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1.
Thyroid ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the implementation of the universal salt iodization (USI) program for correction of iodine deficiency in China for about 20 years, the actual iodine nutrition status of Chinese residents and the prevalence of iodine deficiency and iodine excess are issues that need to be addressed. This nationally representative cross-sectional study was conducted across all 31 provinces of mainland China to gather extensive data on iodine nutrition status and the influential factors. METHODS: This study included 78,470 participants, aged 18 years or older, who were interviewed and asked to answer a questionnaire. Urine iodine concentration (UIC) was measured by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method, and goiter was examined by thyroid ultrasonography. In addition, sixty 9 -11 years old school-children in each province were randomly selected to evaluate the UIC and thyroid ultrasonography. The iodine nutrition status was determined according to the WHO guidelines. RESULTS: The iodized salt coverage was 95.37%. The median urine iodine (MUI) was 177.89 µg/L (interquartile range [IQR], 117.89-263.90 µg/L) and goiter prevalence was 1.17% (95% CI, 0.95-1.43%) in the adult population. The MUI was 199.75 µg/L (IQR, 128.41-303.37 µg/L) in school-age children, and goiter prevalence was 3.50% (95% CI, 2.93-4.13%). The percentage of individuals with UIC < 50 µg/L was 3.43%, less than 20%. Analysis indicated that sex, age, geographic factors, BMI, smoking habits influence the iodine nutrition level. CONCLUSION: The mandatory USI program has successfully eliminated iodine deficiency disorders, and the findings indicate that the iodine nutrition level in the general population is within the safe range.

2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 666393, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616359

RESUMO

Objective: Epigenetic modifications in RNA are known to play critical roles in cell differentiation through regulating expressions of some key genes including members of the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family. The present study aimed to unveil the relationship of SOCS mRNA methylation induced by methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3) with Graves' disease (GD). Methods: Differently expressed genes (DEG) in GD tissues were identified using microarray analysis and further validated using CD4+ T cell microarray of GD tissues and isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Furthermore, expressions of METTL3 targeted genes were detected using METTL3 knock-down experiment in RAW264.7 cells. Results: High throughput microarrays revealed that METTL3 and SOCS molecules were aberrantly expressed in thyroid tissues and CD4+T cells of GD compared to the controls. Bioinformatic analysis was undertaken by searching databases of found genes of the SOCS family that possessed many mRNA m6A modification loci. METTL3 knock-down experiment revealed that expressions of SOCS family members SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS4, SOCS5, and SOCS6 were increased after METTL3 knock-down. Conclusions: For the first time, the present study revealed the relationship between m6A modification and GD and indicated that METTL3 may be involved in the development of GD by inducing mRNA m6A methylation modification of SOCS family members.

3.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 9421720, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458379

RESUMO

Objective: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex disease with unknown pathogenesis. In recent years, fewer have paid attention to the broad spectrum of systemic markers of RA. The aim of this study was to identify exosomal candidate proteins in the pathogenesis of RA. Methods: Totally, 12 specimens of plasma from 6 RA patients and 6 age- and gender-matched controls from the Chinese population were obtained for nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS) analysis to identify exosomal profiles. Results: A total of 278 exosomal proteins were detected. Among them, 32 proteins were significantly upregulated (FC ≥ 2.0 and P < 0.05) and 5 proteins were downregulated (FC ≤ 0.5 and P < 0.05). Bioinformatics analysis revealed that transthyretin (TTR), angiotensinogen (AGT), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 (CD14), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), serum amyloid P (SAP/APCS), and tenascin (TNC) can interact with each other. Subsequently, these cross-linked proteins may be mainly involved in the inflammatory-related pathways to mediate the onset of RA. Noteworthy, the LBP/CD14 complex can promote the expression of IL-8 and TNF-α, eventually leading to the development of RA. Conclusions: Our findings suggest distinct plasmatic exosomal protein profiles in RA patients. These proteins not only take important parts in the vicious circle in the pathogenic process of RA but also serve as novel biomarkers in RA diagnosis and prognosis.

