Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 58
Filtrar
1.
Hum Factors ; : 187208211064683, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012373

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Do real-time strategy (RTS) video gamers have better attentional control? To examine this issue, we tested experienced versus inexperienced RTS video gamers on multi-object tracking tasks (MOT) and dual-MOT tasks with visual or auditory secondary tasks (dMOT). We employed a street-crossing task with a visual working memory task as a secondary task in a virtual reality (VR) environment to examine any generalized attentional advantage. BACKGROUND: Similar to action video games, RTS video games require players to switch attention between multiple visual objects and views. However, whether the attentional control advantage is limited by sensory modalities or generalizes to real-life tasks remains unclear. METHOD: In study 1, 25 RTS video game players (SVGP) and 25 non-video game players (NVGP) completed the MOT task and two dMOT tasks. In study 2, a different sample with 25 SVGP and 25 NVGP completed a simulated street-crossing task with the visual dual task in a VR environment. RESULTS: After controlling the effects of the speed-accuracy trade-off, SVGP showed better performance than NVGP in the MOT task and the visual dMOT task, but SVGP did not perform better in either the auditory dMOT task or the street-crossing task. CONCLUSION: RTS video gamers had better attentional control in visual computer tasks, but not in the auditory tasks and the VR tasks. Attentional control benefits associated with RTS video game experience may be limited by sensory modalities, and may not translate to performance benefits in real-life tasks.

2.
Addiction ; 117(1): 19-32, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861888

RESUMO

AIMS: To estimate the aggregated effect sizes of reward-related decision-making deficits in internet gaming disorder (IGD) and to explore potential moderators on the variability of effect sizes across studies. DESIGN: Review of peer-reviewed studies comparing reward-related decision-making performance between IGD and control participants identified via PubMed, Web of Science and ProQuest databases. Random-effects modeling was conducted using Hedge's g as the effect size (ES). The effects of decision-making situation, valence, sample type, testing environment, IGD severity and self-reported impulsivity on decision-making differences were examined by moderator analyses. SETTING: No restrictions on location. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four studies (20 independent samples) were included in the meta-analysis, resulting in 604 IGD and 641 control participants and 35 ESs. MEASURES: Reward-related decision-making differences between IGD and control groups. FINDINGS: The overall ES for decision-making deficits in IGD was small (g = -0.45, P < 0.01). The effects were comparable across risky, ambiguous and inter-temporal decision-making. Larger aggregate ESs were identified for pure-gain and mixed compared with pure-loss decision-making. Studies based on clinical and community samples showed similar effects. No significant difference between behavioral studies and those with extra measurements was observed. Decision-making alterations were not closely associated with IGD severity or self-reported impulsivity differences at the study level. CONCLUSIONS: Internet gaming disorder appears to be consistently associated with reward-related decision-making deficits.

3.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 5801-5816, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764672

