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1.
Foods ; 10(12)2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34945670

RESUMO

This study compared growth rates, carcass, and meat quality obtained from 24 male crossbred donkey foals reared for meat production under an intensive (I) or extensive (E) feeding system. Donkeys were slaughtered at 16 months of age; the average final body weight, hot and cold carcass weight, and hot and cold dressing percentage were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the I group. Samples of Longissimus Thoracis et Lumborum (LTL) were taken from each foal for chemical and physical analysis. Group I showed significant (p < 0.05) higher intramuscular fat, while the E group showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher protein and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) contents, including n-3 essential fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) and glycogen were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the intensive system, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were significantly higher in the extensive system. The ratio PUFA/SFA was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in group E. The Thrombogenic Index (TI) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the I group. Meat tenderness was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in group I. The feeding system had no effect on cholesterol content and meat color characteristics. Donkeys average daily gain, carcass weight, and some meat quality parameters were significantly affected by the rearing system.

2.
J Neurol ; 2021 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of dementia in China, particularly in rural areas, is consistently increasing; however, research on population-attributable fractions (PAFs) of risk factors for dementia is scarce. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey, namely, the China Multicentre Dementia Survey (CMDS) in selected rural and urban areas from 2018 to 2020. We performed face-to-face interviews and neuropsychological and clinical assessments to reach a consensus on dementia diagnosis. Prevalence and weighted PAFs of eight modifiable risk factors (six classical: less childhood education, hearing impairment, depression, physical inactivity, diabetes, and social isolation, and two novels: olfactory decline and being unmarried) for all-cause dementia were estimated. RESULTS: Overall, CMDS included 17,589 respondents aged ≥ 65 years, 55.6% of whom were rural residents. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence for all-cause dementia was 9.11% (95% CI 8.96-9.26), 5.19% (5.07-5.31), and 11.98% (11.8-12.15) in the whole, urban, and rural areas of China, respectively. Further, the overall weighted PAFs of the eight potentially modifiable risk factors were 53.72% (95% CI 52.73-54.71), 50.64% (49.4-51.89), and 56.54% (55.62-57.46) in the whole, urban, and rural areas of China, respectively. The eight risk factors' prevalence differed between rural and urban areas. Lower childhood education (PAF: 13.92%) and physical inactivity (16.99%) were primary risk factors in rural and urban areas, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The substantial urban-rural disparities in the prevalence of dementia and its risk factors exist, suggesting the requirement of resident-specific dementia-prevention strategies.

3.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(19): 1503, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805365

RESUMO

Objective: We aimed at comprehensively analyzing ferroptosis regulation and its potential role in the treatment of associated diseases. Background: Ferroptosis is a recently discovered form of cell death that involves small molecule-induced oxidative cell death. This process is usually accompanied by large amounts of iron accumulation and lipid peroxidation. Ferroptosis inducers directly or indirectly affect glutathione peroxidase (GPXs) through different pathways. Disturbances in GPXs result in suppressed cellular antioxidant capacities, accumulation of lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative cell death. It has been reported that ferroptosis is closely associated with the pathophysiological processes of many diseases, including tumors, nervous system diseases, ischemia-reperfusion injury, kidney injury and iron metabolism diseases among others. Methods: First, we reviewed the mechanisms of ferroptosis, with emphasis on the characteristics and functions of ferroptosis in multiple pathways. Then, inducers and inhibitors of ferroptosis were reviewed, and their mechanisms of action elucidated. Finally, ferroptosis-associated pathophysiological processes of various diseases were reviewed. Conclusions: Ferroptosis is associated with the occurrence and development of various diseases. Elucidation of the mechanisms involved in ferroptosis will inform new therapeutic targets and strategies for these diseases.