4.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes ; 14: 3691-3701, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447259

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the relationship between iodine intake status and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) through a population-based survey. Patients and Methods: In total, 2691 Chinese adults participated in this cross-sectional study, and they were stratified by urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and sex. Fasting blood samples were used to assess biochemical parameters, including thyroid function and antibodies. Urine samples were collected in the morning to measure UIC. Multivariate regression logistic analysis was performed for the overall population and sex subgroups. Results: An inverse association was observed between iodine intake status and MetS prevalence in Chinese adults. Compared with individuals with adequate iodine status, those with high-iodine status had significantly low MetS risks, and the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were 0.70 (0.57-0.86, P <0.01) and 0.75 (0.6-0.95, P <0.05). A high MetS risk was observed in the iodine-deficient group, which did not reach statistical significance. There was a significant inverse linear trend between the risk of MetS and UIC in the total population and male subgroup (P for trend <0.05), which was not observed in the female subgroup (P for trend >0.05). Conclusion: An inverse association was observed between iodine intake status and the risk of developing MetS in Chinese adults. Sufficient iodine status is a potential protective factor for MetS development. Males may benefit from increased iodine intake, while females would need to achieve a more-than-adequate iodine status to gain metabolic benefits.

5.
Adv Med Sci ; 66(2): 351-358, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304114

RESUMO

PURPOSE: RNA demethylase AlkB homolog 5 (ALKBH5) gene is pivotal in N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the potential relationship between polymorphisms of ALKBH5 gene and the development of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case-control study of 979 AITD patients, including 620 Graves' disease (GD) and 359 Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), and 732 normal controls of the Chinese Han population was performed using high-throughput sequencing (HiSeq) genotyping method for detecting 5 variants in ALKBH5 gene (rs12936694, rs2124370, rs4925144, rs8068517, and rs9913266). In addition, the associations between ALKBH5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and clinical phenotypes of AITD were investigated. RESULTS: Compared to normal controls, rs9913266 displayed significant differences in allele and genotype distributions in AITD and GD. rs12936694 also showed significantly different frequencies of alleles in AITD and GD. The link of these 2 loci polymorprhisms to AITD and GD also existed after adjusting for age and gender. When stratified by sex, the minor allele of rs9913266 was associated with the risk of female AITD and HT development before and after adjusting for age and gender. There was a significant association between rs8068517 locus and GD in females after adjusting for the confounders. Finally, we observed significant correlations of haplotypes CGACA and CAGCG to the susceptibility of AITD and GD. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provided evidence of association of polymorphisms in ALKBH5 gene with AITD, GD, and HT patients, and hence ALKBH5 might be the candidate gene for susceptibility to AITD.

6.
Immunol Invest ; : 1-10, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is an inherited, complex gene- and immune-related disorder that mainly includes Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Psoriasis susceptibility 1 candidate 1 (PSORS1C1) is a susceptibility gene associated with many autoimmune diseases, but its role in an individual's predisposition to AITD is unknown. METHODS: This study included 1065 Chinese Han patients with AITD and 943 matched healthy individuals. The rs3130983, rs3778638, rs3815087, and rs4959053 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PSORS1C1 were determined using multiplex polymerase chain reaction technology. RESULTS: Of the four SNPs, only the distribution of the rs3778638 genotypes was different between the AITD (AA, 2.67%; AG, 19.15%; and GG, 78.18%) and control (AA, 1.52%; AG, 22.2%; and GG, 75.87%) groups (P = .046). An association between rs3778683 and GD was observed (p = .039) but not with HT. No linkage disequilibrium was observed for rs3130983, rs3815087, rs3778638, and rs4959053 in PSORS1C1 among the patients with AITD and controls. CONCLUSION: This study suggests the influence of PSORS1C1 rs3778638 on the susceptibility to GDs, supporting this locus as a common autoimmunity risk factor.

