, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470677

RESUMO

Little is known about the impact of modifiable risk factors on blood pressure (BP) trajectories and their associations with hypertension (HTN). We aimed to identify BP trajectories in normotensive Chinese adults and explore their influencing factors and associations with HTN. We used data from 3436 adults with at least four BP measurements between 1989 and 2018 in the China Health and Nutrition Survey, an ongoing cohort study. We measured BP using mercury sphygmomanometers with appropriate cuff sizes in all surveys. We used group-based trajectory modelling to identify BP trajectories between 1989 and 2009 and multiple logistic and Cox regression models to analyse their influencing factors and associations with HTN in 2011-2018. We identified five systolic blood pressure (SBP) trajectories, 'Low-increasing (LI)', 'Low-stable (LS)', 'Moderate-increasing (MI)', 'High-stable (HS)' and 'Moderate-decreasing (MD)', and four diastolic blood pressure (DBP) trajectories classified as 'Low-increasing (LI)', 'Moderate-stable (MS)', 'Low-stable (LS)' and 'High-increasing (HI)'. People with higher physical activity (PA) levels and lower waist circumferences (WC) were less likely to be in the SBP LI, MI, HS and MD groups (P < 0·05). People with higher fruit and vegetable intakes, lower WCs and salt intakes and higher PA levels were less likely to be in the DBP LI, MS and HI groups (P < 0·05). Participants in the SBP HS group (hazard ratio (HR) 2·01) or the DBP LI, MS and HI groups (HR 1·38, 1·40, 1·71, respectively) had higher risks of HTN (P < 0·05). This study suggests that BP monitoring is necessary to prevent HTN in the Chinese population.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578974

RESUMO

Studies on the intraindividual double burden of malnutrition (DBM) among Chinese children and adolescents were lacking. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of intraindividual DBM defined as the coexistence of overweight/obesity and dietary micronutrient intake insufficiency and investigate dietary micronutrient intake in Chinese children and adolescents. Using data from the 2015 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), 1555 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years were selected as the subjects. We referred to China Food Composition to calculate the intakes of 11 selected dietary micronutrients from diet data collected by consecutive three days of 24 h recalls combined with household weighing of seasonings. We used the Chinese estimated average requirement (EARs) as a cutoff to define the dietary micronutrients deficiency, and applied the body-mass-index-for-age Z-scores (BAZ) of World Health Organization (WHO) child growth standards to define the category of body weight. Among the subjects in present study, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 15.43% and 11.06%, respectively, and 26.24% of the subjects had undergone intraindividual DBM. The results suggest that the prevalence of intraindividual DBM and dietary micronutrients deficiency in Chinese children and adolescents is high.

4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444995

RESUMO

It is essential to understand the impact of different dietary pattern trajectories on health over time. Therefore, we aimed to explore the long-term trajectories of dietary patterns among Chinese adults and examine the prospective association between different trajectory groups and the risk of overweight/obesity. The sample was 9299 adults aged 18 years or older from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) between 1991 and 2018. We used factor analysis to identify dietary patterns and group-based trajectory modeling to identify dietary pattern trajectories. Three trajectories of a southern pattern and a modern pattern and four trajectories of a meat pattern were identified. Participants who followed the highest initial score and a slight decrease trajectory (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.54) of the meat dietary pattern were positively associated with risk of overweight/obesity when compared with the lowest initial score trajectory. The southern dietary pattern and the modern dietary pattern trajectories of participants in Group 2 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.81; OR = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.91) and Group 3 (OR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.91; OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.90) were associated with lower risk of overweight/obesity when compared with Group 1. We observed that dietary pattern trajectories have different associations with overweight/obesity among Chinese adults.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 82(4): 1635-1649, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) belongs to the lipid transfer glycoprotein family. Studies have shown that it is closely related to Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the exact effect and mechanism remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of PLTP overexpression on behavioral dysfunction and the related mechanisms in APP/PS1/Tau triple transgenic (3×Tg-AD) mice. METHODS: AAV-PLTP-EGFP was injected into the lateral ventricle to induce PLTP overexpression. The memory of 3×Tg-AD mice and wild type (WT) mice aged 10 months were assessed using Morris water maze (MWM) and shuttle-box passive avoidance test (PAT). Western blotting and ELISA assays were used to quantify the protein contents. Hematoxylin and eosin, Nissl, and immunochemistry staining were utilized in observing the pathological changes in the brain. RESULTS: 3×Tg-AD mice displayed cognitive impairment in WMW and PAT, which was ameliorated by PLTP overexpression. The histopathological hallmarks of AD, senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, were observed in 3×Tg-AD mice and were improved by PLTP overexpression. Besides, the increase of amyloid-ß42 (Aß42) and Aß40 were found in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of 3×Tg-AD mice and reversed by PLTP overexpression through inhibiting APP and PS1. PLTP overexpression also reversed tau phosphorylation at the Ser404, Thr231 and Ser199 of the hippocampus in 3×Tg-AD mice. Furthermore, PLTP overexpression induced the glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß) inactivation via upregulating GSK3ß (pSer9). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PLTP overexpression has neuroprotective effects. These effects are possibly achieved through the inhibition of the Aß production and tau phosphorylation, which is related to GSK3ß inactivation.