4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(44): 12974-12984, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723494

RESUMO

Fluensulfone (FSF) becomes increasingly popular because of its nonfumigation application method. However, studies on the metabolic mechanism of FSF in plants are lacking. Here, tomato seedling was cultivated in hydroponic media to investigate the connection among FSF's metabolism in tomato, the regulation of tomato endogenous glycosides, and the elimination of hydrogen peroxide in tomato cells. The accumulation of FSF was only detected in the lower stems of tomatoes; FSF was mainly metabolized into S-glycosylated conjugates in the roots, and the roots were the tissues with the highest metabolite content; and no FSF and metabolites were detected in the upper leaves. In response to FSF stress (2 mg/L for 7 d), the content of sugar and glycosides in the stems of tomato seedlings significantly increased. The amount of some compounds on the pathway related to glucose was affected by FSF. The three precursor compounds (homomethioine, isoleucine, and l-tyrosine) in the pathway of glucosinolate biosynthesis increased significantly under the stress of FSF, which indicates that FSF may compete with them for UGT74B1. Besides, FSF-induced flavonoid glycosides may play a role in the process of removing hydrogen peroxide. This research provides inspiration for the fate of many xenobiotics containing sulfonyl groups in plants.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Glicosilação , Plântula , Sulfonas , Tiazóis
5.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 372, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical practicability of the ensemble learning model established by Liu et al. in estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and validate whether it is a better model than the Asian modified Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation in a cohort of Chinese chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in an external validation study. METHODS: According to the ensemble learning model and the Asian modified CKD-EPI equation, we calculated estimated GFRensemble and GFRCKD-EPI, separately. Diagnostic performance of the two models was assessed and compared by correlation coefficient, regression equation, Bland-Altman analysis, bias, precision and P30 under the premise of 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) dual plasma sample clearance method as reference method for GFR measurement (mGFR). RESULTS: A total of 158 Chinese CKD patients were included in our external validation study. The GFRensemble was highly related with mGFR, with the correlation coefficient of 0.94. However, regression equation of GFRensemble = 0.66*mGFR + 23.05, the regression coefficient was far away from one, and the intercept was wide. Compared with the Asian modified CKD-EPI equation, the diagnostic performance of the ensemble learning model also demonstrated a wider 95% limit of agreement in Bland-Altman analysis (52.6 vs 42.4 ml/min/1.73 m2), a poorer bias (8.0 vs 1.0 ml/min/1.73 m2, P = 0.02), an inferior precision (18.4 vs 12.7 ml/min/1.73 m2, P < 0.001) and a lower P30 (58.9% vs 74.1%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that the ensemble learning model cannot replace the Asian modified CKD-EPI equation for the first choice for GFR estimation in overall Chinese CKD patients.

6.
Mol Cancer Res ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654722

RESUMO

Lymphatic metastasis is a common clinical symptom in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), the most common Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated head and neck malignancy. However, the effect of EBV on NPC lymph node (LN) metastasis is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that EBV infection is strongly associated with advanced clinical N stage and lymphangiogenesis of NPC. We found that NPC cells infected with EBV promote LN metastasis by inducing cancer-associated lymphangiogenesis, whereas these changes were abolished upon clearance of EBV genomes. Mechanistically, EBV-induced VEGF-C contributed to lymphangiogenesis and LN metastasis, and PHLPP1, a target of miR-BART15, partially contributed to AKT/HIF1a hyperactivity and subsequent VEGF-C transcriptional activation. In addition, administration of anti-VEGF-C antibody or HIF1α inhibitors attenuated the lymphangiogenesis and LN metastasis induced by EBV. Finally, we verified the clinical significance of this prometastatic EBV/VEGF-C axis by determining the expression of PHLPP1, AKT, HIF1a, and VEGF-C in NPC specimens with and without EBV. These results uncover a reasonable mechanism for the EBV-modulated LN metastasis microenvironment in NPC, indicating that EBV is a potential therapeutic target for NPC with lymphatic metastasis. IMPLICATIONS: This research demonstrates that EBV induces lymphangiogenesis in NPC by regulating PHLPP1/p-AKT/HIF1a/VEGF-C, providing a new therapeutic target for NPC with lymphatic metastasis.

