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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 113586, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212178

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Acanthopanax senticosus (AS), previously classified as Eleutherococcus senticosus, is one of the most commonly used herbs in the Chinese materia medica. However, there is currently no comprehensive review summarising advances in AS research. AS has been used as a functional food and in various preparations since ancient times, to invigorate the liver and kidneys, replenish vitality, strengthen the bones, stimulate appetite, and improve memory. It is widely used in countries such as China, Korea, Japan, and Russia, for specific pharmacologic effects, although it contains various chemical components that ensure its broad-spectrum effect. Its chemical constituents mainly include glycosides and flavonoids. Over the past several decades, researchers worldwide have conducted systematic investigations on this herb. AS has positive pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular, central nervous, and immune systems. Representative pathways stimulated by AS are related to neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions, cancer, and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B signalling. Importantly, AS is safe and exerts no significant adverse effects at normal doses. AIM OF THE STUDY: To provide comprehensive insights into the ethnobotany, medicinal uses, chemical composition, pharmacological activity, and toxicology of AS to aid its future development and utilisation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information about AS was collected from various sources, including classic books about Chinese herbal medicine and scientific databases including scientific journals, books, and pharmacopoeia. We discuss the ethnopharmacology of AS from 1965 to 2020 and summarise the knowledge of AS phytochemicals, pharmacological activity, quality control, and toxicology. CONCLUSIONS: From the current literature, we conclude that AS is a promising dietary Chinese herb with various potential applications owing to its multiple therapeutic effects.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19184, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154432

RESUMO

Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) typically is accompanied by painful symptoms. Several therapeutic agents have been tried for symptomatic relief, but with varying results. The use of non-invasive neuromodulation (NINM) is a potential treatment option for DPN. The objective of our study is to evaluate NINM effects on pain rating and nerve conduction velocity in DPN patients. The search was carried out in seven databases until Aug 30th, 2019. Finally, twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. We found a significant reduction of pain scores by central NINMs (effect size [ES] = - 0.75, 95% CI = - 1.35 to - 0.14), but not by the overall peripheral techniques (electrical and electromagnetic) (ES = - 0.58, 95% CI = - 1.23 to 0.07). However, the subgroup of peripheral electrical NINMs reported a significant higher effect (ES = - 0.84, 95% CI = - 1.57 to - 0.11) compared to electromagnetic techniques (ES = 0.21; 95% CI = - 1.00 to 1.42, I2 = 95.3%) . Other subgroup analysis results show that NINMs effects are higher with intensive protocols and in populations with resistant symptoms or intolerance to analgesic medications. Besides, NINMs can increase motor nerves velocity (ES = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.47 to 2.17), and there were no effects on sensory nerves velocity (ES = 0.01, 95% CI = - 0.79 to 0.80). The results suggest that central and peripheral electrical NINMs could reduce neuropathic pain among DPN patients, without reported adverse events. Well-powered studies are needed to confirm that NINM techniques as an alternative effective and safe treatment option.

4.
Liver Int ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with obstructive jaundice (OJ) are considered to be prothrombotic with increased risk of thromboembolism complications. The role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in procoagulant activity (PCA) and thrombosis risk in patients with OJ is unclear. In this study, we investigated NETs formation in OJ patients and the role of elevated unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) in inducing NETs, resulting in enhanced PCA and endothelial injury. METHODS: NETs of OJ patients and healthy controls were measured. NETs PCA was assessed via coagulation time (CT), fibrin formation and purified coagulation complex production assays. Visualization of NETs and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (MitoROS) were performed with a fluorescence microscope. We further used confocal microscopy to quantify the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS), fibrin strands and FVa/Xa on Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). RESULTS: Assessment of NETs components levels revealed greater NETs production in OJ patients than in healthy controls. Importantly, OJ-NETs were responsible for enhanced PCA. UCB induced NETs formation via MitoROS accumulation and mitochondrial mobilization. HUVECs cocultured with OJ NETs lost their cell-cell junctions and consequently converted to a procoagulant phenotype. The PCA was attenuated by using DNase I alone or in combination with lactadherin. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that UCB-induced NETs play a prominent role in promoting the hypercoagulable and prothrombotic state in OJ patients. The increased MitoROS accumulation in neutrophils initiated NETosis. NETs are promising targets for indicating or improving coagulation disorders in OJ patients.