RESUMO

Introduction: Alveolar epithelial tight junction damage and glycocalyx syndecan-1 (SDC-1) degrading are key factors to pulmonary edema of acute lung injury (ALI). Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was involved in glycocalyx shedding, which was vital in SDC-1 degrading. This study aimed to investigate the effects of MMP-9-mediated SDC-1 shedding on tight junction in LPS-induced ALI. Methods: Mice were intratracheally atomized with 5 mg/kg LPS to stimulate different periods and LPS stimulation for 6 hours for further studies. A549 cells was stimulated for 6 hours by active MMP-9 protein to assess the effects of active MMP-9 protein on SDC-1 and tight junction. Afterward, the mice treated with MMP-9 shRNA or A549 cells were treated with MMP-9 siRNA before LPS stimulation for 6 hours to explore the effects on glycocalyx SDC-1 and tight junction. Moreover, the mice were treated with recombinant SDC-1 protein or A549 cells were over-expressed by pc-SDC-1 before LPS stimulation for 6 hours to explore the effects of SDC-1 on tight junction. Results: The mice persistent exposure to LPS showed that MMP-9 expression, glycocalyx SDC-1 shedding (SDC-1 decreased in alveolar epithelium and increased in the BALF), tight junction impairment, FITC-albumin infiltration, and other phenomena began to appear after 6 hours of LPS treatment in this study. The levels of SDC-1 and tight junction significantly decreased by active MMP-9 protein stimulation for 6 hours in the A549 cells. Therefore, LPS stimulation for six hours was selected for investigating the underlying effects of MMP-9-mediated SDC-1 shedding on the alveolar epithelial tight junction and pulmonary edema. Further vivo analysis showed that down regulation MMP-9 expression by MMP-9 shRNA significantly alleviated glycocalyx SDC-1 shedding (SDC-1 increased in alveolar epithelium and decreased in the BALF), tight junction (occludin and ZO-1) damage, and FITC-albumin infiltration in LPS-induced early ALI mice. The vitro results also showed that MMP-9 siRNA alleviated glycocalyx SDC-1 shedding (SDC-1 increased in cell culture medium and decreased in cell surface) and tight junction damage by downregulating MMP-9 expression in LPS-stimulated A549 cells. In addition, pretreatment with recombinant mouse SDC-1 protein significantly alleviated glycocalyx (SDC-1 increased in alveolar epithelium) and tight junction damage, and FITC-albumin infiltration in LPS-induced early ALI mice. Overexpression SDC-1 by pc-SDC-1 also significantly decreased tight junction damage in LPS-stimulated A549 cells. Conclusion: Glycocalyx SDC-1 shedding mediated by MMP-9 significantly aggravated tight junction damage, which further increased the pulmonary edema.

4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 744477, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671356

RESUMO

Syndecan-1 (SDC-1) is a transmembrane proteoglycan of heparin sulfate that can regulate various cell signal transduction pathways in the airway epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Airway epithelial cells and human bronchial fibroblasts are crucial in airway remodeling. However, the importance of SDC-1 in the remodeling of asthmatic airways has not been confirmed yet. The present study was the first to uncover SDC-1 overexpression in the airways of humans and mice with chronic asthma. This study also validated that an increase in SDC-1 expression was correlated with TGFß1/Smad3-mediated airway remodeling in vivo and in vitro. A small interfering RNA targeting SDC-1 (SDC-1 siRNA) and homo-SDC-1 in pcDNA3.1 (pc-SDC-1) was designed to assess the effects of SDC-1 on TGFß1/Smad3-mediated collagen I expression in Beas-2B (airway epithelial cells) and HLF-1 (fibroblasts) cells. Downregulation of the SDC-1 expression by SDC-1 siRNA remarkably attenuated TGFß1-induced p-Smad3 levels and collagen I expression in Beas-2B and HLF-1 cells. In addition, SDC-1 overexpression with pc-SDC-1 enhanced TGFß1-induced p-Smad3 level and collagen I expression in Beas-2B and HLF-1 cells. Furthermore, the levels of p-Smad3 and collagen I induced by TGFß1 were slightly increased after the addition of the recombinant human SDC-1 protein to Beas-2B and HLF-1 cells. These findings in vitro were also confirmed in a mouse model. A short hairpin RNA targeting SDC-1 (SDC-1 shRNA) to interfere with SDC-1 expression considerably reduced the levels of p-Smad3 and remodeling protein (α-SMA, collagen I) in the airways induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Similarly, OVA-induced p-Smad3 and remodeling protein levels in airways increased after mice inhalation with the recombinant mouse SDC-1 protein. These results suggested that SDC-1 of airway epithelial cells and fibroblasts plays a key role in the development of airway remodeling in OVA-induced chronic asthma.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338775

RESUMO

Social-information processing is important for successful romantic relationships and protecting against depression, and depends on functional connectivity (FC) within and between large-scale networks. Functional architecture evident at rest is adaptively reconfigured during task and there were two possible associations between brain reconfiguration and behavioral performance during neurocognitive tasks (efficiency effect and distraction-based effect). This study examined relationships between brain reconfiguration during social-information processing and relationship-specific and more general social outcomes in marriage. Resting-state FC was compared with FC during social-information processing (watching relationship-specific and general emotional stimuli) of 29 heterosexual couples, and the FC similarity (reconfiguration efficiency) was examined in relation to marital quality and depression 13 months later. The results indicated wives' reconfiguration efficiency (globally and in visual association network) during relationship-specific stimuli processing was related to their own marital quality. Higher reconfiguration efficiency (globally and in medial frontal, frontal-parietal, default mode, motor/sensory and salience networks) in wives during general emotional stimuli processing was related to their lower depression. These findings suggest efficiency effects on social outcomes during social cognition, especially among married women. The efficiency effects on relationship-specific and more general outcome are respectively higher during relationship-specific stimuli or general emotional stimuli processing.