7.
Yi Chuan ; 43(10): 949-961, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702707

RESUMO

Short tandem repeat (STR) markers have been widely used in forensic paternity testing and individual identification, but the STR mutation might impact on the forensic result interpretation. Importantly, the STR mutation rate was underestimated due to ignoring the "hidden" mutation phenomenon in most similar studies. Considering this, we use Slooten and Ricciardi's restricted mutation model based on big data to obtain more accurate mutation rates for each marker. In this paper, the mutations of 20 autosomal STRs loci (D3S1358, D1S1656, D13S317, Penta E, D16S539, D18S51, D2S1338, CSF1PO, Penta D, TH01, vWA, D21S11, D6S1043, D7S820, D5S818, TPOX, D8S1179, D12S391, D19S433, and FGA; The restricted model does not include the correction factor of D6S1043, this paper calculates remaining 19 STR loci mutation rates) were investigated in 28,313 (Total: 78,739 individuals) confirmed parentage-testing cases in Chinese Han population. As a result, total 1665 mutations were found in all loci, including 1614 one-steps, 34 two-steps, 8 three-steps, and 9 nonintegral mutations. The loci-specific average mutation rates ranged from 0.00007700 (TPOX) to 0.00459050 (FGA) in trio's and 0.00000000 (TPOX) to 0.00344850 (FGA) in duo's. We analyzed the relationship between mutation rates of the apparent and actual, the trio's and duo's, the paternal and maternal, respectively. The results demonstrated that the actual mutation rates are more than the apparent mostly, and the values of µ1"/µ2"(apparent) are also greater than µ1/µ2 (actual) commonly (µ1", µ1; µ2", µ2 are the mutation rates of one-step and two-step). Therefore, the "hidden" mutations are identified. In addition, the mutations rates of trio's and duo's, the paternal and maternal, exhibit significant difference. Next, those mutation data are used to do a comparison with the studies of other Han populations in China, which present the temporal and regional disparities. Due to the large sample size, some rare mutation events, such as monozygotic (MZ) mutation and "fake four-step mutation", are also reported in this study. In conclusion, the estimation values of actual mutations are obtained based on big data, they can not only provide basic data for the Chinese forensic DNA and population genetics databases, but also have important significance for the development of forensic individual identification, paternity testing and genetics research.


Assuntos
Big Data , Repetições de Microssatélites , Frequência do Gene , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Mutação , Taxa de Mutação
8.
Cell Death Discov ; 7(1): 261, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552054

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is a highly aggressive and lethal digestive system malignancy. Our previous studies revealed the correlation of high levels of lncRNA SOX2OT expression with patients' poor survival outcomes, the promoting role of SOX2OT in proliferation and cycle progression of pancreatic cancer cells, and the in vivo binding of SOX2OT to RNA binding protein FUS, which destabilized the protein expression of FUS. However, the mechanism of SOX2OT binding and inhibiting FUS protein stability remains unclear. In this study, we performed RNA pull-down, cycloheximide-chase, and ubiquitination assays to determine the effect of SOX2OT on FUS ubiquitination, and explored the specific regulatory mechanism of SOX2OT-FUS axis in pancreatic cancer cell migration, invasion, in vivo tumor growth, and metastasis through RNA sequencing. We found that SOX2OT binds to FUS through its 5' and 3' regions, resulting in FUS ubiquitination and degradation. The SOX2OT-FUS regulatory axis promotes migration, invasion, tumor growth, and metastasis ability of pancreatic cancer cells. The in-depth elaboration of the SOX2OT-FUS regulatory axis in pancreatic cancer may clarify the mechanism of action of SOX2OT and provide new ideas for pancreatic cancer treatment.