5.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; : e2000494, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205576

RESUMO

CO2 gas separation is of significant importance to protect the environment and utilize the carbon resource. In this work, two kinds of new cellulose esters containing imidazolium cation, cellulose acetate (CA) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and CA 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (CA-BmimTf2 N), are designed and synthesized. The resultant cationized cellulose esters effectively lock various ionic liquids (ILs) via electrostatic interactions. Due to the strong attraction interactions, the obtained cellulose ester/ILs composite membranes are uniform, smooth, and highly transparent. Moreover, the added ILs with a long alkyl chain in the cation and a bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide anion remarkably improve the CO2 permeability of the cellulose ester/ILs membranes, because of the dramatic increase of the CO2 diffusion rate. The CA-BmimTf2 N/C10 mimTf2 N membranes exhibit the highest CO2 permeability, which is 3800% higher than that of CA membrane and 1700% higher than that of CA-BmimTf2 N membrane. More importantly, the CA-BmimTf2 N/C10 mimTf2 N membranes have good mechanical properties and thermal stability. Such high-performance CO2 separation membranes with high CO2 permeability, high transparency, and good mechanical property have a huge potential in the practical utilization for gas separation.

6.
EBioMedicine ; 60: 102992, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of vascular endothelium in acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which APL cells interact with endothelial cells (ECs) and to further explore how the endothelium affects bleeding as well as therapeutic interventions. METHOD: APL cells and an original APL cell line, NB4 cells, were used for experiments. The effects of leukaemic cells on ECs were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the endothelial barrier function and procoagulant activity were detected. An APL mouse model was established for in vivo studies. FINDINGS: APL cells interacted with ECs via ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 receptors to disrupt endothelial integrity. This binding activated MLCK signaling, resulting in the trans-endothelial passage of protein and red blood cells (RBCs). Combined treatment with asiatic acid or anti-adhesion receptor antibody inhibited the response of ECs to APL cells, thereby preventing APL-associated haemorrhage in vitro and in vivo. Activated ECs exhibited a procoagulant phenotype after phosphatidylserine exposure. Plasma from APL patients formed a thin fibrin network between procoagulant ECs, and this intercellular fibrin decreased the passage of albumin and RBCs. Ex vivo addition of fibrinogen further enhanced this barrier function in a dose-dependent manner. INTERPRETATION: Endothelial damage induced by leukaemic cell adherence promotes haemorrhaging in APL. Stabilization of ECs, decreasing adhesion receptor expression, and increasing fibrinogen transfusion levels may be a new therapeutic avenue to alleviate this fatal bleeding complication. FUNDING: National Science Foundation of China (81670128, 81873433).

