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1.
Microbiologyopen ; : e1025, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157819

RESUMO

Interactions between gut microbiota not only regulate physical health, but also form a vital bridge between the environment and the host, thus helping the host to better adapt to the environment. The improvement of modern molecular sequencing techniques enables in-depth investigations of the gut microbiota of vertebrate herbivores without harming them. By sequencing the 16S rRNA V4-V5 region of the gut microbiota of both the captive and wild kiang in winter and summer, the diversity and function of the microbiota could be compared. The reasons for observed differences were discussed. The results showed that the dominant phyla of the kiang were Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and the structure and abundance of the gut microbiota differed significantly between seasons and environments. However, the relatively stable function of the gut microbiota supplies the host with increased adaptability to the environment. The diversity of the intestinal flora of the kiang is relatively low in captivity, which increases their risk to catch diseases to some extent. Therefore, importance should be attached to the impact of captivity on wildlife.

2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202113

RESUMO

Sarcopenia commonly occurs in the elderly and patients with wasting diseases. The main reason is an imbalance in protein metabolism (protein degradation exceeding protein synthesis). It causes a serious decline in muscle strength and motion ability, even leading to long-term bed rest. Recent studies indicate that nutritional support is beneficial for ameliorating sarcopenia and restoring muscle function. This review will summarize the classical mechanisms of protein nutritional support for alleviating sarcopenia, such as modulating the ubiquitin-proteasome system, oxidative response, and cell autophagy, as well as the potential new mechanisms, including altering miRNA profiles and gut microbiota. In addition, the clinical application and outcome of protein nutritional support in the elderly and patients with wasting diseases are also introduced. Protein nutritional support is expected to provide new approaches for the prevention and adjuvant therapy of sarcopenia.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207022

RESUMO

In the paper, the achievements obtained from carrying out the policy of environmental protection price for promoting air pollution control in coal-fired power plants in China during more than a decade were summarized. Based on the situation of current electricity market reform, the role and effectiveness of environmental protection price for controlling the normal air pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and dust in China's coal-fired power generation plants, were investigated, including the price structure of electricity environmental protection for coal-fired power generation enterprises in different regions, generating units, and power demands. The policy suggestions were proposed, namely, the reform of electricity environmental protection price would be carried out gradually, the relationship between electricity environmental protection price policy and other environmental protection policies would be matched under the relative overcapacity condition, and the environmental protection price regulation would be integrated into other environmental policies.

4.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 318(3): H604-H631, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975625

RESUMO

Smoking cigarettes is harmful to the cardiovascular system. Considerable attention has been paid to the reduced harm potential of alternative nicotine-containing inhalable products such as e-cigarettes. We investigated the effects of E-vapor aerosols or cigarette smoke (CS) on atherosclerosis progression, cardiovascular function, and molecular changes in the heart and aorta of female apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. The mice were exposed to aerosols from three different E-vapor formulations: 1) carrier (propylene glycol and vegetable glycerol), 2) base (carrier and nicotine), or 3) test (base and flavor) or to CS from 3R4F reference cigarettes for up to 6 mo. Concentrations of CS and base or test aerosols were matched at 35 µg nicotine/L. Exposure to CS, compared with sham-exposed fresh air controls, accelerated atherosclerotic plaque formation, whereas no such effect was seen for any of the three E-vapor aerosols. Molecular changes indicated disease mechanisms related to oxidative stress and inflammation in general, plus changes in calcium regulation, and altered cytoskeletal organization and microtubule dynamics in the left ventricle. While ejection fraction, fractional shortening, cardiac output, and isovolumic contraction time remained unchanged following E-vapor aerosols exposure, the nicotine-containing base and test aerosols caused an increase in isovolumic relaxation time similar to CS. A nicotine-related increase in pulse wave velocity and arterial stiffness was also observed, but it was significantly lower for base and test aerosols than for CS. These results demonstrate that in comparison with CS, E-vapor aerosols induce substantially lower biological responses associated with smoking-related cardiovascular diseases.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Analysis of key urinary oxidative stress markers and proinflammatory cytokines showed an absence of oxidative stress and inflammation in the animals exposed to E-vapor aerosols. Conversely, animals exposed to conventional cigarette smoke had high urinary levels of these markers. When compared with conventional cigarette smoke, E-vapor aerosols induced smaller atherosclerotic plaque surface area and volume. Systolic and diastolic cardiac function, as well as endothelial function, were further significantly less affected by electronic cigarette aerosols than conventional cigarette smoke. Molecular analysis demonstrated that E-vapor aerosols induce significantly smaller transcriptomic dysregulation in the heart and aorta compared with conventional cigarette smoke.