6.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 310, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The geriatric depression scale (GDS) is used widely as a screening instrument for depression worldwide. The present study aims to examine the reliability and validity of the GDS with 30 items (GDS-30) in Chinese cognitively normal elderly, and to preliminarily investigate the appropriateness of the GDS-30 among screened mild cognitive impairment (MCI) elderly and among the large-scale community-dwelling Chinese elderly. METHODS: A total of 12,610 Chinese elderly completed GDS-30 in the project of Community-based Cohort Study on Nervous System Diseases. Of these, 5503 individuals with the ability to perform basic daily living activities were randomly sampled to further complete the Montreal Cognitive Assessment to screen for MCI. The cutoff value of screened depression was 11, and the cutoff values of MCI were education-dependent. Internal consistency was used to evaluate the reliability. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to determine the factor structure. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to assess the construct validity in the elderly screened normal cognition, screened MCI, and the whole population, respectively. RESULTS: The Kuder-Richardson coefficient (KR20) was 0.834, 0.821 and 0.840 for the cognitively normal elderly, screened MCI and the whole population, respectively. EFA showed that GDS-30 can be either a four-factor model (named positive mood, dysphoria, worry, and social withdrawal-cognitive impairment) or a two-factor model (named depression and positive mood). The latter was easier to interpret. CFA showed that the two-factor model fitted well in the elderly with normal cognition, with screened MCI, and the whole sample. The factors loaded from 0.900 to 0.588, 0.882 to 0.529, and 0.888 to 0.556 in these three populations respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The GDS-30 has good reliability and validity and can be appropriately applied to screen depression in the large-scale community-dwelling Chinese elderly regardless of the presence of mild cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Depressão , Vida Independente , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920687

RESUMO

Cognitive function is not generally associated with diet, and there is debate over that association. Moreover, little is known about such associations with the specific cognitive domains and subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We analyzed data of 4309 Chinese adults aged 55 and over from the Community-based Cohort Study on Nervous System Diseases from 2018-2019. Dietary habits were assessed at inclusion using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Cognitive function of the participants was measured by using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Analyses were performed using multiple logistic regression and quantile regression with adjustment for socio-demographic, lifestyle, and health-related factors. Compared with normal cognition participants, those with a worse cognition state were characterized as being an older age and lower economic level. After adjustment for potential factors, participants with higher consumption of rice, legumes, fresh vegetables, fresh fruit, pork, poultry, fish, and nuts tended to have higher scores of global cognitive function and domains, and to have lower odds of MCI, while those with higher consumption levels of wheat and eggs had worse cognition, compared with the corresponding bottom consumption level of each food. Participants with a medium consumption level of beef or mutton had 57% (OR: 1.57, 95%CI: 1.07-2.32) higher odds of aMCI-SD, whereas they had 50% (OR: 0.50, 95%CI: 0.34-0.73) lower odds of naMCI-MD. Similarly, the highest consumption level of dairy was positively associated with the odds of aMCI-SD (OR:1.51, 95%CI:1.00-2.29), but inversely linked to the odds of naMCI-SD (OR: 0.60, 95%CI: 0.38-0.93) and naMCI-MD (OR: 0.49, 95%CI: 0.29-0.82). Most diet global cognitive benefits were observed to be associated with the preexisting higher consumption of rice, legumes, fresh vegetables, fresh fruit, meat, and nuts. In addition, the heterogeneity of associations between the consumption of certain foods and MCI subtypes was observed among Chinese adults aged over 55 years. These cross-sectional observations require validation in prospective studies.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Dieta/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , China , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Psychogeriatrics ; 21(4): 659-667, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851473