7.
Int J Parasitol ; 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966836

RESUMO

Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection is a major cause of eosinophilic meningitis (EM). Severe cases or cases that involve infants and children present poor prognoses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are important regulators of gene expression in many biological processes, were recently found to be regulators of the host response to infection by parasites; however, their roles in brain inflammation caused by A. cantonensis are still unclear. The current study confirmed that miR-155-5p peaked at 21 days after A. cantonensis infection, and its expression was positively correlated with the concentration of excretory and secretory products (ESPs). We found that miR-155-5p knockdown lentivirus successfully ameliorated brain injury and downregulated the expression of major basic protein (MBP) in vivo, and the number of eosinophils in CSF (and the percentage of eosinophils in peripheral blood were also decreased in the miR-155-5p knockdown group. Moreover, the expression of several eosinophilic inflammation cytokines such as CCL6/C10, ICAM-1, and MMP9, declined after the miR-155-5p knockdown. SOCS1 protein, which is an important negative regulator of inflammation activation, was identified as a direct miR-155-5p target. We further detected the effect of miR-155-5p knockdown on phosphorylated-STAT3 and phosphorylated-p65 proteins, which were found to be negatively regulated by SOCS1 and play an important role in regulating the inflammatory response. We found that miR-155-5p knockdown decreased the activity of p-STAT3 and p-p65, thereby leading to lower expression of MMP9 and TSLP proteins, which were closely related to the chemotaxis and infiltration of eosinophils. Interestingly, the inhibition of p-STAT3 or p-p65 was found to induce the downregulation of miR-155-5p in an opposite manner. These observations suggest that a positive feedback loop was formed between miR-155-5p, STAT3, and NF-κB in A. cantonensis infection and that miR-155-5p inhibition might provide a novel strategy to attenuate eosinophilic meningitis.

8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 164: 3846-3857, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841667

RESUMO

In view of the long medicinal use history of Periplaneta americana for manifold ulcer or skin wounds treatment, the comprehensive utilization value of P. americana herbal residue was evaluated. In this study, we isolated a polysaccharide fraction from P. americana herbal residue with the potential wound healing effect, named as PAP faction, based on our previous study and provided the structural and monosaccharide composition characterization. To improve the topical wound dressing property, a novel composite hydrogel consisting of PAP, carbomer 940 (CBM), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with different ratios were prepared and optimized. Mediated by the physical crosslinking effect among these polymers, the composite hydrogel exhibited good three-dimensional network structures, good swelling and water retention capacity, moderate mechanical property in rheological test. And then, the good cytocompatibility of hydrogel was corroborated by 3T3 fibroblast proliferation assay. Finally, the composite hydrogel loading PAP has been proved to accelerate wound healing in diabetic rat models, by promoting wound closure, collagen deposition, M2 macrophages polarization and angiogenesis. In summary, this study would provide an effective and promising wound dressing candidate for the prevention and treatment of diabetic wound, based on the ecological concept of the comprehensive utilization of natural herbal resources.

10.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(7): 2390-2398, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715705

RESUMO

To develop high efficiency stabilized N fertilizer, a pot experiment was conducted to examine the effects of stabilized ammonium sulfate with different nitrification inhibitors on soil avai-lable nitrogen (N) contents, nitrification inhibition rate, apparent nitrification rate, yield, some agronomic parameters and N fertilizer utilization rate of corn in black soil of Jilin Provinve. In this study, blank (CK) and (NH4)2SO4 (N) were set as controls, and nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethyl-pyrazolate phosphate (DMPP), 2-chloro-6-trimethyl-pyridine (CP), ammonia protectant N-GD and nitrogen fertilizer synergist HFJ and their combination applied to ammonium sulfate to form nine treatments. The results showed that compared with the treatment of N, application of DMPP and its combinations in black soil significantly affected soil available N contents and the apparent nitrification rate. The contents of ammonium increased by 1.4-2.0 times, while the contents of nitrate and the apparent nitrification rate of soil decreased by 13.6%-17.9% and 55.3%-59.8%, respectively. DMPP, DMPP+HFJ, DMPP+N-GD had the highest nitrification inhibition rate, which reached higher than 16.5%. DMPP+HFJ+N-GD and HFJ increased the chlorophyll content in maize leaves by 4.5-5.3 times. The addition of nitrification inhibitors and fertilizer synergist to ammonium sulfate did not affect plant height. Compared with the treatment of N, HFJ increased corn biomass, grain yield, economic coefficient, harvest index, agronomic utilization rate of fertilizer, N uptake utilization rate, fertilizer contribution rate and N partial productivity of corn by 1.2, 2.5, 0.7, 0.6, 2.7, 2.1, 1.3 and 2.5 times, respectively. In general, HFJ, DMPP, DMPP+HFJ, DMPP+N-GD performed best in black soil. By considering both the cost and N utilization rate, N fertilizer synergist HFJ is the first choice for stable ammonium sulfate N fertilizer biochemical inhibitor, followed by DMPP+HFJ or DMPP+N-GD.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes/análise , Solo , Sulfato de Amônio , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio
11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(14): 14418-14433, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694237