7.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 21(1): 148, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent researches suggest that the CD160/HVEM/LIGHT/BTLA signaling pathway may contribute to the pathogeneses of autoimmune diseases, but the relationship between CD160 polymorphisms and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) has not been reported yet. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between CD160 polymorphisms and AITD. METHODS: A total of 1017 patients with AITD (634 Graves' disease and 383 Hashimoto's thyroiditis) and 856 unrelated healthy controls were recruited into our study. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated through logistic regression analyses. The CD160 SNPs were detected using Hi-SNP high-throughput genotyping. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between Graves' disease patients and the control group with respect to both the genotype distribution (P = 0.014) and allele frequency of rs744877 (P = 0.034). A significant association of CD160 rs744877 with AITD was observed before adjusted age and gender under a dominant model (OR = 0.79, 95%CI 0.66-0.95; P = 0.013) and an additive model (OR = 0.77, 95%CI 0.64-0.94, P = 0.008), and was also observed after adjusted age and gender under a dominant model (OR = 0.78, 95%CI 0.65-0.95; P = 0.011) and an additive model (OR = 0.76, 95%CI 0.63-0.93, P = 0.007). A significant association of rs744877 with Graves' disease was observed under an allele model (OR = 0.84, 95%CI 0.71-0.98, P = 0.027), a dominant model (OR = 0.74, 95%CI 0.60-0.91; P = 0.005), and an additive model (OR = 0.72, 95%CI 0.58-0.90, P = 0.004). Multivariate logistic regression analyses suggested that the association remained significant after adjustment for age and gender. However, rs744877 was not related to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Furthermore, CD160 rs3766526 was not significantly related to either Graves' disease or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. CONCLUSION: This is the first identification of the association of CD160 rs744877 with Graves' disease. Our findings add new data to the genetic contribution to Graves' disease susceptibility and support the crucial role of the CD160/HVEM/LIGHT/BTLA pathway in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease.

8.
Int Rev Immunol ; : 1-17, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243694

RESUMO

Autoimmune disease (AID) is a condition in which the immune system breaks down and starts to attack the body. Some common AIDs include systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes mellitus and so forth. The changes in T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire have been found in several autoimmune diseases, and may be responsible for the breakdown of peripheral immune tolerance. In this review, we discussed the processes of TCR revision in peripheral immune environment, the changes in TCR repertoire that occurred in various AIDs, and the specifically expanded T cell clones. We hope our discussion can provide insights for the future studies, helping with the discovery of disease biomarkers and expanding the strategies of immune-targeted therapy. HighlightsRestricted TCR repertoire and biased TCR-usage are found in a variety of AIDs.TCR repertoire shows tissue specificity in a variety of AID diseases.The relationship between TCR repertoire diversity and disease activity is still controversial in AIDs.Dominant TCR clonotypes may help to discover new disease biomarkers and expand the strategies of immune-targeted therapy.

9.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 685522, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124070

RESUMO

Background: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is a common autoimmune disease characterized by high levels of thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and thyroid globulin antibody (TgAb) as well as infiltration of lymphocytes in thyroid. In recent years, metformin has been proven to be effective in a variety of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Methods: This study systematically explored the therapeutic effect of metformin on HT and its underlying mechanism by comprehensively utilizing methods including animal model, in vitro cell culture and differentiation, mRNA sequencing and 16S rRNA sequencing. Findings: We found that metformin indeed had a therapeutic effect on mice with HT mainly by reducing TgAb and lymphocyte infiltration in thyroid tissue. In addition, metformin also significantly suppressed the number and function of Th17 cells and M1 macrophages polarization in HT mice. Furthermore, metformin can inhibit the differentiation and function of Th17 in vitro. The results of mRNA sequencing of thyroid tissue illustrated that the therapeutic effect of metformin on HT was mainly achieved by regulating immune pathways. 16S RNA sequencing of the intestinal flora found that the intestinal flora of HT mice differs significantly from that of the normal mice and also were altered by metformin treatment. Interpretation: These experiments provided a preliminary theoretical basis for the clinical application of metformin in the treatment of HT.

