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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125897, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492835

RESUMO

Interconnected macro-porous cryogels with robust and pore-tunable structures have been fabricated using chemically crosslinked microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). Periodate oxidation was initially conducted to introduce aldehyde groups into the MFC surface, followed by the freeze-induced chemical crosslinking via the formation of hemiacetal bonds between aldehyde and hydroxyl at -12 °C. The cryogels with pore-tunable structures and sharply enhanced mechanical strengths were finally achieved by re-assembly of MFCs through soaking in NaIO4 solution. Furthermore, the MFC cryogels were post-crosslinked by polyethyleneimine (PEI), bestowing the cryogels with the capability of adsorbing anionic dyes. The stress of the PEI-MFC cryogel at the 80% strain was determined to be 304.5 kPa, which is the maximum value for the nanocellulose-based cryogels reported so far. Finally, the adsorption performances of PEI-MFC cryogels for methyl orange (MO) were evaluated. Maximum adsorption capacity of 500 mg/g could be obtained by the Langmuir model, outperforming that of previous absorbent materials. Reuse experiments indicated that over 90% of adsorption capacity was retained after 6 cycles. Continuous clean-up experiments demonstrated excellent MO removal abilities of the PEI-MFC cryogel. This study shows that the novel, green strategy to fabricate the robust cryogel extends the practical applications of nanocellulose adsorbents for environmental remediation.


Assuntos
Criogéis , Nanofibras , Adsorção , Compostos Azo , Celulose , Corantes , Porosidade
2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 272: 118498, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420751

RESUMO

Construction of monolithic cryogels that can efficiently adsorb proteins is of great significance in biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries. Herein, a novel approach is presented to fabricate microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)/sodium alginate (SA) cryogels by using freezing-induced oxa-Michael reaction at -12 °C. Thanks to the controllable reactiveness of divinyl sulfone (DVS), cryo-concentrated pH increase activates the oxa-Michael reaction between DVS and hydroxyl groups of MFCs and SAs. The obtained composite cryogel exhibits outstanding underwater shape recovery and excellent fatigue resistance. Moreover, the MFC/SAs reveal a high lysozyme adsorption capacity of 294.12 mg/g, surpassing most of absorbent materials previously reported. Furthermore, the cryogel-packed column can purify lysozyme continuously from chicken egg white, highlighting its outstanding practical application performance. Reuse experiments indicated that over 90% of lysozyme extraction capacity was retained after 6 cycles. This work provides a new avenue to design and develop next-generation chromatographic media of natural polysaccharide-based cryogel for protein purification.

4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(17): 21799-21811, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415638

RESUMO

Nanosized semiconductors are widely utilized as solar energy based photocatalyst. However, the deficiencies such as poor adsorption toward contaminants and recyclability issues, rapid recombination of photo-introduced radicals, and deactivation by scavengers are still be the obstacle. To addressing those obstacles, zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8), photosensitive ZnO, and paramagnetic Fe3O4 were anchored on conductive graphene oxide (GO) to prepare a nanocomposite photocatalyst ZnO/Fe3O4-GO/ZIF. The photocatalyst showed good robustness to scavengers of hydroxyl radicals (OH•), superoxide radicals (O2•-), and hole (h+) with hydrophobic ZIF-8 modified surface. Finally, four pharmaceuticals (sulfamethazine, metronidazole, norfloxacin, and 4-acetaminophen) were degraded rapidly under simulated solar irradiation for 1 h, and the photocatalyst could be recycled at least ten times without obvious deactivation. The final results show that combination of semiconductor, graphene oxide and ZIF-8 is a good idea for construction of efficient photocatalyst. It offers new views in interface modification of nanomaterials, photocatalysis, and adsorption.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Nanocompostos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Óxido de Zinco , Grafite
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(12): 15274-15289, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236300