RESUMO

Whether serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) being associated with enzalutamide (Enz) resistance and metastasis of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has not been clear. SPINK1 promoted Enz resistance by upregulating Androgen receptor splicing variant 7 (ARv7), and enhanced the invasion/migration of Enz-resistant cells via ERK/p38/ MMP9 signaling. Furthermore, miR-5089-5p suppressed SPINK1 mRNA through direct binding to its 3'UTR, and reversed its pro-proliferative and pro-metastatic effects. Mice bearing SPINK1-knockdown Enz-resistant PCa tumors showed significantly longer survival compared with those bearing wild-type tumors, while treatment with miR-5089-5p inhibitor abrogated the protective effects of SPINK1 knockdown. Taken together, SPINK1 can be used as a biomarker of resistance to Enz, and the miR-5089-5p/SPINK1/MAPK/MMP9 axis is a suitable therapeutic target against Enz-resistant and metastatic CRPC.Methods: The expression of SPINK1 in Enz-resistant prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines was detected through next-generation sequencing data and metastatic PCa patients. In vivo and in vitro experiments were performed to investigate the role of SPINK1 in Enz-resistance and metastasis.

12.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 28(14): 115560, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616183

RESUMO

We report the design, synthesis, and evaluation of a series of 1-oxa-8-azaspiro[4.5]decane and 1,5-dioxa-9-azaspiro[5.5]undecane derivatives as selective σ1 receptor ligands. All seven ligands exhibited nanomolar affinity for σ1 receptors (Ki(σ1) = 0.47 - 12.1 nM) and moderate selectivity over σ2 receptors (Ki(σ2)/ Ki(σ1) = 2 - 44). Compound 8, with the best selectivity among these ligands, was selected for radiolabeling and further evaluation. Radioligand [18F]8 was prepared via nucleophilic 18F-substitution of the corresponding tosylate precursor, with an overall isolated radiochemical yield of 12-35%, a radiochemical purity of greater than 99%, and molar activity of 94 - 121 GBq/µmol. Biodistribution studies of [18F]8 in mice demonstrated high initial brain uptake at 2 min. Pretreatment with SA4503 resulted in significantly reduced brain-to-blood ratio (70% - 75% at 30 min). Ex vivo autoradiography in ICR mice demonstrated high accumulation of the radiotracer in σ1 receptor-rich brain areas. These findings suggest that [18F]8 could be a lead compound for further structural modifications to develop potential brain imaging agents for σ1 receptors.

13.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 73(9): 1700-1705, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Penoscrotal extramammary Paget's disease is a rarely found intraepithelial adenocarcinoma in older male patients. The challenge for surgeons to perform high-quality post-surgery reconstruction is mostly case-dependent. Here, we present a review of post-surgical reconstruction practice in 21 cases using various scrotal skin flaps. METHODS: During the 10-year study period (from 2008 to 2018), all 21 male patients diagnosed with penoscrotal extramammary Paget's diseases at Sun Yat-sen memorial hospital were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent expanding resections guided by frozen sections and penoscrotal reconstructions using various scrotal skin flaps alone or combined with pubic skin flaps and partial thickness skin graft depending on individual defects. The patient's clinical data, specifically the diagnosis, surgical outcome, and follow-up evaluation were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The size of skin lesions ranged from 4 × 5 cm to 16 × 18 cm approximately. Out of 21 total cases, 13 patients received combined scrotal and pubic flaps, three patients received single scrotal flaps, and five patients received scrotal flaps and partial thickness skin grafts. Limited flap tip necrosis (two cases) and wound dehiscence (one case) were observed, and secondary resections were performed in four cases with positive post-operative pathological results. All patients experienced complete wound healing and had well-maintained penile morphology and function. CONCLUSION: Various scrotal skin flaps alone or combined with pubic skin flaps designed for individual lesion conditions in patients with penoscrotal extramammary Paget's disease are efficient for scrotal reconstruction. A good match of the local skin texture helps to maintain the morphology and function of the penis and scrotum.