10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 651534, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122333

RESUMO

Background: Universal salt iodization (USI) was implemented in mainland China in 1996. The prevalence of hyperthyroidism and its risk factors now require examination. Methods: Data were acquired from a nationwide Thyroid, Iodine, and Diabetes Epidemiological survey (TIDE 2015-2017) of 78,470 subjects from 31 provinces. Iodine status, and thyroid hormones and antibodies were measured. Results: After two decades of USI, the prevalence of overt hyperthyroidism (OH), Graves' disease (GD), severe subclinical hyperthyroidism (severe SCH), and mild subclinical hyperthyroidism (mild SCH) in mainland China was 0.78%, 0.53%, 0.22%, and 0.22%, respectively. OH and GD prevalence were higher in women than in men (OH: 1.16% vs. 0.64%, P<0.001; GD: 0.65% vs. 0.37%, P<0.001).Prevalence was significantly decreased after 60 years-of-age compared with 30-39 years-of-age (OH:0.61% vs. 0.81%, P<0.001; GD: 0.38% vs. 0.57%, P<0.001).Excessive iodine(EI) and deficient iodine(DI) were both related to increased prevalence of OH (odds ratio [OR] 2.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.68-2.59; OR1.35, 95%CI 1.07-1.72, respectively); however, only deficient iodine was associated with increased prevalence of GD (OR1.67, 95%CI 1.30-2.15). Increased thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody levels were significantly associated with prevalence of OH and GD, but not severe SCH and mild SCH. Although hyperthyroidism was more prevalent in women, the association disappeared after adjusting for other factors such as antibody levels. Conclusion: OH and GD prevalences in mainland China are stable after two decades of USI. Iodine deficiency, elevated thyroid antibody levels, and middle age are the main risk factors for OH and GD. The severe SCH population, rather than the mild SCH population, shows similar characteristics to the OH population.

11.
Thyroid ; 31(4): 563-571, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138723

RESUMO

Background: Malnutrition in early life may permanently change the structure and function of the body, which lead to a number of diseases in adulthood. The effect of famine exposure during the early life on thyroid function and disorders remains unclear. This study investigated the association between exposure to the Great Chinese Famine (1959-1961) in early life and thyroid function and disorders in adulthood. Methods: Nine thousand eight hundred eighty-one subjects with appropriate birth dates derived from the Thyroid disorders, Iodine status, and Diabetes Epidemiological survey were included. Thyroid function and disorders were defined by the test results of blood sample and ultrasonography of all participants. Associations between famine exposure in early life and thyroid function and disorders in adulthood were assessed with binary logistic regression and linear regression. Results: Participants exposed to the Great Chinese Famine during the fetal stage was associated with a higher thyrotropin (TSH) level in adulthood (ß = 0.024; p = 0.038), compared with the nonexposed participants. The association was significant among rural participants (ß = 0.039; p = 0.02) but not in urban participants (ß = 0.005; p = 0.77). Fetal-exposed group did not show a higher risk of thyroid disorders than the age-matched balanced control group, including overt hyperthyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, overt hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis, and thyroid nodules (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Famine exposure during the fetal stage was associated with a higher TSH level in adulthood. The fetal stage could be the critical period for programming the pituitary-thyroid axis.