6.
Psychiatry Res ; 302: 114016, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087672

RESUMO

Internet addiction (IA) may constitute a widespread and serious mental problem. Previous reviews have not fully considered potential factors that may contribute to therapeutic outcomes or predict behavioral changes. Such information is relevant to understand the active ingredients of interventions and to develop more efficacious treatments that target features of IA. This systematic review was designed to relate theories of IA to treatments, describe studies of psychotherapies for IA, and propose a model of addiction and interventions based on extant studies. A computer database search of PubMed, PsychINFO, ScienceDirect, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Google Scholar was conducted to identify all available research evidence on psychological treatments for IA (N = 31 studies). Among these psychological interventions, the targeted reduction of addiction-related impulsivity and craving, improvement of cognitive maladjustment, and alleviation of family problems have been investigated in IA interventions. The targeted domains and intervention methods are not mutually exclusive, and further research is needed to demonstrate the effective components and mechanisms of action for treatments of IA. Such research will help generate more efficacious evidence-based interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Transtornos Mentais , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Intervenção Psicossocial
7.
Inflamm Res ; 70(7): 777-787, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Asthma, a well-known disease with high morbidity, is characterized by chronic airway inflammation. However, the allergic inflammation mechanisms of follistatin-like protein 1 (FSTL1) have not been elucidated. This study aims to investigate the effects of FSTL1 in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mice and macrophages on nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3)/interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) signaling pathway. METHODS: Mice were randomly divided into control-WT, OVA-WT, control-Fstl1±, OVA-Fstl1±. Histological changes were assessed by HE and PAS staining. The protein levels of Muc-5AC, FSTL1, NLRP3, and IL-1ß in lung tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in mice and human serum samples were detected by ELISA. Then, mice were grouped into control, FSTL1, MCC950 + FSTL1 to further investigate the relationship between FSTL1 and NLRP3/IL-1ß. Alveolar macrophage cells (MH-S cells) were separated into control, OVA, FSTL1, OVA + FSTL1, OVA + siNC, OVA + siFSTL1, MCC950, and FSTL1 + MCC950 groups to explore the effect of FSTL1 on the NLRP3/IL-1ß signaling. The protein expression of NLRP3 and IL-1ß in MH-S cells was detected by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: The present results uncovered that Fstl1± significantly ameliorated OVA-induced Muc-5AC production and mucus hypersecretion. Fstl1± was also found to decrease the production of inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory cell infiltration in OVA-induced asthmatic mice. Meanwhile, the serum concentrations of FSTL1 and IL-1ß were higher in  asthma subjects than the health subjects, and Fstl1± ameliorated the production of NLRP3 and IL-1ß in OVA-induced asthmatic mice. Furthermore, mice by injected FSTL1 substantially stimulated the expression of NLRP3 and IL-1ß, while pretreatment with MCC950 in mice significantly weakened the production of NLRP3 and IL-1ß induced by injection FSTL1. Pretreatment with siFSTL1 or MCC950 significantly reduced the production of NLRP3 and IL-1ß induced by OVA or FSTL1 in MH-S cells. CONCLUSIONS: The study results showed that FSTL1 played an important role in allergic airway inflammation by activating NLRP3/IL-1ß. Hence, inhibition FSTL1 could be applied as a therapeutic agent against asthma.