Assuntos
Doença de Paget Extramamária/cirurgia , Neoplasias Penianas/cirurgia , Escroto/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Secções Congeladas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Cicatrização
14.
J Int Med Res ; 48(6): 300060520926355, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A relationship exists between sirtuin-1 expression and growth and survival of malignant tumors. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of sirtuin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in patients with liposarcoma by examining associations between their expression levels and clinical outcomes. METHODS: Clinical and histopathological characteristics and follow-up and survival information were retrospectively reviewed for 42 liposarcoma cases. Sirtuin-1 and VEGF protein expression levels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and their associations with clinical parameters were analyzed using the Spearman-rho test. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to identify potential prognostic factors. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to analyze overall survival. RESULTS: Sirtuin-1 and VEGF protein expression levels were significantly associated with histological grade, metastasis, and American Joint Committee on Cancer stage. A significant positive correlation was observed between sirtuin-1 and VEGF expression levels (R = 0.677). In univariate analysis, sirtuin-1 and VEGF expression were correlated with shorter overall survival, but the association was significant only for sirtuin-1 (hazard ratio = 3.752, 95% confidence interval 1.553-9.062) in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Sirtuin-1 and VEGF expression levels are significantly correlated with progression of liposarcoma, and sirtuin-1 expression significantly predicts a poor prognosis in patients with liposarcoma.

15.
Food Chem ; 330: 127241, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540526

RESUMO

Curcumin (CUR) is a promising edible phytochemical compound with ideal ulcerative colitis (UC) treatment activity; however, it is characteristically instable in the digestive tract and has a short retention time in colon. Therefore, we designed and fabricated an oral food-grade nanocarrier composed of tannic acid (TA)-coated, Genipin (Gnp)-crosslinked human serum albumin (HSA) to encapsulate CUR (TA/CUR-NPs). The resulting CUR nanoparticles (NPs) were about 220 nm and -28.8 mV. With the assistance of TA layer and Gnp-crosslinking, the entire nano-scaled system effectively delayed CUR release in simulated gastric fluid, prolonged its colon adhesion and increased its uptake in Caco-2 cells. As expected, TA/CUR-NPs oral administration significantly alleviated colitis symptoms in DSS-treated mice when compared with controls by inhibiting the TLR4-linked NF-κB signaling pathway. Collectively, this study indicates that we have developed a convenient, eco-friendly, nano-scaled vehicle for oral delivery of CUR with anti-UC benefit.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Curcumina/química , Iridoides/química , Albumina Sérica Humana/química , Taninos/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/química
16.
Neuroreport ; 31(12): 857-864, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453025

RESUMO

Chronic sleep loss caused lots of health problems, also including cognition impairment. Tea is one of the most popular drinks when people stay up late. Nevertheless, the effects of tea on sleep deprivation-induced cognition impairment are still unclear. In the present study, we found 24-h sleep deprivation (S-DEP) increased membrane α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxa-zolep-propionate (AMPA) receptor level through a tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-dependent pathway in hippocampi. Blocking elevated TNFα level can protect S-DEP mice from impaired learning ability according to behavioral test. Tea polyphenols, major active compounds in green tea, suppressed TNFα production through downregulating TNFα converting enzyme (TACE) level. Meanwhile, tea polyphenols treatment could ameliorate recognition impairment and anxiety-like behaviors in S-DEP mice. The aforementioned results demonstrate cognition protective effects of tea polyphenols in S-DEP mice model, which provide a theoretical basis for the treatments of S-DEP-induced cognition impairment by targeting the TACE/TNFα/AMPA pathway.