12.
Endocrine ; 72(2): 495-504, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025559

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is a classic autoimmune disorder that mainly includes Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). In this study, we explored the potential relationship between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3) gene and the development of AITD. METHODS: The distribution of METTL3 genotypes at seven loci (rs1139130, rs1263790, rs1263791, rs17197156, rs2242526, rs3752411, and rs4417466) in 960 AITD (599 GD and 361 HT) patients and 732 unrelated healthy volunteers was examined using high-throughput sequencing technology in a case-controlled manner and their correlations with AITD development were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: METTL3 genotypes at these seven SNPs were not correlated with both GD and HT except a borderline association between rs3752411and GD after adjusted for age, sex, and thyroid function under the recessive model. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that the minor allele frequencies of rs2242526 and rs4417466 were higher in male AITD patients than in healthy volunteers before adjusted for confounding factors and the genotype distribution of rs4417466 was significantly different between the two groups. Additionally, the genotype frequencies of rs1139130, rs1263791, rs2242526, and rs4417466 were positively related with GD in male patients. Likewise, the allele distribution of rs1263791, rs2242526, and rs4417466 in male GD patients differed significantly from that in male controls. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed a significant association between allele frequencies of these three loci and GD in male patients after adjusted for the confounding factors. Moreover, the genotype of rs3752411 was strongly associated with GD in females as well. Furthermore, distribution of rs3752411 genotype was significantly associated with hypothyroidism in HT patients. CONCLUSION: Our study for the first time revealed a strong correlation between METTL3 mutations and AITD predisposition, implying that METTL3 may be a new candidate gene for AITD treatment.


Assuntos
Doença de Graves , Doença de Hashimoto , Metiltransferases/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Doença de Graves/genética , Doença de Hashimoto/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
Autoimmunity ; 53(6): 353-361, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past few years, an increasing number of studies have proposed the idea of extending the therapeutic range of metformin from traditional hypoglycaemic to autoimmune diseases, and confirmed in a variety of autoimmune diseases. However, whether metformin can be used to treat Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), which is characterised by thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), is unknown. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate whether metformin can reduce the levels of TPOAb and TgAb in patients with HT or subclinical hypothyroidism (SH), so as to provide a theoretical basis for metformin treatment of these diseases. METHODS: PubMed, Web Of Science and Embase were searched for observational studies investigating the changes of TPOAb and TgAb in patients with HT after metformin treatment. Two authors extracted data from eligible studies and classified them as HT and subclinical hypothyroidism subgroups. The calculation was then performed by weighted mean difference (WMD) combined with a fixed-effects model analysis or standard mean difference (SMD) with a random-effects model analysis, based on the measurement of the outcome. RESULTS: Metformin significantly reduced TPOAb levels and TgAb levels in patients with HT and SH, especially TPOAb (HT: p TPOAb = .009, p TgAb = .046; SH: p TPOAb = .034, p TgAb = .066). In addition, metformin also reduced the levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in patients with HT and SH (HT: p TSH = .000 and p HOMA-IR = .000; SH: p TSH = .000 and p HOMA-IR = .000, respectively). CONCLUSION: Metformin significantly reduces TPOAb level and TgAb level in patients with HT and SH, especially TPOAb. This study is the first to provide a preliminary theoretical basis for the clinical application of metformin in the treatment of HT.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Doença de Hashimoto/tratamento farmacológico , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Doença de Hashimoto/sangue , Doença de Hashimoto/diagnóstico , Doença de Hashimoto/imunologia , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Hipotireoidismo/imunologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Tireotropina/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Thyroid ; 30(12): 1810-1819, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762331