9.
Exp Cell Res ; 406(1): 112761, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339675

RESUMO

Stresses, such as neurohumoral activation, induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy is the main risk factor for heart failure. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a key role in maintaining protein homeostasis and cardiac function. However, research on the role and mechanism of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) in cardiac hypertrophy is limited. Here, we observe that the deubiquitinating enzyme ubiquitin-specific protease 12(USP12) is upregulated in Ang II-induced hypertrophic hearts and primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs). Inhibition of USP12 ameliorate Ang II-induced myocardial hypertrophy, while overexpression of USP12 have the opposite effect. USP12 deficiency also significantly attenuate the phenotype of Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrate that USP12 aggravate Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy by enhancing METTL3, a methyltransferase which catalyze N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification on messenger RNA and acts as a harmful factor in pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Upregulation of METTL3 reverse the reduction of myocardial hypertrophy induced by USP12 silencing in NRCMs. In contrast, knockdown of METTL3 attenuate the aggravation of myocardial hypertrophy in USP12-overexpressing NRCMs. Furthermore, we discover that USP12 promote the expression of METTL3 via upregulating p300. Mechanistically, USP12 binds and stabilizes p300, thereby activating the transcription of its downstream gene METTL3. Finally, our data show that USP12 is partially dependent on the stabilization of p300 to activate METTL3 expression and promote myocardial hypertrophy. Taken together, our results demonstrate that USP12 acts as a pro-hypertrophic deubiquitinating enzyme via enhancing p300/METTL3 axis, indicating that targeting USP12 could be a potential treatment strategy for pathological cardiac hypertrophy.


Assuntos
Cardiomegalia/genética , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/administração & dosagem , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Cardiomegalia/induzido quimicamente , Cardiomegalia/metabolismo , Cardiomegalia/patologia , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
10.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(27): 4342-4357, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366608

RESUMO

Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive condition caused by several factors and characterised by pancreatic fibrosis and dysfunction. However, CP is difficult to diagnose at an early stage. Various advanced methods including endoscopic ultrasound based elastography and confocal laser endomicroscopy have been used to diagnose early CP, although no unified diagnostic standards have been established. In the past, the diagnosis was mainly based on imaging, and no comprehensive evaluations were performed. This review describes and compares the advantages and limitations of the traditional and latest diagnostic modalities and suggests guidelines for the standardisation of the methods used to diagnose early CP.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Pancreatopatias , Pancreatite Crônica , Endossonografia , Humanos , Pancreatite Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 83(4): 1741-1752, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some studies have demonstrated an association between low and high body mass index (BMI) and an increased risk of dementia. However, only a few of these studies were performed in rural areas. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study investigated the associations between BMI and cognitive impairment among community-dwelling older adults from rural and urban areas. METHODS: 8,221 older persons enrolled in the Hubei Memory & Ageing Cohort Study (HMACS) were recruited. Sociodemographic and lifestyle data, comorbidities, physical measurements, and clinical diagnoses of cognitive impairment were analyzed. Logistic regression was performed to assess the associations of BMI categories with cognitive impairment. A series of sensitivity analyses were conducted to test whether reverse causality could influence our results. RESULTS: Being underweight in the rural-dwelling participants increased the risk of cognitive impairment. Being overweight was a protective factor in rural-dwelling participants aged 65-69 years and 75-79 years, whereas being underweight was significantly associated with cognitive impairment (OR, 1.37; 95% CI: 1.03-1.83; p < 0.05). Sensitivity analyses support that underweight had an additive effect on the odds of cognitive impairment and was related to risk of dementia. Interaction test revealed that the differences between urban/rural in the relationship between BMI and cognitive impairment are statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Associations between BMI and cognitive impairment differ among urban/rural groups. Older people with low BMI living in rural China are at a higher risk for dementia than those living in urban areas.