RESUMO

Global change significantly influences plant leaf gas exchange, which affects the carbon-water cycle of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the magnitudes of the effects of multiple global change factors on leaf gas exchanges are currently lacking. Therefore, a global meta-analysis of 337 published articles was conducted to determine the effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2), elevated O3 (eO3), elevated temperature (eT), and drought on plant leaf gas exchanges. The results indicated that (1) the overall responses of photosynthesis rate (Pn) and instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) to eCO2 increased by 28.6% and 58.6%. But transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (gs) responded negatively to eCO2 (- 17.5% and - 17.2%, respectively). Furthermore, all Pn, gs, and WUEi responded negatively to eO3 (- 32.7%, - 24.6%, and - 27.1%), eT (- 23.2%, - 10.8%, and - 28.9%), and drought (- 53.6%, - 59.3%, and - 4.6%, respectively), regardless of functional groups and various complex experimental conditions. (2) Elevated CO2 increased WUEi combined with eO3, eT, and drought (26.6%, 36.0%, and 58.6%, respectively, for eCO2 + eO3, eCO2 + eT, and eCO2 + drought) and mitigated their negative impacts on Pn to some extent. (3) Plant form and foliage type play an important role in the responses of leaf gas exchanges. Trees responded mostly to eCO2, but responded least to eT in Pn, Tr, gs, and WUEi compared with shrubs and herbs. Evergreen broad-leaved species were more responsive to eCO2 and drought. (4) The stress level of each factor can also significantly influence the responses of leaf gas exchanges to environment change. Hopefully, the quantitative results are helpful for the further assessments of the terrestrial carbon-water cycle.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Secas , Ecossistema , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Temperatura , Água
6.
J Radiat Res ; 61(5): 657-665, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642776

RESUMO

Radiation-induced heart damage is a serious side effect caused by radiotherapy, especially during the treatment of cancer near the chest. Trimetazidine is effective at reducing inflammation in the heart, but how it affects radiation-induced cardiac fibrosis (RICF) is unknown. To investigate the potential effect and molecular mechanism, we designed this project with a C57BL6 male mouse model supposing trimetazidine could inhibit RICF in mice. During the experiment, mice were randomly divided into six groups including a control group (Con), radiation-damaged model group (Mod) and four experimental groups receiving low-dose (10 mg/kg/day) or high-dose (20 mg/kg/day) trimetazidine before or after radiation treatment. Apart from the control group, all mice chests were exposed to 6 MV X-rays at a single dose of 20 Gy to induce RICF, and tissue analysis was done at 8 weeks after irradiation. Fibroblast or interstitial tissues and cardiac fibrosis-like characteristics were determined using haematoxylin and eosin and Masson staining, which can be used to assess myocardial fibrosis. Immunohistochemical analysis and RT-PCR were used to determine gene expression and study the molecular mechanism. As a result, this study suggests that trimetazidine inhibits RICF by reducing gene expression related to myocyte apoptosis and fibrosis formation, i.e. connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1, smad2 and smad3. In conclusion, by regulating the CTGF/TGF-ß1/Smad pathway, trimetazidine could be a prospective drug for clinical treatment of RICF.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248206

RESUMO

Frequent flash droughts can rapidly lead to water shortage, which affects the stability of ecosystems. This study determines the water-use characteristics and physiological mechanisms underlying Moso bamboo response to flash-drought events, and estimates changes to water budgets caused by extreme drought. We analyzed the variability in forest canopy transpiration versus precipitation from 2011-2013. Evapotranspiration reached 730 mm during flash drought years. When the vapor pressure deficit > 2 kPa and evapotranspiration > 4.27 mm·day-1, evapotranspiration was mainly controlled through stomatal opening and closing to reduce water loss. However, water exchange mainly occurred in the upper 0-50 cm of the soil. When soil volumetric water content of 50 cm was lower than 0.17 m3·m-3, physiological dehydration occurred in Moso bamboo to reduce transpiration by defoliation, which leads to water-use efficiency decrease. When mean stand density was <3500 trees·ha-1, the bamboo forest can safely survive the flash drought. Therefore, we recommend thinning Moso bamboo as a management strategy to reduce transpiration in response to future extreme drought events. Additionally, the response function of soil volumetric water content should be used to better simulate evapotranspiration, especially when soil water is limited.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Secas , Transpiração Vegetal/fisiologia , Poaceae/fisiologia , Abastecimento de Água , Água/metabolismo , China
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695095