RESUMO

Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism is diagnosed based on serum thyrotropin (TSH) reference intervals, which in turn are affected by many factors. Methods: Data were acquired from a Chinese nationally representative cross-sectional study of 78,470 participants (TIDE study). The total study population were participants from the TIDE program, and the reference population was a subset of the total population defined by the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines. Serum concentrations of thyroid hormones, TSH, thyroid antibodies, and urine iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Results: The geometric mean serum TSH (2.5th-97.5th) for the reference population (defined by the NACB) and total population was 2.28 mIU/L (0.74-7.04 mIU/L) and 2.34 mIU/L (0.61-8.33 mIU/L), respectively. In the reference population, increase in UIC was significantly associated with increase in the 50th and 97.5th centiles and decrease in the 2.5th centile of TSH. The median TSH was significantly higher in women than in men (2.41 mIU/L vs. 2.16 mIU/L, p-value <0.001). Increased age was significantly associated with an increased TSH, 97.5th centile. For each 10-year increase in the population age, the TSH 97.5th centile increased by 0.534 mIU/L. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism diagnosed according to the assay-recommended interval (Roche 0.27-4.2 mIU/L) and NACB standard interval in the TIDE study (0.74-7.04 mIU/L) differed significantly (Roche 13.61% vs. TIDE 3.00%, p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in future cardiovascular disease, reflected by the Framingham risk score, between the 0.27-4.2 and 4.2-7.04 mIU/L TSH groups. Conclusions: Serum TSH concentration significantly increased with increase in iodine intake. Thus, iodine intake must be considered in establishing TSH reference intervals. To avoid overdiagnosis and overtreatment of subclinical hypothyroidism, different areas should use individual serum TSH reference intervals.

15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 1378427, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802832

RESUMO

Background: Many studies have shown that NLRC4 inflammasome polymorphisms are associated with a variety of autoimmune diseases, but the associations between NLRC4 polymorphisms and autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) are unclear. Our research was aimed at identifying the correlations between NLRC4 polymorphisms and AITDs. Methods: Hi-SNP high-throughput genotyping technology was used for detecting four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of NLRC4 in 1005 AITDs patients (including 629 Graves' disease and 376 Hashimoto's thyroiditis) and 781 healthy controls. Results: Compared with healthy controls, the allele frequencies and genotype distribution of rs385076 were statistically related to AITDs (P = 0.016 and P = 0.048, respectively) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (P = 0.022 and P = 0.046, respectively). Before adjusting for age and gender, rs385076 and AITDs had a significant association in three models of allele model, dominant model, and homozygous model. After adjusting for age and gender, in the above three models, there is still a clear relationship between them. Before adjusting for age and gender, there were prominent discrepancy between rs385076 and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the allele model (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.67-0.97; P = 0.021) and the dominant model (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.57-0.94; P = 0.014), after adjusting for age and gender, rs385076 and Hashimoto's thyroiditis were significantly related to allele model, dominant model, and homozygous model. However, rs455060, rs212704, and rs675712 were not related to AITDs in our study. Conclusion: NLRC4 rs385076 was found to have a significant association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis for the first time. It laid a foundation for the disclosure of the pathogenesis of AITDs, and provided a possible treatment prospect for HT.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Doença de Graves/genética , Doença de Hashimoto/genética , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Adulto , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Doença de Graves/patologia , Haplótipos , Doença de Hashimoto/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
16.
Thyroid ; 30(11): 1656-1665, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586221

RESUMO

Background: Iodine intake is associated with thyroid autoimmunity. In this study, we evaluated the changes in thyroid autoimmunity after 20 years of universal salt iodization (USI) in China. Methods: A total of 78,470 subjects (18 years or older) from 31 provincial regions of mainland China participated in the study. Serum thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), TSH receptor antibody, thyrotropin (TSH), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Results: Positive TPOAb and TgAb were detected in 10.19% [CI 9.80-10.59] and 9.70% [CI 9.28-10.13] of the subjects, respectively. The prevalence of positive isolated TPOAb (i-TPOAb), positive isolated TgAb (i-TgAb), and double positive TPOAb and TgAb (d-Ab) was 4.52%, 4.16%, and 5.94%, respectively. The prevalence of thyroid antibody positivity was the highest in the iodine-deficient (UIC <100 µg/L) groups. The prevalence of i-TPOAb was inversely associated with more than adequate iodine intake (MAI) and excessive iodine intake (EI); the odds ratio (OR) was 0.89 [CI 0.81-0.98] for MAI and 0.90 [CI 0.81-0.99] for EI. We observed that i-TgAb, like i-TPOAb, was a high-risk factor for subnormal TSH levels (OR = 3.64 [CI 2.62-5.05]) and elevated TSH levels (OR = 1.62 [CI 1.49-1.77]). The prevalence of thyroid antibody positivity varied among five ethnic groups. Conclusions: After two decades of USI, the prevalence of thyroid antibody positivity has remained low. MAI and EI had an inverse relationship with TPOAb positivity, which reveals that UIC between 100 and 299 µg/L is optimal and safe for thyroid autoimmunity. These conclusions need to be confirmed in a follow-up study because this study was a cross-sectional study.