12.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(22): 6515-6521, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In critical care medicine, mesenteric ischemia (MI) is a life-threatening disease that can be present in both critically ill patients and those undergoing major surgery. For the first time, we report a case of concealed MI with a long course after knee arthroplasty. CASE SUMMARY: A male patient underwent left total knee arthroplasty for gouty arthritis and developed a persistent fever and persistently high levels of serum infection markers after surgery. He was considered to have a periprosthetic site infection and treated with antibiotics and colchicine, periprosthetic debridement was performed, and the spacer was replaced, but no improvement was seen. At 54 d after arthroplasty, the patient developed gastrointestinal symptoms of nausea and vomiting, abdominal distention, and subsequently, cloudiness of consciousness, and hypotensive shock. Finally, the patient was diagnosed with ascending colonic mesentery ischemia with necrosis after laparotomy, which improved after right hemicolectomy. CONCLUSION: Concealed MI without gastrointestinal symptoms after major surgery is rare and easily misdiagnosed. Orthopedic surgeons need to be aware of this complication.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(35): 41916-41925, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448583

RESUMO

Flexible optoelectronic synaptic devices that functionally imitate the neural behavior with tunable optoelectronic characteristics are crucial to the development of advanced bioinspired neural networks. In this work, amorphous oxide-decorated GaN nanowire arrays (GaOx@GaN NWAs) are prepared on flexible graphite paper. A GaOx@GaN NWA-based flexible device has tunable persistent photoconductivity (PPC) and shows a conversible fast/slow decay process (SDP). Photoconductivity can be modulated by single or double light pulses with different illumination powers and biases. PPC gives rise to the high-performance SDP such as a long decay time of 2.3 × 105 s. The modulation mechanism is proposed and discussed. Our results reveal an innovative and efficient strategy to produce decorated NWAs on a flexible substrate with tunable optoelectronic properties and exhibit potential for flexible neuromorphic system applications.

14.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(19): 5126-5134, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery usually suffer severe pain in the postoperative period. The erector spinae plane block (ESPB), first published in 2016, can anesthetize the ventral and dorsal rami of thoracic nerves and produce an extensive multi-dermatomal sensory block. AIM: To assess whether bilateral ultrasound-guided ESPB at a lower thoracic level could improve pain control and quality of recovery in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. METHODS: A total of 60 patients aged 18-80 years scheduled to undergo lumbar spine surgery with general anesthesia were randomly assigned to two groups: ESPB group (preoperative bilateral ultrasound-guided ESPB at T10 vertebral level) and control group (no preoperative ESPB). Both groups received standard general anesthesia. The main indicator was the duration to the first patient controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) bolus. RESULTS: In the ESPB group, the duration to the first PCIA bolus was significantly longer than that in the control group (h) [8.0 (4.5, 17.0) vs 1.0 (0.5, 6), P < 0.01], and resting and coughing numerical rating scale (NRS) scores at 48 h post operation were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding resting and coughing NRS scores at 24 h post operation. Sufentanil consumption during the operation was significantly lower in the ESPB group than in the control group (P < 0.01), while there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding morphine consumption at 24 or 48 h post operation. In the ESPB group, Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation score within 20 min after extubation was higher and duration in the post-anesthesia care unit was shorter than those in the control group (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery, ultrasound-guided ESPB at a lower thoracic level improves the analgesic effect, reduces opioid consumption, and improves postoperative recovery.

15.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(14): 6746-6759, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132026