5.
Bioorg Chem ; 95: 103512, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901752

RESUMO

In the course of our ongoing studies to discover bioactive chemical constituents from plants in the genus Isodon, two new diterpenes, kunminolide A (1) and rabdokunmin F (2) were isolated from the leaves of the medicinal plant Isodon interruptus. Kunminolide A (1) is a novel abietane-like diterpene with a novel skeleton, herein designated as 9, 10-seco-neoabietane. Rabdokunmin F (2) is an ent-kaurene diterpene with C-18 oxidized to a carboxylic acid group. The structures were determined by spectroscopic means including analysis of 1D- and 2D-NMR spectral data. Crystals of 1 obtained from methanol were suitable for X-ray analysis, which confirmed the chemical structure. Kunminolide A (1) demonstrated chemopreventive potential by inducing QR1 activity with a CD value of 14.3 µM, and rabdokunmin F (2) was found to have cytotoxic activities with IC50 values in the range of 1.1-3.0 µM.

6.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935456

RESUMO

Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) protein is an integral membrane glycoprotein. SR-BI is emerging as a multifunctional protein, which regulates autophagy, efferocytosis, cell survival and inflammation. It is well known that SR-BI plays a critical role in lipoprotein metabolism by mediating cholesteryl esters selective uptake and the bi-directional flux of free cholesterol. Recently, SR-BI has also been identified as a potential marker for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, or even a treatment target. Natural products are a promising source for the discovery of new drug leads. Multiple natural products were identified to regulate SR-BI protein expression. There are still a number of challenges in modulating SR-BI expression in cancer and in using natural products for modulation of such protein expression. In this review, our purpose is to discuss the relationship between SR-BI protein and cancer, and the molecular mechanisms regulating SR-BI expression, as well as to provide an overview of natural products that regulate SR-BI expression.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 704: 135335, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784177

RESUMO

The population of wild musk deer (Moschus spp.) has declined in recent decades and reached an endangered status in China. Global climate change may drive the extinction rate of these species. To understand the implications of global warming on the future potential space utilization and migration direction of musk deer, both the maximum entropy model and barycenter migration analysis were utilized. Five global climate models and four representative concentration pathway scenarios were considered to simulate the distribution of six species for the years 2050 and 2070. The results indicated that the suitable habitat area would decrease over the next 30 to 50 years. These decreases of suitable habitat were more significant for the Siberian musk deer (reduced by 4.98% of the land area of China), the forest musk deer (1.04%), the black musk deer (0.86%), and the Himalayan musk deer (1.82%) compared with the other two musk deer species. The area with suitable climate for the Siberian musk deer will migrate to the southwest (to higher elevations) while areas suitable for the Alpine musk deer, the Himalayan musk deer, and the Anhui musk deer would all migrate to the northeast (to higher latitudes). However, the forest musk deer and the black musk deer will not migrate in the same direction, but will mainly migrate to the west and the north, respectively. These results provide data in support for in-situ conservation, ex-situ conservation, natural reserve community, and bio-corridor construction of China's musk deer species in response to global warming.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Cervos , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Animais , China , Ruminantes
8.
Integr Zool ; 15(1): 79-86, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305022