8.
J Behav Addict ; 10(1): 112-122, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704083

RESUMO

Background and aims: Deficits in cognitive control represent a core feature of addiction. Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) offers an ideal model to study the mechanisms underlying cognitive control deficits in addiction, eliminating the confounding effects of substance use. Studies have reported behavioral and neural deficits in reactive control in IGD, but it remains unclear whether individuals with IGD are compromised in proactive control or behavioral adjustment by learning from the changing contexts. Methods: Here, fMRI data of 21 male young adults with IGD and 21 matched healthy controls (HC) were collected during a stop-signal task. We employed group independent component analysis to investigate group differences in temporally coherent, large-scale functional network activities during post-error slowing, the typical type of behavioral adjustments. We also employed a Bayesian belief model to quantify the trial-by-trial learning of the likelihood of stop signal - P(Stop) - a broader process underlying behavioral adjustment, and identified the alterations in functional network responses to P(Stop). Results: The results showed diminished engagement of the fronto-parietal network during post-error slowing, and weaker activity in the ventral attention and anterior default mode network in response to P(Stop) in IGD relative to HC. Discussion and conclusions: These results add to the literatures by suggesting deficits in updating and anticipating conflicts as well as in behavioral adjustment according to contextual information in individuals with IGD.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Cognição , Função Executiva , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Testes Psicológicos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Bioengineering (Basel) ; 8(1)2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477926

RESUMO

Synthetic biology allows the re-engineering of biological systems and promotes the development of bioengineering to a whole new level, showing great potential in biomanufacturing. Here, in order to make the heterologous lycopene biosynthesis pathway compatible with the host strain YSy 200, we evolved YSy200 using a unique Synthetic Chromosome Rearrangement and Modification by LoxP-mediated Evolution (SCRaMbLE) system that is built in the Sc2.0 synthetic yeast. By inducing SCRaMbLE, we successfully identified a host strain YSy201 that can be served as a suitable host to maintain the heterologous lycopene biosynthesis pathway. Then, we optimized the lycopene biosynthesis pathway and further integrated into the rDNA arrays of YSy201 to increase its copy number. In combination with culturing condition optimization, we successfully screened out the final yeast strain YSy222, which showed a 129.5-fold increase of lycopene yield in comparison with its parental strain. Our work shows that, the strategy of combining the engineering efforts on both the lycopene biosynthesis pathway and the host strain can improve the compatibility between the heterologous pathway and the host strain, which can further effectively increase the yield of the target product.

10.
Addict Biol ; 26(4): e12969, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047425

RESUMO

Internet gaming disorder (IGD), a worldwide mental health issue, has been widely studied using neuroimaging techniques during the last decade. Although dysfunctions in resting-state functional connectivity have been reported in IGD, mapping relationships from abnormal connectivity patterns to behavioral measures have not been fully investigated. Connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM)-a recently developed machine-learning approach-has been used to examine potential neural mechanisms in addictions and other psychiatric disorders. To identify the resting-state connections associated with IGD, we modified the CPM approach by replacing its core learning algorithm with a support vector machine. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired in 72 individuals with IGD and 41 healthy comparison participants. The modified CPM was conducted with respect to classification and regression. A comparison of whole-brain and network-based analyses showed that the default-mode network (DMN) is the most informative network in predicting IGD both in classification (individual identification accuracy = 78.76%) and regression (correspondence between predicted and actual psychometric scale score: r = 0.44, P < 0.001). To facilitate the characterization of the aberrant resting-state activity in the DMN, the identified networks have been mapped into a three-subsystem division of the DMN. Results suggest that individual differences in DMN function at rest could advance our understanding of IGD and variability in disorder etiology and intervention outcomes.

11.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 46(1): E111-E118, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) may reduce substance use and other addictive behaviours. However, the cognitive mechanisms that underpin such effects remain unclear. Impaired inhibitory control linked to hypoactivation of the prefrontal cortex may allow craving-related motivations to lead to compulsive addictive behaviours. However, very few studies have examined whether increasing the activation of the dlPFC via anodal tDCS could enhance inhibitory control over addiction-related distractors. The current study aimed to enrich empirical evidence related to this issue. METHODS: Thirty-three males with Internet gaming disorder underwent active (1.5 mA for 20 minutes) and sham tDCS 1 week apart, in randomized order. We assessed inhibitory control over gaming-related distractors and craving pre- and post-stimulation. RESULTS: Relative to sham treatment, active tDCS reduced interference from gaming-related (versus non-gaming) distractors and attenuated background craving, but did not affect cue-induced craving. LIMITATIONS: This study was limited by its relatively small sample size and the fact that it lacked assessments of tDCS effects on addictive behaviour. Future tDCS studies with multiple sessions in larger samples are warranted to examine the effects on addictive behaviours of alterations in addiction-related inhibitory control. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that stimulation of the dlPFC influences inhibitory control over addiction-related cues and addiction-related motivation. This is the first empirical study to suggest that enhanced inhibitory control may be a cognitive mechanism underlying the effects of tDCS on addictions like Internet gaming disorder. Our finding of attenuated background craving replicated previous tDCS studies. Intriguingly, our finding of distinct tDCS effects on 2 forms of craving suggests that they may have disparate underlying mechanisms or differential sensitivity to tDCS. CLINICAL TRIALS #: NCT03352973.