RESUMO

Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is a complex glycosylated protein that mediates the transfer of phospholipids, unesterified cholesterol, diacylglycerides, specific apolipoproteins, and tocopherols between different classes of lipoproteins as well as between lipoproteins and cells. Many studies have associated PLTP with a variety of lipid metabolic diseases. However, recent studies have indicated that PLTP is highly expressed in the brain of vertebrate and may be related to many central nervous system diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. Here, we review the data and report the role and mechanisms PLTP in Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Colesterol , Humanos , Lipoproteínas , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo
9.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923855

RESUMO

Poor dietary habits have been shown to be associated with a range of chronic diseases and can potentially be a major contributor to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) mortality. We therefore aimed to identify the prevailing dietary patterns among Chinese adults and to evaluate trends in dietary patterns from 1991 to 2015. We used data collected in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. We studied 29,238 adults aged 18 and above with complete demo-graphic and dietary data. Three distinct dietary patterns were identified: southern (high intakes of rice, vegetables, and pork), modern (high intakes of fruits, dairy products, cakes, cookies, and pastries), and meat (high intakes of organ meats, poultry, and other livestock meat). The southern pattern score decreased (mean ± SD scores in 1991: 0.11 ± 1.13; scores in 2015: -0.22 ± 0.93). The modern pattern score (mean ± SD scores in 1991: -0.44 ± 0.59; scores in 2015: 0.21 ± 1.01) and meat pattern score (mean ± SD scores in 1991: -0.18 ± 0.98; scores in 2015: 0.27 ± 0.91) increased. We observed that China has experienced a shift from traditional dietary patterns to western dietary patterns.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/etnologia , Dieta/tendências , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668801