RESUMO

Fibrosis serves a critical role in driving atrial remodelling-mediated atrial fibrillation (AF). Abnormal levels of the transcription factor PU.1, a key regulator of fibrosis, are associated with cardiac injury and dysfunction following acute viral myocarditis. However, the role of PU.1 in atrial fibrosis and vulnerability to AF remain unclear. Here, an in vivo atrial fibrosis model was developed by the continuous infusion of C57 mice with subcutaneous Ang-II, while the in vitro model comprised atrial fibroblasts that were isolated and cultured. The expression of PU.1 was significantly up-regulated in the Ang-II-induced group compared with the sham/control group in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, protein expression along the TGF-ß1/Smads pathway and the proliferation and differentiation of atrial fibroblasts induced by Ang-II were significantly higher in the Ang-II-induced group than in the sham/control group. These effects were attenuated by exposure to DB1976, a PU.1 inhibitor, both in vivo and in vitro. Importantly, in vitro treatment with small interfering RNA against Smad3 (key protein of TGF-ß1/Smads signalling pathway) diminished these Ang-II-mediated effects, and the si-Smad3-mediated effects were, in turn, antagonized by the addition of a PU.1-overexpression adenoviral vector. Finally, PU.1 inhibition reduced the atrial fibrosis induced by Ang-II and attenuated vulnerability to AF, at least in part through the TGF-ß1/Smads pathway. Overall, the study implicates PU.1 as a potential therapeutic target to inhibit Ang-II-induced atrial fibrosis and vulnerability to AF.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 790: 148034, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111793

RESUMO

Pesticides make indispensable contributions to agricultural productivity. However, the residues after their excessive use may be harmful to crop production, food safety and human health. Although the ability of plants (especially crops) to accumulate and metabolize pesticides has been intensively investigated, data describing the chemical and metabolic processes in plants are limited. Understanding how pesticides are metabolized is a key step toward developing cleaner crops with minimal pesticides in crops, creating new green pesticides (or safeners), and building up the engineered plants for environmental remediation. In this review, we describe the recently discovered mechanistic insights into pesticide metabolic pathways, and development of improved plant genotypes that break down pesticides more effectively. We highlight the identification of biological features and functions of major pesticide-metabolized enzymes such as laccases, glycosyltransferases, methyltransferases and ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, and discuss their chemical reactions involved in diverse pathways including the formation of pesticide S-conjugates. The recent findings for some signal molecules (phytohomormes) like salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and brassinosteroids involved in metabolism and detoxification of pesticides are summarized. In particular, the emerging research on the epigenetic mechanisms such DNA methylation and histone modification for pesticide metabolism is emphasized. The review would broaden our understanding of the regulatory networks of the pesticide metabolic pathways in higher plants.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Agricultura , Brassinosteroides , Produtos Agrícolas , Epigênese Genética , Humanos
17.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(15): 3623-3630, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is a rare disease of unclear cause characterized by subchondral bone damage and overlying cartilage defects. The current report presents the results of subchondral bone as a novel target for implantation of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) in the treatment of OCD. CASE SUMMARY: A 16-year-old patient diagnosed with OCD underwent subchondral bone implantation of PBSCs. Four months later, the patient's visual analog scale scores, Western Ontario and McMaster University osteoarthritis index, and whole-organ magnetic resonance imaging score improved significantly, and regeneration of cartilage and subchondral bone was observed on magnetic resonance imaging. CONCLUSION: This is the first case of OCD treated with subchondral bone as an implantation target of PBSCs, which highlights the importance of subchondral bone for cartilage repair. This treatment could be a potential option for articular cartilage and subchondral bone recovery in OCD.

18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(10): 2424-2433, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047086