RESUMO

Following significant developments in technology, alternative devices have been applied in fieldwork for animal and plant surveys. Thermal-image acquisition cameras installed on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been used in animal surveys in the wilderness. This article demonstrates an example of how UAVs can be used in high mountainous regions, presenting a case study on the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey with a detection rate of 65.19% for positive individual identification. It also presents a model that can prospectively predict population size for a given animal species, which is based on combined initial work using UAVs and traditional surveys on the ground. A great potential advantage of UAVs is significantly shortening survey procedures, particularly for areas with high mountains and plateaus, such as the Himalayas, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Hengduan Mountains, the Yunnan-Gui Plateau and Qinling Mountains in China, where carrying out a traditional survey is extremely difficult, so that species and population surveys, particularly for critically endangered animals, are largely absent. This lack of data has impacted the management of endangered animals as well as the formulation and amendment of conservation strategies.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Colobinae/fisiologia , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Aeronaves , Animais , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Densidade Demográfica , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação
9.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(2): 025306, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581144

RESUMO

We present a comprehensive theoretical study on thermal transport in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M: Mo, W; X: S, Se) with various sample sizes. An unusually high anharmonic scattering strength is found in MoSe2 compared to the other three family members, which arises from its unique phonon band dispersion, specifically the mid-frequency phonon branches associated with the vibrations of Se atoms of MoSe2. The mid-frequency modes almost completely span the gap that exists between the high-frequency phonon branches and the acoustic ones, allowing the former to readily decay into the latter. The resultant high anharmonic scattering gives rise to a short mean free path which makes the room temperature in-plane thermal conductivity in MoSe2 even lower than WSe2 when the sample length is larger than 51.5 nm. With varying sample sizes, the ordering of thermal conductivity among the four materials changes as phonon transport transits from the ballistic to diffusive regime, driven by the competition between the phonon frequency spectrum range and the scattering strength. Our work provides a microscopic picture of phonon transport in TMDs and guidance to tailor their thermal conductivities for electronic and thermoelectric applications.