RESUMO

Evidence shows time-of-day of energy intake are associated with health outcomes; however, studies of time-of-day energy patterns and their health implication are still lacking in the Asian population. This study aims to examine the time-of-day energy intake pattern of Chinese adults and to examine its associations with nutrient intakes, diet quality, and insulin resistance. Dietary data from three 24-h recalls collected during the 2015 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were analyzed (n = 8726, aged ≥ 18 years). Time-of-day energy intake patterns were determined by latent class analysis (LCA). General Linear Models and Multilevel Mixed-effects Logistic Regression Models were applied to investigate the associations between latent time-of-day energy intake patterns, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, diet quality score, and insulin resistance. Three time-of-day energy intake patterns were identified. Participants in the "Evening dominant pattern" were younger, had higher proportions of alcohol drinkers and current smokers. The "Evening dominant pattern" was associated with higher daily energy intake and a higher percentage of energy from fat (%) (p < 0.001), as well as higher insulin resistance risk (OR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.40), after adjusting for multivariate covariates. The highest diet quality score was observed in participants with "Noon dominant pattern" (p < 0.001). A higher proportion of energy in the later of the day was associated with insulin resistance in free-living individuals.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Dieta/normas , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Resistência à Insulina , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais
11.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(1): 29-36, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the dietary patterns related to depressive symptoms based on reduced rank regression in people aged 55 and above in 4 provinces of China and the degree of association between this dietary pattern and depressive symptoms. METHODS: Stratified, multi-stage, cluster and random sampling method was used to collect personal information such as demographic characteristics, behavioral lifestyles, disease history and medicine use in Chinese aged 55 and above who participated in the baseline survey of "Community-based Cohort Study on Nervous System Diseases" project conducted in 2018 and 2019 in Hebei, Zhejiang, Shaanxi and Hunan Provinces. Food frequency questionnaire was used to obtain dietary data. Depressive symptom was assessed by geriatric depression scale with a cut-off of 11. Participants who have incomplete demographic information, dietary data or scores of geriatric depression scale, and those whose intake frequency of each food-group >99. 5% were excluded. A total of 11 497 participants, 43. 1% of whom were male, were involved in this study with average age of(67. 3±7. 6) years. The reduced rank regression method was used to extract depressive symptoms-related dietary patterns by gender, and the degree of association between dietary patterns and depressive symptom was analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Among males, the depressive symptoms-related dietary pattern was characterized by the higher intake frequency of fried flour-made food, meat, processed meat, animal offal, and preserved eggs, and the lower intake frequency of liquid milk/milk power/cheese, fresh eggs(except preserved eggs) and nut. Among females, the depressive symptoms-related dietary pattern was characterized by the higher intake frequency of fried flour-made food, meat, processed meat, animal offal and preserved eggs, and the lower intake frequency of coarse cereals, fruits, liquid milk/milk power/cheese and fresh eggs(except preserved eggs). The highest quartile group of the dietary pattern score had a significantly higher risk of depressive symptom than the lowest quartile group(OR=3. 498, 95% CI 2. 624-4. 663, P<0. 001 for males; OR=3. 853, 95% CI 3. 002-4. 944, P<0. 001 for females). CONCLUSION: The depressive symptoms-related dietary pattern is characterized by the higher intake frequency of fried flour-made food, meat, processed meat, animal offal and preserved eggs, and the lower intake frequency of liquid milk/milk power/cheese and fresh eggs(except preserved eggs) in the Chinese aged 55 and above. The score of this dietary pattern is significantly positively correlated with depressive symptom.


Assuntos
Depressão , Dieta , Idoso , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Hypertension ; 77(2): 706-717, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342240

RESUMO

Animal studies have revealed gut microbial and metabolic pathways of blood pressure (BP) regulation, yet few epidemiological studies have collected microbiota and metabolomics data in the same individuals. In a population-based, Chinese cohort who did not report antihypertension medication use (30-69 years, 54% women), thus minimizing BP treatment effects, we examined multivariable-adjusted (eg, diet, physical activity, smoking, kidney function), cross-sectional associations between measures of gut microbiota (16S rRNA [ribosomal ribonucleic acid], N=1003), and plasma metabolome (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, N=434) with systolic (SBP, mean [SD]=126.0 [17.4] mm Hg) and diastolic BP (DBP [80.7 (10.7) mm Hg]). We found that the overall microbial community assessed by principal coordinate analysis varied by SBP and DBP (permutational multivariate ANOVA P<0.05). To account for strong correlations across metabolites, we first examined metabolite patterns derived from principal component analysis and found that a lipid pattern was positively associated with SBP (linear regression coefficient [95% CI] per 1 SD pattern score: 2.23 [0.72-3.74] mm Hg) and DBP (1.72 [0.81-2.63] mm Hg). Among 1104 individual metabolites, 34 and 39 metabolites were positively associated with SBP and DBP (false discovery rate-adjusted linear model P<0.05), respectively, including linoleate, palmitate, dihomolinolenate, 8 sphingomyelins, 4 acyl-carnitines, and 2 phosphatidylinositols. Subsequent pathway analysis showed that metabolic pathways of long-chain saturated acylcarnitine, phosphatidylinositol, and sphingomyelins were associated with SBP and DBP (false discovery rate-adjusted Fisher exact test P<0.05). Our results suggest potential roles of microbiota and metabolites in BP regulation to be followed up in prospective and clinical studies.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e038744, 2020 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268406