RESUMO

Drought has been one of the most important limiting factors for crop production, which deleteriously affects food security worldwide. The main objective of the present study was to quantitatively assess the effect of drought on the agronomic traits (e.g., plant height, biomass, yield, and yield components) of rice and wheat in combination with several moderators (e.g., drought stress intensity, rooting environment, and growth stage) using a meta-analysis study. The database was created from 55 published studies on rice and 60 published studies on wheat. The results demonstrated that drought decreased the agronomic traits differently between rice and wheat among varying growth stages. Wheat and rice yields decreased by 27.5% and 25.4%, respectively. Wheat grown in pots showed greater decreases in agronomic traits than those grown in the field. Rice showed opposite growing patterns when compared to wheat in rooting environments. The effect of drought on rice increased with plant growth and drought had larger detrimental influences during the reproductive phase (e.g., blooming stage, filling stage, and maturity). However, an exception was found in wheat, which had similar decreased performance during the complete growth cycle. Based on these results, future droughts could produce lower yields of rice and wheat when compared to the current drought.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Secas , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Fenótipo
9.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 27(2): 335-44, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27396103

RESUMO

The carbon flux of subtropical bamboo forest ecosystem was continuously measured using eddy covariance technique in Anji County of Zhejiang Province, China. The monthly net ecosystem productivity (NEP), ecosystem respiration (Re) and gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) data from 2011 to 2013 were selected to analyze the impacts of seasonal high temperature and drought on the carbon flux of bamboo forest ecosystem. The results showed that there were big differences among annual NEP of bamboo forest from 2011 to 2013. Because of the asynchronization of precipitation and heat, the seasonal high temperature and drought in July and August of 2013 caused significant decline in NEP by 59.9% and 80.0% when compared with the same months in 2011. Correlation analysis of the NEP, Re, GEP and environmental factors suggested that the atmosphere temperatures were significantly correlated with Re and GEP in 2011 and 2013 (P<0.05). However, to air and soil moisture, Re and GEP had different responses, that was, GEP was more vulnerable by the decrease of the soil moisture compared with Re. Besides, the raising of saturation vapour pressure promoted the Re modestly but inhibited the GEP, which was supposed to be the main reason for NEP decrease of bamboo forest ecosystem in Anji, from July to August in 2013.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono , Florestas , Temperatura Alta , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Atmosfera , China , Secas , Estações do Ano , Solo
10.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 27(1): 1-8, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27228586

RESUMO

The old-growth, multiple ages, multispecies natural forest has played an important role in terrestrial ecosystem dynamics model and the global carbon budget. However, carbon fluxes of old forests in subtropical regions are rarely reported in China. In the present study, the CO2 flux of an old-growth subtropical evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest was observed using eddy covariance technique in Tianmu Mountain of Zhejiang Province. Based on the data sets which were observed from July 2013 to June 2014, the variations of net ecosystem exchange (NEE), eco-system respiration (Re), and gross ecosystem exchange (GEE) were analyzed. The results showed that during the study period, the monthly NEE all had a negative value (acted as a carbon sink) except for December and February (acted as a carbon source). The average monthly NEE was -61.52 g C · m⁻², the monthly carbon sequestration showed a double-peak curve and the maximum carbon sink was -149.40 g C · m⁻², which occurred in June while the maximum carbon source was 23.45 g C · m⁻², which occurred in February. The maximum of monthly mean CO2 flux occurred in June with a value of -0.98 mg · m⁻² · s⁻¹, while the minimum value occurred in December with a value of -0.35 mg · m⁻² · s⁻¹. The NEE at the time point of positive and negative conversion had typical seasonal characteristics. The yearly NEE, Re, and GEE were -738.18, 931.05 and -1669.23 g C · m⁻², respectively. Compared with other forest ecosystems located at the similar latitude, the carbon fixation of the old-growth forest was larger, likely due to its complicated structure within the canopy and the presence of young-growth regeneration and successional stands. This showed that other than in carbon neutral, old-growth forests of Tianmu Mountain in subtropical China had a strong capability in carbon sequestration.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Sequestro de Carbono , Florestas , Carbono , China , Monitoramento Ambiental
12.
J Fam Pract ; 64(4): 241-3, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25973450

RESUMO

Our patient sought treatment for the nodules on his nose, but the nodules on his tattoos proved particularly helpful in making the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Nariz , Sarcoidose/diagnóstico , Tatuagem , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Biópsia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Sarcoidose/tratamento farmacológico
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