10.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 956, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 99mTc-Rituximab is a new specific radiopharmaceutical that binds to the CD20 receptor which is highly expressed on the surface of B cells. We conducted a study in which 99mTc-Rituximab was compared with filtered 99mTc-sulfur colloid (fTcSC) for sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection in patients with breast cancer. METHOD: The study is divided into three parts. 1. Initially, 25 patients were selected for an internal controlled trial to received both 99mTc-Rituximab and fTcSC, the interval time is separated by ≥2 days. 2. Then, 91 patients were selected for a randomized controlled trial (41 and 50 patients in the 99mTc-Rituximab and fTcSC groups, respectively). All patients were administered either agent at the 6- and 12-o' clock positions by subareolar injection technique. SLN mapping was then performed 2 h after injection. 3. Serial dynamic images were further acquired for 2 h in 31 patients (22 and 9 patients from 99mTc-Rituximab and fTcSC cohorts, respectively). RESULTS: The identification rate of lymphoscintigraphy and SLNB in all and axilla regions for 99mTc-Rituximab and 99mTc-SC were 98.5% vs 98.7, 100% vs 98.4%, respectively. The mean number of SLNs identified by 99mTc-Rituximab and fTcSC was respectively 2.72 and 3.28, with a significant difference of P = 0.013 (paired sample t-test). The difference exists in the internal mammary and clavicular area, not in the axillary. The mean number of axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for 99mTc-Rituximab and fTcSC was 2.95 vs 3.14, respectively, and no significant difference existed. 99mTc-Rituximab also exhibited a significantly faster injection site clearance rate when compared with fTcSC (0.193 ± 0.057 h- 1 vs 0.021 ± 0.007 h- 1, respectively). CONCLUSION: No significant difference was observed in identification rate and number of axillary SLN imaging and SLNB, between the two tracers. Compared to fTcSC, 99mTc-Rituximab based imaging demonstrated a fewer number of secondary lymph nodes and had faster injection site clearance rate. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR1900024990 (retrospectively registered August 6, 2019).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Coloides/química , Compostos de Organotecnécio/administração & dosagem , Rituximab/química , Linfonodo Sentinela/diagnóstico por imagem , Radioisótopos de Enxofre/química , Tecnécio/química , Adulto , Idoso , Axila , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Linfocintigrafia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Linfonodo Sentinela/patologia , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela
11.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(25): 3196-3206, 2019 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignancy of the digestive tract and the fifth leading cause of cancer-related mortality in China. Sporamin, a Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor isolated from sweet potato, is a potential anti-cancer agent with activities against a number of malignant tumor cells in vitro. The liver secretes a myriad of endocrine factors that may facilitate the growth and transformation of tumors in the development of CRC. AIM: To investigate the effects of sporamin on liver morphology and biomarkers of xenografted CRC in the liver of athymic BALB/c mice. METHODS: Twenty-seven male BALB/c nude mice were randomly divided into control, vehicle, and sporamin groups. Mice in the latter two groups were intraperitoneally xenografted with LoVo colorectal carcinoma cells and intragastrically infused with saline or sporamin (0.5 g/kg body weight/d), respectively, for 3 wk. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining of the sections was performed to observe morphological changes in hepatic tissue and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to measure the expression of ß-catenin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the liver. RESULTS: Sporamin significantly reduced the number and weight of tumor nodules formed in the abdominal cavity. Compared with the vehicle group, the mean tumor weight (± SD) in the sporamin group was significantly reduced (0.44 ± 0.10 g vs 0.26 ± 0.15 g) and the total number of tumors decreased from 93 to 55. HE staining showed that enlargement of the nucleus and synthesis of proteins within hepatocytes, as well as infiltration of inflammatory cells into the liver, were attenuated by sporamin. Immunohistochemical staining and ELISA showed that the concentrations of ß-catenin and VEGF in the liver were significantly reduced by sporamin. Compared with the vehicle group, the expression of ß-catenin measured in integrated optical density units per area was reduced in the sporamin group (47.29 ± 9.10 vs 26.14 ± 1.72; P = 0.003). Expression of VEGF was also reduced after sporamin intervention from 20.78 ± 2.06 in the vehicle group to 15.80 ± 1.09 in the sporamin group (P = 0.021). Compared with the vehicle group, the concentration of ß-catenin decreased from 134.42 ± 22.04 pg/mL to 109.07 ± 9.65 pg/mL after sporamin intervention (P = 0.00002). qPCR indicated that compared to the vehicle group, relative mRNA expression of ß-catenin and VEGF in the liver of mice in the sporamin-treated group was significantly reduced to 71% ± 1% (P = 0.000001) and 23% ± 7% (P = 0.00002), respectively, of the vehicle group levels. CONCLUSION: Sporamin down-regulates the expression and secretion of ß-catenin and VEGF in the liver, which subsequently inhibits the transcription of downstream genes involved in cancer progression and angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , beta Catenina/metabolismo
12.
Ecol Evol ; 9(11): 6643-6654, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236249

RESUMO

Upland buzzard (Buteo hemilasius), Saker falcon (Falco cherrug), and Himalayan vulture (Gyps himalayensis) are three common large raptors in the Sanjiangyuan National Park (SNP), China's first national park. Among them, Upland buzzard and Saker falcon play a significant role in controlling plateau rodent populations and reducing the transmission of pathogens carried by rodents. The Himalayan vulture can provide services for the redistribution and recycling of nutrients in the ecosystem, and play an irreplaceable role in the celestial burial culture of Tibetans in China. Exploring their habitat suitability is important for the protection of the three raptors. Our research was based on the current distribution of Upland buzzard, Saker falcon, and Himalayan vulture that we had extensively surveyed in the Sanjiangyuan National Park from 2016 to 2017. Combined with the correlation analysis of environmental variables, we utilized maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) to evaluate and compare the habitat suitability of the three species in the Sanjiangyuan National Park. Elevation, climate, and human disturbance factors, which had direct or indirect effects on species survival and reproduction, were all included in the model. Among them, elevation was the most important environmental variables affecting the suitability of habitats of three species. Temperature-related factor was another important predictor. The high (>60%) suitable habitat areas for Upland buzzard, Saker falcon, and Himalayan vulture were 73,017.63, 40,732.78, and 61,654.33 km2, respectively, accounted for 59.32%, 33.09%, and 50.08% of the Sanjiangyuan National Park and their total suitable area (i.e., the sum area of high and moderate habitats) reached 96.07%, 60.59%, and 93.70%, respectively. Besides, the three species have overlapping areas for the suitable habitats, which means that overlapping areas should be highly valued and protected. Therefore, understanding the distribution of suitable habitats of the three raptors can provide useful information and reasonable reference for us to put forward suggestions for their protection and regional management.