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Salt intake in China is high, and most of it comes from that added by consumers. Nevertheless, recent years have seen a rapid increase in the frequency at which people eat out. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed for salt reduction in restaurants through a randomised controlled trial in China. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: As a randomised controlled trial with restaurants as study subjects, we recruited 192 restaurants from 12 counties of 6 provinces in China. After the baseline survey, restaurants were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Using social cognitive theory, comprehensive intervention activities were designed to encourage salt reduction in all restaurant foods, and at the same time, to encourage consumers to choose lower salt options when eating out. The interventions will be conducted only in restaurants of the intervention group during the first year. The follow-up assessment will be conducted at the end of the trial. The primary outcome is the change in the average salt content of the five best-selling dishes of the restaurant, as measured by laboratory tests. Secondary outcomes include differences in the monthly use of salt and salty condiments between intervention and control restaurants, and the knowledge, attitude and practice on salt among restaurant consumers. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was reviewed and approved by the Review Board of the National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and Queen Mary Research Ethics Committee. Results will be disseminated through presentations, publications and social media. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR1800019694; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Restaurantes , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , China , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(6): 1599-1612, 2020 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that sodium consumption alters the gut microbiota and host metabolome in murine models and small studies in humans. However, there is a lack of population-based studies that capture large variations in sodium consumption as well as potassium consumption. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of energy-adjusted dietary sodium (milligrams/kilocalorie), potassium, and sodium-to-potassium (Na/K) ratio with the microbiota and plasma metabolome in a well-characterized Chinese cohort with habitual excessive sodium and deficient potassium consumption. METHODS: We estimated dietary intakes from 3 consecutive validated 24-h recalls and household inventories. In 2833 adults (18-80 y old, 51.2% females), we analyzed microbial (genus-level 16S ribosomal RNA) between-person diversity, using distance-based redundancy analysis (dbRDA), and within-person diversity and taxa abundance using linear regression, accounting for geographic variation in both. In a subsample (n = 392), we analyzed the overall metabolome (dbRDA) and individual metabolites (linear regression). P values for specific taxa and metabolites were false discovery rate adjusted (q-value). RESULTS: Sodium, potassium, and Na/K ratio were associated with microbial between-person diversity (dbRDA P < 0.01) and several specific taxa with large geographic variation, including pathogenic Staphylococcus and Moraxellaceae, and SCFA-producing Phascolarctobacterium and Lachnospiraceae (q-value < 0.05). For example, sodium and Na/K ratio were positively associated with Staphylococcus and Moraxellaceae in Liaoning, whereas potassium was positively associated with 2 genera from Lachnospiraceae in Shanghai. Additionally, sodium, potassium, and Na/K ratio were associated with the overall metabolome (dbRDA P ≤ 0.01) and several individual metabolites, including butyrate/isobutyrate and gut-derived phenolics such as 1,2,3-benzenetriol sulfate, which was negatively associated with sodium in Guizhou (q-value < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that sodium and potassium consumption is associated with taxa and metabolites that have been implicated in cardiometabolic health, providing insights into the potential roles of gut microbiota and host metabolites in the pathogenesis of sodium- and potassium-associated diseases. More studies are needed to confirm our results.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Potássio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Potássio na Dieta/farmacologia , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sódio na Dieta/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937736

RESUMO

Few studies have focused on quantifying the double burden of malnutrition (DBM) phenomenon in China. We aimed to clarify the prevalence of DBM among Chinese adults as well as to examine whether usual daily dietary micronutrient status varies by body mass index (BMI) categories. In this study, a sample of 6602 adults aged 18-59 years from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) was analyzed. Information was obtained on dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. Dietary intakes of 11 micronutrients were estimated based on the data collected by three consecutive days of 24 h recalls combined with the weighing of household seasonings. Dietary micronutrient deficiency was defined according to the cutoff of the Chinese estimated average requirement (EARs). 44% of Chinese adults faced the problem of DBM, of which nearly 40% experienced overweight/obesity and micronutrient deficiency simultaneously. Comparable percentages (>50%) of Chinese adults had dietary intake less than the Chinese EARs for key micronutrients including retinol, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin C, calcium, selenium, zinc, and magnesium, and the percentages varied by body weight status. More than 80% participants had at least two selected vitamin or mineral deficiencies in all BMI categories. These findings indicate that Chinese adults have a high DBM and micronutrient inadequacies prevail among and within gender and all BMI categories. All body weight groups need advice on the changing needs for dietary variety to ensure optimal health.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
16.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-8, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924898