17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 6173618, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420356

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common metabolic disease. High glucose-induced macrovascular disease and microangiopathy are major complications of diabetes. E2F3, a member of the E2F transcription factor family, is closely related to cardiovascular diseases. Resveratrol, a nonflavonoid polyphenolic compound widely found in plants, has been shown to have cardiovascular protection. However, there are few studies on whether resveratrol can effectively treat diabetic angiopathy, and the specific mechanism involved needs further study. This study investigated whether E2F3 transcription factors are involved in the process of vascular endothelial injury induced by high glucose and observed its effects on the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells. Then, it analyzed whether resveratrol can inhibit high glucose-induced vascular endothelial cell injury by regulating the E2F3 pathway. We demonstrated that the expression level of the E2F3 transcription factor was significantly inhibited in high glucose state. Resveratrol inhibited high glucose-induced vascular endothelial cell injury by upregulating the E2F3 pathway. High glucose can induce vascular endothelial injury by inhibiting E2F3 gene expression, while resveratrol can inhibit high glucose-induced vascular endothelial injury by activating the E2F3 pathway.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição E2F3 , Glucose/efeitos adversos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Fator de Transcrição E2F3/análise , Fator de Transcrição E2F3/genética , Fator de Transcrição E2F3/metabolismo , Humanos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32256451

RESUMO

Purpose: The expressions of antibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) are very common in the sera of patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD). The relationship between thyroid autoantibodies and the occurrence of glucose and lipid metabolic disorders remains unclear. This study was performed to investigate the correlation between the presence of serum TPOAb/TgAb and those metabolic disorders in euthyroid general population. Methods: The data of this study were derived from the Thyroid Disease, Iodine status, and Diabetes National epidemiological (TIDE) survey from all 31 provinces of mainland China. A total of 17,964 euthyroid subjects including 5,802 males (4,000 with TPOAb-TgAb- and 1,802 with TPOAb+/TgAb+) and 12,162 females (8,000 with TPOAb-TgAb- and 4,162 with TPOAb+/TgAb+) were enrolled in this study. The blood glucose and lipid levels were compared between individuals with TPOAb-TgAb- and those with TPOAb+TgAb-, TPOAb-TgAb+, TPOAb+TgAb+. Results: Both fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentration and the proportion of individuals with impaired FBG (IFG) showed the decreased trends in TPOAb-TgAb+ males as compared with TPOAb-TgAb- men. There were significantly lower FBG and higher HDL-C levels as well as tendencies toward decreased incidences of IGT and hypertriglyceridemia in TPOAb-TgAb+ females when compared with TPOAb-TgAb- women. Binary logistic regression analysis further showed that serum TgAb single positivity in males was an independent protective factor for IFG with an OR of 0.691 (95% CI, 0.503-0.949). For females, serum TgAb single positivity was an independent protective factor for hypertriglyceridemia with an OR of 0.859 (95% CI, 0.748-0.987). Trend test showed that with the increase of serum TgAb level, there were significant decreases in the prevalence of IFG among the men with TSH ≤ 2.5 mIU/L and that of hypertriglyceridemia in the women, especially among non-obese females. Conclusion: Serum TgAb single positivity may imply a reduced risk of IFG in euthyroid men and that of hypertriglyceridemia in euthyroid women. The mechanisms for the independent protective roles of TgAb await further investigation.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/epidemiologia , Tireoglobulina/imunologia , Adulto , Autoanticorpos/análise , Autoantígenos/imunologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/sangue , Humanos , Incidência , Iodeto Peroxidase/imunologia , Iodo/análise , Iodo/sangue , Proteínas de Ligação ao Ferro/imunologia , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/sangue , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia
19.
BMJ ; 369: m997, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345662