13.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 35(8): 903-910, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anorectal malformation (ARM) is known to be associated with maldevelopment of the enteric nervous system (ENS), and vitamin A (VA) and its metabolite retinoic acid (RA) play important roles in ENS development. Thus, our aim was to investigate serum VA levels in ARM newborns and RA receptor (RAR) expression in the rectum of ARM patients and animal models. METHODS: Serum VA concentrations were detected in newly diagnosed ARM neonates (n = 32) and neonates with non-alimentary tract malformations (n = 30). Intestinal specimens were divided into three groups: rectum from ARM patients (n = 30), colon from a stoma (n = 30) and rectum from controls (n = 4). RAR mRNA expression was evaluated by RT-qPCR. Rectum specimens from ARM patients were divided into two groups by postoperative pathology: the normal and lesion ganglion cell groups. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were employed to detect RARα protein expression in rectum specimens. In addition, the ARM mouse model was induced by all-trans retinoid acid (ATRA), and the expression levels of RARα and the neuronal marker NeuN in the rectum of mice on embryonic day 16.5-18.5 (E16.5-18.5) were investigated. RESULTS: The serum concentration of VA in ARM neonates was lower than that in control neonates (P < 0.0001), and RARα mRNA expression was lower in the rectum specimens from ARM patients than in the colon specimens from a stoma and the rectum specimens from controls (P < 0.05); there was no significant difference between the colon from a stoma and the rectum from controls. RARα protein was expressed in the nucleus of ganglion cells and nerve fibers, and RARα protein expression in the lesion ganglion cell group was significantly lower than that in the normal ganglion cell group (P < 0.01). Compared with the control mice, ARM mice at E16.5-18.5 showed decreased fluorescence intensity of RARα and NeuN in the rectum. RARα and NeuN mRNA expression in the rectum on E16.5-18.5 was lower in ARM mice than in control mice (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Serum VA concentration and the RARα expression pattern are abnormal in the rectum in ARM and may contribute to the ENS maldevelopment in ARM.


Assuntos
Malformações Anorretais/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , RNA/genética , Receptor alfa de Ácido Retinoico/genética , Vitamina A/sangue , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Malformações Anorretais/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptor alfa de Ácido Retinoico/biossíntese
14.
Chemistry ; 25(28): 6911-6914, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950097

RESUMO

A catalyst- and metal-free electrochemical hydrodehalogenation of aryl halides is disclosed. Our reaction by a flexible protocol is operated in an undivided cell equipped with an inexpensive graphite rod anode and cathode. Trialkylamines nBu3 N/Et3 N behave as effective reductants and hydrogen atom donors for this electrochemical reductive reaction. Various aryl and heteroaryl bromides worked effectively. The typically less reactive aryl chlorides and fluorides can also be smoothly converted. The utility of our method is demonstrated by detoxification of harmful pesticides and hydrodebromination of a dibrominated biphenyl (analogues of flame-retardants) in gram scale.