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure the associations of sociodemographic and behavioural factors with fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in China. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: A 2015 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. PARTICIPANTS: Totally, 11 910 adults aged 18 to 64 years. RESULTS: Adjusted log binomial regression analyses showed that adults with higher income levels had higher fruit intake than those with low income levels (medium income group, risk ratio (RR): 1·28; 95 % CI: 1·16, 1·41; high income group, RR: 1·58; 95 % CI: 1·43, 1·74). Current smokers had lower fruit intake than non-smokers (RR: 0·86; 95 % CI: 0·77, 0·96). Adults living in southern China had higher vegetable intake (RR: 1·88; 95 % CI: 1·76, 2·01) but lower fruit intake (RR: 0·85; 95 % CI: 0·79, 0·91) than adults in northern China. With increasing age, adults had higher fruit intake (50-64 years, RR: 1·20; 95 % CI: 1·09, 1·33; reference category 18-34 years) and higher vegetable intake (35-49 years, RR: 1·13; 95 % CI: 1·05, 1·22; 50-64 years, RR: 1·22; 95 % CI: 1·13, 1·31). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identify a range of sociodemographic and behavioural factors associated with fruit and vegetable consumption among Chinese adults. They also point to the need for public health nutrition interventions for socially disadvantaged populations in China.

17.
Metabolomics ; 16(10): 103, 2020 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951074

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Urbanization is associated with major changes in environmental and lifestyle exposures that may influence metabolic signatures. OBJECTIVES: We investigated cross-sectional urban and rural differences in plasma metabolome analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry platform in 500 Chinese adults aged 25-68 years from two neighboring southern Chinese provinces. METHODS: We first examined the overall metabolome differences by urban and rural residential location, using Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) and random forest classification. We then tested the association between urbanization status and individual metabolites using a linear regression adjusting for age, sex, and province and conducted pathway analysis (Fisher's exact test) to identify metabolic pathways differed by urbanization status. RESULTS: We observed distinct overall metabolome by urbanization status in OPLS-DA and random forest classification. Using linear regression, out of a total of 1108 unique metabolite features identified in this sample, we found that 266 metabolites were differed by urbanization status (positive false discovery rate-adjusted p-value, q-value < 0.05). For example, the following metabolites were positively associated with urbanization status: caffeine metabolites from xanthine metabolism, hazardous pollutants like 4-hydroxychlorothalonil and perfluorooctanesulfonate, and metabolites implicated in cardiometabolic diseases, such as branched-chain amino acids. In pathway analysis, we found that xanthine metabolism pathways differed by urbanization status (q-value = 1.64E-04). CONCLUSION: We detected profound differences in host metabolites by urbanization status. Urban residents were characterized by metabolites signaling caffeine metabolism and toxic pollutants and metabolites on known pathways to cardiometabolic disease risks, compared to their rural counterparts. Our findings highlight the importance of considering urbanization in metabolomics analysis.