Assuntos
Fissura , Função Executiva , Inibição Psicológica , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/fisiopatologia , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/terapia , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Adolescente , Adulto , Fissura/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Chin J Integr Med ; 27(4): 252-258, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the efficacy of Getong Tongluo Capsule (, GTC, consisted of total flavone of Radix Puerariae) on improving patients' quality of life and lowering blood pressure are superior to the extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGB) for patients with convalescent-phase ischemic stroke and primary hypertension. METHODS: This randomized, positive-drug- and placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted from September 2015 to October 2017. Totally 477 eligible patients from 18 hospitals in China were randomly assigned in a 2:1:1 ratio to the following interventions, twice a day for 12 weeks: (1) GTC 250 mg plus EGB-matching placebo 40 mg (237 cases, GTC group), (2) EGB 40 mg plus GTC-matching placebo 250 mg (120 cases, EGB group) or (3) GTC-matching placebo 250 mg plus EGB-matching placebo 40 mg (120 cases, placebo group). Moreover, all patients were orally administered aspirin enteric-coated tablets 100 mg, once a day for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the Barthel Index (BI). The secondary outcomes included the control rate of blood pressure and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores. The incidence and severity of adverse events (AEs) were calculated and assessed. RESULTS: The BI relative independence rates, the clinical recovery rates of NIHSS, and the total effective rates of NIHSS in the GTC and EGB groups were significantly higher than the placebo group at 12 weeks after treatment (P<0.05), and no statistical significance was found between the GTC and EGB groups (P>0.05). The control rate of blood pressure in the GTC group was significantly higher than the EGB and placebo groups at 12, 18 and 24 weeks after treatment (P<0.01). There were no statistically significant differences in the incidences of AEs, adverse drug reactions, or serious AEs among the 3 groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: GTC exhibited significant efficacy in improving patients' quality of life as well as neurological function and controlling hypertension. (Registration No. ChiCTR1800016667).


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão , AVC Isquêmico , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Cápsulas , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Addict Biol ; 26(2): e12917, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415913

RESUMO

Alterations in brain connectivity have been implicated in internet gaming disorder (IGD). However, little is known about alterations in whole-brain connectivity and their associations with long-term treatment outcomes. Here, we used a relatively new analytic approach, intrinsic connectivity distribution (ICD) analysis, to examine brain connectivity in 74 IGD participants and 41 matched healthy controls (HCs) and conducted post hoc seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) analyses based on the ICD findings. We also examined how these findings related to outcomes involving a craving behavioral intervention (CBI) for IGD. IGD participants showed less whole-brain connectivity in the left angular gyrus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) compared with HC participants. Seed-based rsFC analyses revealed that the left angular gyrus in the IGD group showed less connectivity with areas involved in the default-mode network and greater connectivity with areas in the salience and executive control networks. CBI was associated with improved connectivity within regions in the default-mode network and regions across the default-mode and salience networks. ICD-identified connectivity differences in the left angular gyrus and vmPFC were related to changes in craving and severity of addiction 6 months after the intervention. The findings suggest that IGD is associated with alterations in brain connectivity that may be sensitive to interventions. Thus, the findings have implications for understanding mechanisms underlying CBI effects and for further treatment development.