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of diabetes and its risk factors. DESIGN: Population based, cross sectional study. SETTING: 31 provinces in mainland China with nationally representative cross sectional data from 2015 to 2017. PARTICIPANTS: 75 880 participants aged 18 and older-a nationally representative sample of the mainland Chinese population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of diabetes among adults living in China, and the prevalence by sex, regions, and ethnic groups, estimated by the 2018 American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and history of disease were recorded by participants on a questionnaire. Anthropometric and clinical assessments were made of serum concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (one measurement), two hour plasma glucose, and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). RESULTS: The weighted prevalence of total diabetes (n=9772), self-reported diabetes (n=4464), newly diagnosed diabetes (n=5308), and prediabetes (n=27 230) diagnosed by the ADA criteria were 12.8% (95% confidence interval 12.0% to 13.6%), 6.0% (5.4% to 6.7%), 6.8% (6.1% to 7.4%), and 35.2% (33.5% to 37.0%), respectively, among adults living in China. The weighted prevalence of total diabetes was higher among adults aged 50 and older and among men. The prevalence of total diabetes in 31 provinces ranged from 6.2% in Guizhou to 19.9% in Inner Mongolia. Han ethnicity had the highest prevalence of diabetes (12.8%) and Hui ethnicity had the lowest (6.3%) among five investigated ethnicities. The weighted prevalence of total diabetes (n=8385) using the WHO criteria was 11.2% (95% confidence interval 10.5% to 11.9%). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of diabetes has increased slightly from 2007 to 2017 among adults living in China. The findings indicate that diabetes is an important public health problem in China.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Jejum , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/diagnóstico , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Prevalência , Sociedades Médicas , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
20.
Endocr Pract ; 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339031

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Studies have shown that metabolic abnormalities influence the immune system. Because the prevalence of metabolic and autoimmune thyroid diseases has increased synchronously, the correlation between them was worth exploring. The study objective was to investigate the relationship between metabolic disorders and thyroid autoantibodies in euthyroid subjects. METHODS: Data were obtained from a TIDE project survey of 55,891 subjects from 31 provinces in China. The body mass index(BMI), waist circumference(WC), blood pressure(BP), TPOAb, TgAb, TSH, UIC, blood glucose, lipid profile, uric acid(UA) levels were evaluated. FT4 and FT3 levels were measured in patients with abnormal serum TSH levels. RESULTS: In males, the BMI, WC, SBP, DBP, and OGTT2hPG of the TPOAb/TgAb-positive groups were significantly higher than those of the TPOAb/TgAb-negative groups. In females, the BMI, WC, SBP, DBP, TC, and LDL-C in the TPOAb/TgAb-positive groups were significantly increased compared to those in the TPOAb/TgAb-negative groups. Multivariate analysis showed that, in males, the OR of positive TgAb in the abdominal obesity group was 1.175 (95% CI 1.016-1.359, P for difference= 0.03), and the OR of positive TPOAb in the hyperuricemia group was 1.195 (95% CI 1.041-1.372, P for difference = 0.011). In females, the OR of positive TgAb was 1.19 (95% Cl 1.068-1.326, P for difference= 0.002) in the high LDL-C group. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity, high LDL-C and hyperuricemia were positively correlated with the prevalence of positive thyroid autoantibodies in euthyroid subjects in a gender-dependent manner. Summary This cross-sectional survey showed that metabolic disorders are associated with increased positive thyroid autoantibody levels in euthyroid subjects in a gender-dependent manner.

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