18.
Biomaterials ; 257: 120228, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736257

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and chemotherapy of cancer both meet respective challenges. Tumor hypoxia, low penetration and high glutathione (GSH) level bear the brunt. Herein, a core-shell nanoparticle, with multi-function of hypoxia-responsiveness, specific oxygen supply and deep tumor penetration, was constructed for smart mutual-promotion between the both to overcome the respective restrictions. The nano platform (GC@MCS NPs) was composed of hypoxia-responsive hyaluronic acid-nitroimidazole (HA-NI) as shells, MnO2 NPs as oxygen modulators and reduction-responsive functionalized poly (l-glutamic acid) derivatives (γ-PFGA) as cores to deliver gambogic acid (GA) and Chlorine6 (Ce6). After endocytosis, the approximately 100 nm of GC@MCS NPs achieved hypoxia-responsive shell degradation and MnO2 release, followed by reduction-activated charge conversion to form positively charged cores. With the damage effect of superficial tumor cells by the partially released GA, GA&Ce6-loadedγ-PFGA penetrated deep inside through electronic interaction step by step. Upon irradiated with 638 nm of laser, widely permeated Ce6 was activated for enhanced PDT under the high oxygenation by MnO2 NPs. The generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in return facilitated the GA-induced paraptosis by clearing high level of GSH. As a result, this mutual promotion strategy contributed to 92.41% of 4T1 tumor inhibition rate, exhibiting outstanding advantages. Our GC@MCS NPs provided a smart combination of chemo-photodynamic therapy and focused on addressing the tumor hypoxia and low penetration issues.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Fotoquimioterapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Compostos de Manganês , Óxidos , Oxigênio , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes , Xantonas
19.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708978

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between obesity and fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by microbial fermentation of dietary carbohydrates, while animal models suggest increased energy harvest through colonic SCFA production in obesity. However, there is a lack of human population-based studies with dietary intake data, plasma SCFAs, gut microbial, and anthropometric data. In 490 Chinese adults aged 30-68 years, we examined the associations between key plasma SCFAs (butyrate/isobutyrate, isovalerate, and valerate measured by non-targeted plasma metabolomics) with body mass index (BMI) using multivariable-adjusted linear regression. We then assessed whether overweight (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2) modified the association between dietary-precursors of SCFAs (insoluble fiber, total carbohydrates, and high-fiber foods) with plasma SCFAs. In a sub-sample (n = 209) with gut metagenome data, we examined the association between gut microbial SCFA-producers with BMI. We found positive associations between butyrate/isobutyrate and BMI (p-value < 0.05). The associations between insoluble fiber and butyrate/isobutyrate differed by overweight (p-value < 0.10). There was no statistical evidence for an association between microbial SCFA-producers and BMI. In sum, plasma SCFAs were positively associated with BMI and that the colonic fermentation of fiber may differ for adults with versus without overweight.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/sangue , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Relação Cintura-Quadril
20.
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol ; 23(10): 700-711, 2020 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is highly related to Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet no effective treatment is available. Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) has been considered a promising target for treatment of AD and depression. Roflumilast, the first PDE4 inhibitor approved for clinical use, improves cognition at doses that do not cause side effects such as emesis. METHODS: Here we examined the effects of roflumilast on behavioral dysfunction and the related mechanisms in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice, a widely used model of AD. Mice at 10 months of age were examined for memory in the novel object recognition and Morris water-maze tests and depression-like behavior in the tail-suspension test and forced swimming test before killing for neurochemical assays. RESULTS: In the novel object recognition and Morris water-maze, APPswe/PS1dE9 mice showed significant cognitive declines, which were reversed by roflumilast at 5 and 10 mg/kg orally once per day. In the tail-suspension test and forced swimming test, the AD mice showed prolonged immobility time, which was also reversed by roflumilast. In addition, the staining of hematoxylin-eosin and Nissl showed that roflumilast relieved the neuronal cell injuries, while terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labelling analysis indicated that roflumilast ameliorated cell apoptosis in AD mice. Further, roflumilast reversed the decreased ratio of B-cell lymphoma-2/Bcl-2-associated X protein and the increased expression of PDE4B and PDE4D in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of AD mice. Finally, roflumilast reversed the decreased levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and expression of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein and brain derived neurotrophic factor in AD mice. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these results suggest that roflumilast not only improves learning and memory but also attenuates depression-like behavior in AD mice, likely via PDE4B/PDE4D-mediated cAMP/cAMP response element-binding protein/brain derived neurotrophic factor signaling. Roflumilast can be a therapeutic agent for AD, in particular the comorbidity of memory loss and depression.

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