17.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 112: 110894, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409049

RESUMO

A novel Nb/NiTi superelastic composite with a shell-core structure was designed and fabricated to achieve a combination of biocompatibility and superelasticity (large recoverable strain ε accompanied by high critical stress for inducing martensitic transformation σSIM). The good biocompatibility is mainly attributed to the outer non-cytotoxic Nb shell that prevents inner NiTi core from direct contact with cells. Meanwhile, the inner NiTi core endows the composite with superelasticity through a fully reversible stress-induced martensitic transformation between B2 parent phase and B19' martensite. These results might shed some light on design and development of novel superelastic composites for biomedical applications.

18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 8062017, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382573

RESUMO

Purpose: This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine the effectiveness of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplement on muscle soreness after eccentric exercise. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and ISI Web of Science were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the efficacy of n-3 PUFA on muscle soreness after eccentric exercise. Mean difference (MD) and the associated 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated by RevMan 5.3 to indicate delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) that measured two days after eccentric trainings. Subgroup analyses according to duration and daily dosage of n-3 PUFA supplements before eccentric exercises were performed to determine whether these factors will influence the overall effect size. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to evaluate the certainty of evidence. The protocol of this systematic review and meta-analysis was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42018085869). Results: 12 RCTs containing 145 subjects and 156 controls were included in this study. Meta-analysis revealed a significantly decreased DOMS (MD -0.93; 95% CI -1.44, -0.42; P = 0.0004) in n-3 PUFA supplement groups, while no significant differences in isometric muscle strength and range of motion (ROM) were detected. However, the pooled effect size for DOMS was lower than the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of 1.4 on the 10-unit VAS, suggesting that the effect size of less muscle soreness with n-3 PUFA supplements did not appear to be clinically relevant. Conclusion: There is low-quality evidence that n-3 PUFA supplementation does not result in a clinically important reduction of muscle soreness after eccentric exercise. Isometric muscle soreness and range of motion were not improved by n-3 PUFA supplementation either (low-quality evidence). To further elucidate the overall role of n-3 PUFA on muscle damage in this area, large-scale RCTs are still needed.

19.
J Sci Med Sport ; 23(10): 949-954, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360243

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To use a quantitative approach to examine the effects of chronic physical activity (PA) interventions on executive functions (EFs) in children aged 3-7 years. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched from their inception to December 2019. Intervention studies with a control group that examined the effects of chronic PA interventions on EFs among children aged 3-7 years were included in this meta-analysis. Lastly, subgroup analyses were conducted to examine the potential modifying effects of chronic PA intervention's characteristics and study quality. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies were included in this meta-analysis with a total of 716 participants. The fixed-effects model was used to estimate the pooled effect sizes since heterogeneity across included studies was not significant. The summary effects revealed that chronic PA interventions have a small but positive effects on participants' overall EFs [standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.20-0.50] as well as inhibition (SMD = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.12-0.62) and working memory (SMD = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.02-0.46) domains and a moderate effect on the cognitive flexibility domain (SMD = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.28-1.05). Lastly, the pooled effect was not significantly modified by intervention duration, session length, or frequency. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic PA interventions, especially PA plus cognitive challenges interventions, may be a promising way to promote the development of multiple aspects of EFs in children aged 3-7 years.

20.
Curr Drug Targets ; 21(11): 1084-1098, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410563

RESUMO

This review summarizes the epigenetic mechanisms of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, histone modifications in cancer and the epigenetic modifications in cancer therapy. Due to their undesired side effects, the use of epigenetic drugs as chemo-drugs in cancer therapies is limited. The drug delivery system opens a door for minimizing these side effects and achieving greater therapeutic benefits. The limitations of current epigenetic therapies in clinical cancer treatment and the advantages of using drug delivery systems for epigenetic agents are also discussed. Combining drug delivery systems with epigenetic therapy is a promising approach to reaching a high therapeutic index and minimizing the side effects.

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