14.
Opt Express ; 28(26): 39128-39136, 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379469

RESUMO

Two-photon absorption spectra are difficult to observe using direct absorption spectroscopy especially in the near-infrared region. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy is a promising absorption spectroscopy technique which has been widely applied to linear and saturated single-photon absorption spectra. In the present study, we report the observation of a possible two-photon absorption in the near-infrared using cavity ring-down spectroscopy, namely a two-photon resonance of methane. Using an optical frequency comb, the single-photon wavenumber of the double-quantum transition has been determined to be 182 207 682.645 MHz with a standard deviation of 75 kHz.

15.
J Psychiatr Res ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neural mechanisms underlying internet gaming disorder (IGD) are important for diagnostic considerations and treatment development. However, neurobiological underpinnings of IGD remain relatively poorly understood. METHODS: We employed multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA), a machine-learning approach, to examine the potential of neural features to statistically predict IGD status and treatment outcome (percentage change in weekly gaming time) for IGD. Cue-reactivity fMRI-task data were collected from 40 male IGD subjects and 19 male healthy control (HC) subjects. 23 IGD subjects received 6 weeks of craving behavioral intervention (CBI) treatment. MVPA was applied to classify IGD subjects from HCs and statistically predict clinical outcomes. RESULTS: MVPA displayed a high (92.37%) accuracy (sensitivity of 90.00% and specificity of 94.74%) in the classification of IGD and HC subjects. The most discriminative brain regions that contribute to classification were the bilateral middle frontal gyrus, precuneus, and posterior lobe of the right cerebellum. MVPA statistically predicted clinical outcomes in the craving behavioral intervention (CBI) group (r = 0.48, p = 0.0032). The most strongly implicated brain regions in the prediction model were the right middle frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, anterior/posterior lobes of the cerebellum and left postcentral gyrus. CONCLUSIONS: The findings about cue-reactivity neural correlates could help identify IGD subjects and predict CBI-related treatment outcomes provide mechanistic insight into IGD and its treatment and may help promote treatment development efforts.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 17924-17931, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661175

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance frequently evolves through fitness trade-offs in which the genetic alterations that confer resistance to a drug can also cause growth defects in resistant cells. Here, through experimental evolution in a microfluidics-based turbidostat, we demonstrate that antibiotic-resistant cells can be efficiently inhibited by amplifying the fitness costs associated with drug-resistance evolution. Using tavaborole-resistant Escherichia coli as a model, we show that genetic mutations in leucyl-tRNA synthetase (that underlie tavaborole resistance) make resistant cells intolerant to norvaline, a chemical analog of leucine that is mistakenly used by tavaborole-resistant cells for protein synthesis. We then show that tavaborole-sensitive cells quickly outcompete tavaborole-resistant cells in the presence of norvaline due to the amplified cost of the molecular defect of tavaborole resistance. This finding illustrates that understanding molecular mechanisms of drug resistance allows us to effectively amplify even small evolutionary vulnerabilities of resistant cells to potentially enhance or enable adaptive therapies by accelerating posttreatment competition between resistant and susceptible cells.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Resistência a Medicamentos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Variação Genética , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
J Behav Addict ; 9(1): 105-115, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359234

RESUMO

Objectives: Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is essential for the condition's diagnosis and treatment. Nevertheless, the pathological mechanisms of IGD remain elusive at present. Hence, we employed multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) and spectral dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) to explore this issue. Methods: Resting-state fMRI data were collected from 103 IGD subjects (male = 57) and 99 well-matched recreational game users (RGUs, male = 51). Regional homogeneity was calculated as the feature for MVPA based on the support vector machine (SVM) with leave-one- out cross-validation. Mean time series data extracted from the brain regions in accordance with the MVPA results were used for further spDCM analysis. Results: Results display a high accuracy of 82.67% (sensitivity of 83.50% and specificity of 81.82%) in the classification of the two groups. The most discriminative brain regions that contributed to the classification were the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus (PG), right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and middle frontal gyrus (MFG). Significant correlations were found between addiction severity (IAT and DSM scores) and the ReHo values of the brain regions that contributed to the classification. Moreover, the results of spDCM showed that compared with RGU, IGD showed decreased effective connectivity from the left PG to the right MFG and from the right PG to the ACC and decreased self-connection in the right PG. Conclusions: These results show that the weakening of the PG and its connection with the prefrontal cortex, including the ACC and MFG, may be an underlying mechanism of IGD.