15.
Nanoscale ; 11(13): 6254-6262, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882127

RESUMO

We propose a strategy to potentially best enhance interfacial thermal transport through solid-solid interfaces by adding nano-engineered, exponentially mass-graded intermediate layers. This exponential design rule results in a greater enhancement than a linearly mass-graded interface. By combining calculations using non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD), we investigated the role of impedance matching and anharmonicity in the enhancement in addition to geometric parameters such as the number of layers and the junction thickness. Our analysis shows that the effect on thermal conductance is dominated by the phonon thermalization through anharmonic effects, while elastic phonon transmission and impedance matching play a secondary role. In the harmonic limit, increasing the number of layers results in greater elastic phonon transmission at each individual boundary, countered by the decrease of available conducting channels. Consequently, conductance initially increases with number of layers due to improved bridging, but quickly saturates. The presence of slight anharmonic effects (at very low temperature, T = 2 K) turns the saturation into a monotonically increasing trend. Anharmonic effects can further facilitate interfacial thermal transport through the thermalization of phonons at moderate temperatures. At high temperature, however, the role of anharmonicity as a facilitator of interfacial thermal transport reverses. Strong anharmonicity introduces significant intrinsic resistance, overruling the enhancement in thermal conduction at the boundaries. It follows that at a particular temperature, there exists a corresponding junction thickness at which thermal conductance is maximized.

16.
ACS Nano ; 13(2): 2481-2489, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673215

RESUMO

Isotopes represent a degree of freedom that might be exploited to tune the physical properties of materials while preserving their chemical behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that the thermal properties of two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides can be tailored through isotope engineering. Monolayer crystals of MoS2 were synthesized with isotopically pure 100Mo and 92Mo by chemical vapor deposition employing isotopically enriched molybdenum oxide precursors. The in-plane thermal conductivity of the 100MoS2 monolayers, measured using a non-destructive, optothermal Raman technique, is found to be enhanced by ∼50% compared with the MoS2 synthesized using mixed Mo isotopes from naturally occurring molybdenum oxide. The boost of thermal conductivity in isotopically pure MoS2 monolayers is attributed to the combined effects of reduced isotopic disorder and a reduction in defect-related scattering, consistent with observed stronger photoluminescence and longer exciton lifetime. These results shed light on the fundamentals of 2D nanoscale thermal transport important for the optimization of 2D electronic devices.

17.
Org Lett ; 20(24): 7753-7757, 2018 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517014

RESUMO

Herein, we described a cooperative catalyst system consisting of an acridinium photoredox catalyst and a cobalt-based proton-reduction catalyst that is effective for the C-H amination of arenes with concomitant generation of hydrogen. This oxidant-free method allows a variety of amines with diverse functional groups to be converted to aromatic amines. Additionally, this protocol can also be extended to hydrolytically unstable benzophenone imines.

18.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-4, 2018 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449158

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global threat to human health with an estimated 1.75 million new cases in 2015. Our previous studies showed that the ethyl acetate extraction of Daphne papyracea exhibited an inhibitory effect towards the HCV NS3/4A protease and eight compounds were identified from the extract. In this study, we investigated which of the eight compounds was responsible for the inhibitory effect of the extract against the HCV NS3/4A protease. From both molecular docking and enzyme inhibition studies, (+)-usnic acid was shown to be the most active compound and could be used as a lead compound in developing novel anti-HCV agents.

19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(100): 14065-14068, 2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420981

RESUMO

Herein, we described photoenzymatic dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) of amines under mild conditions. The racemization of amines via a photoredox-mediated hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) protocol in conjunction with an enzyme catalyst to achieve the DKR of amines allows a variety of primary amines to be converted into a single enantiomer in high yield and with excellent enantioselectivity. Notably, this protocol can also be extended to 1,4-diamine derivatives with high levels of diastereo- and enantioselectivity.

20.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(11)2018 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373190

RESUMO

The lubrication performance of graphene used as additive in 4-n-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphyl liquid crystal (5CB) for steel/steel contacts was studied on a ball-on-plate tribotester. The friction test results show that when the graphene content in the 5CB was 0.15 wt.%, and the lubricant and friction pairs were heated to 44⁻46 °C before friction tests, the lubrication performance of the 5CB was most improved. Compared with pure 5CB, 5CB+0.15 wt.% graphene suspension reduced the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter by up to 70.6% and 41.3%, respectively. The lubrication mechanisms have been tentatively proposed according to the test results. We speculate that the excellent lubrication performance of graphene/5CB suspensions may be attributed to the low shear resistance adsorption layer formed by graphene and 5CB molecules on the sliding surfaces. As the protective layer, it not only prevents direct contact between the rough sliding surfaces but also is easy to slide.

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