RESUMO

Pharmacology network was used to investigate the common key target and signaling pathway of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma in the protection against diabetic nephropathy(DN), diabetic encephalopathy(DE) and diabetic cardiomyopathy(DCM). The chemical components of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were obtained through TCMSP database and literature mining, and SwissTargetPrediction database was used to predict potential targets of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma. The disease targets of DN, DE and DCM were obtained through OMIM and GeneCards databases. The overlapped targets of component targets and disease targets of DN, DE and DCM were obtained, and the network of "chemical component-target-disease" was established. The enriched GO and KEGG of the overlapped genes were investigated by using ClueGo plug-in with Cytoscape. At the same time, the PPI network was constructed through STRING database, and the common key targets for the treatment of three diseases by Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were obtained through topological parametric mathematical analysis by Cytoscape. A total of 166 chemical components and 835 component targets were screened out from Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma. Briefly, 216, 194 and 230 disease targets of DN, DE and DCM were collected, respectively. And 54, 45 and 57 overlapped targets were identified when overlapping these disease targets with component targets of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, respectively. Enrichment analysis indicated that the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway and FoxO signaling pathway were the common pathways in the protection of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma against DN, DE and DCM. Network analysis of the overlapped targets showed that TNF, STAT3, IL6, VEGFA, MAPK8, CASP3 and SIRT1 were identified as key targets of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma against DN, DE and DCM, the selected key targets were verified by literature review, and it was found that TNF, IL6, VEGFA, CASP3 and SIRT1 had been reported in the literature. In addition, there were the most compounds corresponding to the commom core target STAT3, indicating that more compounds in Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma could regulate STAT3. This study indicated that Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma potentially protected against DN, DE and DCM through regulating AGE-RAGE signaling pathway and FoxO signaling pathway and 7 common targets including TNF, STAT3, IL6, VEGFA, MAPK8, CASP3 and SIRT1. This study provided a reference for the research of "different diseases with same treatment" and also elucidated the potential mechanism of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma against DN, DE and DCM.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias , Diabetes Mellitus , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 676589, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995108

RESUMO

The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) belongs to the superfamily of cys loop cationic ligand-gated channels, which consists of homogeneous α7 subunits. Although our lab found that activation of α7nAChR could alleviate ischemic stroke, the mechanism is still unknown. Herein, we explored whether autophagy is involved in the neuroprotective effect mediated by α7nAChR in ischemic stroke. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) and oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD/R) exposure were applied to in vivo and in vitro models of ischemic stroke, respectively. Neurological deficit score and infarct volume were used to evaluate outcomes of tMCAO in the in vivo study. Autophagy-related proteins were detected by Western blot, and autophagy flux was detected by using tandem fluorescent mRFP-GFP-LC3 lentivirus. At 24 h after tMCAO, α7nAChR knockout mice showed worse neurological function and larger infarct volume than wild-type mice. PNU282987, an α7nAChR agonist, protected against OGD/R-induced neuronal injury, enhanced autophagy, and promoted autophagy flux. However, the beneficial effects of PNU282987 were eliminated by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an autophagy inhibitor. Moreover, we found that PNU282987 treatment could activate the AMPK-mTOR-p70S6K signaling pathway in the in vitro study, while the effect was attenuated by compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. Our results demonstrated that the beneficial effect on neuronal survival via activation of α7nAChR was associated with enhanced autophagy, and the AMPK-mTOR-p70S6K signaling pathway was involved in α7nAChR activation-mediated neuroprotection.

20.
Cell Biosci ; 11(1): 86, 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985581

RESUMO

Pancreatic tumors are classified into endocrine and exocrine types, and the clinical manifestations in patients are nonspecific. Most patients, especially those with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), have lost the opportunity to receive for the best treatment at the time of diagnosis. Although chemotherapy and radiotherapy have shown good therapeutic results in other tumors, their therapeutic effects on pancreatic tumors are minimal. A multifunctional transcription factor, Yin-Yang 1 (YY1) regulates the transcription of a variety of important genes and plays a significant role in diverse tumors. Studies have shown that targeting YY1 can improve the survival time of patients with tumors. In this review, we focused on the mechanism by which YY1 affects the occurrence and development of pancreatic tumors. We found that a YY1 mutation is specific for insulinomas and has a role in driving the degree of malignancy. In addition, changes in the circadian network are a key causative factor of PDAC. YY1 promotes pancreatic clock progression and induces malignant changes, but YY1 seems to act as a tumor suppressor in PDAC and affects many biological behaviors, such as proliferation, migration, apoptosis and metastasis. Our review summarizes the progress in understanding the role of YY1 in pancreatic endocrine and exocrine tumors and provides a reasonable assessment of the potential for therapeutic targeting of YY1 in pancreatic tumors.

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