Assuntos
Conectoma , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/fisiopatologia , Giro Para-Hipocampal/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto , Conectoma/métodos , Conectoma/normas , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Giro Para-Hipocampal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Adulto Jovem
18.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 36: 29-37, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446706

RESUMO

Reward-seeking and relief from negative emotions are two central motivational drives underlying addictions. Impaired executive control over craving and negative emotions contributes to compulsive addictive behaviors. Neuroimaging evidence has implicated the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in regulating craving or emotions. This study aims at examining whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over a specific region of the PFC would enhance both regulation processes. Thirty-three men with internet gaming disorder received active (1.5 mA for 20 minutes) and sham tDCS over the right dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC) one week apart in a randomized order. During each stimulation session, participants regulated craving for gaming during a regulation of craving (ROC) task and negative emotions during an emotion regulation (ER) task using cognitive reappraisal. Subjective ratings of craving and negative emotions and skin conductance responses (SCRs) were recorded. For both craving and negative emotions, tDCS of the right dlPFC facilitated downregulation and upregulation: active relative to sham tDCS decreased ratings (ROC: 95% CI of difference -1.38 to -0.56, p < 0.001; ER: -1.65 to -0.70, p < 0.001) and/or SCRs (ROC: -1.99 to -0.41 µs, p = 0.004) for downregulation, and increased ratings (ROC: 0.24 to 0.82, p = 0.001; ER: 0.26 to 0.72, p < 0.001) for upregulation. These findings provide the first experimental evidence confirming that tDCS of the right dlPFC enhances both craving- and negative-emotion-regulation. This suggests a promising approach for concurrently enhancing executive control over two central motivational drives underlying addictions.


Assuntos
Fissura/fisiologia , Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/psicologia , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/terapia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Psychiatry Res ; 286: 112892, 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114205

RESUMO

Poor executive function (EF) has been implicated in addictions. Among "hot" EFs (i.e., those involving motivations and emotions), poor regulation of craving has been proposed to underlie addiction development in substance-use disorders (SUDs), making such regulation a potential treatment target. However, regulation of craving remains poorly understood in internet gaming disorder (IGD). Additionally, prior studies of cold EFs (e.g., inhibition and cognitive flexibility under neutral conditions) in IGD have provided mixed results and mostly included only male subjects. We addressed these issues by instructing 54 participants (26 with IGD including males and females, and 28 control subjects) to perform a regulation-of-craving (ROC) task and a Stroop color-word-interference task. Compared to control subjects, individuals with IGD revealed deficits in regulation for both gaming- and food-related craving, but no differences in Stroop performance. The current study provides initial empirical support suggesting regulation impairments for both addiction-related and primary rewards among individuals with IGD. The findings are consistent with studies in SUDs, suggesting that impaired regulation of craving may be a relevant transdiagnostic construct across SUDs and behavioral addictions. The findings suggest targeting regulation of "hot" processes should be considered in IGD treatment development.

20.
Neuroimage Clin ; 26: 102202, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045732

RESUMO

Current models of addiction biology highlight altered neural responses to non-drug rewards as a central feature of addiction. However, given that drugs of abuse can directly impact reward-related dopamine circuitry, it is difficult to determine the extent to which reward processing alterations are a trait feature of individuals with addictions, or primarily a consequence of exogenous drug exposure. Examining individuals with behavioral addictions is one promising approach for disentangling neural features of addiction from the direct effects of substance exposure. The current fMRI study compared neural responses during monetary reward processing between drug naïve young adults with a behavioral addiction, internet gaming disorder (IGD; n = 22), and healthy controls (n = 27) using a monetary incentive delay task. Relative to controls, individuals with IGD exhibited blunted caudate activity associated with loss magnitude at the outcome stage, but did not differ from controls in neural activity at other stages. These findings suggest that decreased loss sensitivity might be a critical feature of IGD, whereas alterations in gain processing may be less characteristic of individuals with IGD, relative to those with substance use disorders. Therefore, classic theories of altered reward processing in substance use disorders should be translated to behavioral addictions with caution.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/fisiopatologia , Recompensa , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Neuroimagem/métodos , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...