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1.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 321: 108549, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062304

RESUMO

Cronobacter spp. are important foodborne pathogens that infections occur in all age groups, especially cause serious life-threatening diseases in infants. This study aimed to acquire data on Cronobacter spp. contamination of meat and meat products (n = 588) in China during 2011 to 2016, and investigated the use of CRISPR typing technology as an approach for characterizing the genetics of Cronobacter spp. The overall contamination rate for Cronobacter spp. was determined to be 9.18% (54/588). Of the positive samples, 90.74% (49/54) had <10 MPN/g, with duck samples had a relatively high contamination rate (15.69%, 8/51) and highest contamination level (28.90 MPN/g). Four species and nine serotypes were identified among 69 isolates, of which C. sakazakii was the major species (n = 50) and C. sakazakii serogroup O1 and O2 (n = 17) were the primary serotypes. The majority of Cronobacter spp. strains were found to be susceptible to most antibiotics except exhibited high resistance to cephalothin (76.81%, 53/69), and total two multi-drug resistant C. sakazakii strains were isolated from duck. The genetic diversity of Cronobacter spp. was remarkably high, as evidenced by the identification of 40 sequence types (STs) and 60 CRISPR types (CTs). C. sakazakii ST64 (n = 7) was the predominant genotype and was further divided into two sub-lineages based on CRISPR diversity, showing different antibiotic resistance profile. These results demonstrate that CRISPR typing results have a good correspondence with bacterial phenotypes, and it will be a tremendously useful approach for elucidating inter-subtyping during molecular epidemiological investigations while interpreting the divergent evolution of Cronobacter. The presence of Cronobacter spp. in meat and meat product is a potential threat to human public health.

2.
J Food Prot ; 83(3): 460-466, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065650

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are significant foodborne pathogens that can cause acute diarrhea in humans. This study was conducted to investigate the contamination by non-O157 STEC in different types of food sold at retail markets in the People's Republic of China and to characterize non-O157 STEC strains. From May 2012 to April 2014, 1,200 retail food samples were collected from markets in 24 cities in China. Forty-four non-O157 isolates were recovered from 43 STEC-positive samples. Of the isolates, 22 and 19 carried the stx1 and stx2 genes, respectively, and 3 harbored both stx1 and stx2. stx1a and stx2a were the most prevalent stx subtypes. Other virulence genes, ent, hlyA, astA, eae, espB, iha, subAB, and tia, were commonly detected. Diverse O serogroups were identified among these isolates. Multilocus sequence typing indicated the high genetic diversity of the isolates. Thirty-two sequence types (STs) were identified among the 44 isolates, with ST383 (9.09%), ST134 (6.82%), and ST91 (6.82%) the most prevalent. Nine new STs were found. The isolates had a high prevalence of resistance to cephalothin, ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, and chloramphenicol. Twenty isolates (45.45%) were resistant to at least three antibiotics. This study provides updated surveillance data for non-O157 STEC isolates from foods sold at retail markets. Virulent and multidrug-resistant non-O57 STEC strains were isolated from all types of food. Our findings highlight the need for increased monitoring of non-O157 STEC in retail foods.

3.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(1)2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947869

RESUMO

Traditional medicinal herbs are widely used and may be contaminated with mycotoxigenic fungi during cultivation, harvesting, and storage, causing spoilage and mycotoxin production. We evaluated the predominant mycoflora and extent of mycotoxin contaminations in 48 contaminated samples of 13 different medicinal herbs. In total, 70.8% of herbs were slightly contaminated with aflatoxins (<5 µg kg-1). Codonopsis radix samples contained ochratoxin A (OTA) (360-515 µg kg-1), and Scutellariae radix samples contained OTA (49-231 µg kg-1) and citrinin (15-53 µg kg-1). Forty samples (83.3%) contained fungal contamination. Sixty-nine strains were characterized via morphological and molecular identification. The predominant mycoflora comprised four genera, Aspergillus spp. (26.1%), Penicillium spp. (24.6%), Rhizopus spp. (14.5%), and Trichoderma spp. (11.6%). Aflatoxins, OTA, and citrinin were detected in 37 cultures by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Approximately 21.6% of Aspergillus and Penicillium isolates produced mycotoxins. One Penicillium polonicum strain isolated from Scutellariae radix synthesized citrinin. Multiplex PCR analysis showed that three Aspergillus flavus strains harbored aflatoxin biosynthesis genes. One Aspergillus flavus strain isolated from Amomi fructus produced AFB1 and AFB2. To the best of our knowledge, the citrinin production by Aspergillus chevalieri and Penicillium sacculum was first reported in this study, which poses a potential risk of mycotoxin contamination in medicinal herbs.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 713: 136385, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955074

RESUMO

This study investigated the prevalence and levels of Salmonella contamination of retail raw poultry meat in China, and examined serovar distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the recovered isolates. In total, 664 poultry meat samples were collected from retail markets in 39 cities across China. Salmonella was isolated from 249 (37.5%) samples, including 190 (36.7%) chicken, 48 (40.7%) duck and 11 (39.2%) pigeon samples. The most probable number (MPN) values of 36.1% of the positive samples ranged from 0.3 to 10 MPN/g, with three samples exceeding 110 MPN/g. Among the 667 Salmonella isolates, 35 serovars and 42 multilocus sequence typing patterns were identified. Predominant serovars included Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (32.7%), Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana (14.2%) and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (11.9%), while two novel STs were identified (ST7352 and ST7612). Except for one unnamed strain (4,12:d:-), all of the identified serovars have previously been linked to human infections. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the 318 non-duplicate isolates revealed that only 5 (1.6%) were susceptible to all 22 tested antimicrobials, while 191 (60.1%) exhibited resistance to at least three classes of antimicrobials. The highest levels of resistance were observed for nalidixic acid (72.3%), followed by ampicillin (55.3%) and streptomycin (48.7%). Of particular concern was the detection of highly multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolates, most (84.1%) of which showed co-resistance to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Overall, our findings showed a high prevalence of Salmonella contamination of retail raw poultry meat, which could expose consumers to multidrug-resistant isolates. This study provides comprehensive data for evaluation of new control measures for Salmonella contamination of poultry.

5.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 60(2): 201-224, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569743

RESUMO

Due to the significant growth of food production, the potential likelihood of food contamination is increasing. Foodborne illness caused by bacterial pathogens has considerably increased over the past decades, while at the same time, the species of harmful microorganisms also varied. Conventional bacterial culturing methods have been unable to satisfy the growing requirement for food safety inspections and food quality assurance. Therefore, rapid and simple detection methods are urgently needed. The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technology is a highly promising approach for the rapid and sensitive detection of pathogens, which allows nucleic acid amplification under isothermal conditions. The integration of the LAMP assay onto a microfluidic chip is highly compatible with point-of-care or resource-limited settings, as it offers the capability to perform experiments in combination with high screening efficiency. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in LAMP-based microfluidic chip technology for detecting pathogens, based on real-time or endpoint determination mechanisms. We also discuss the promoting aspects of using the LAMP technique in a microfluidic platform, to supply a guideline for further molecular diagnosis and genetic analysis.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Microfluídica , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 317: 108461, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794931

RESUMO

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of foodborne bacterial poisoning in China. The aim of this research is to conduct a study on the prevalence, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance of V. parahaemolyticus from different types of food samples in 12 different cities of China. Since fluoroquinolones are the major choice of treatment for V. parahaemolyticus infections, the genetic basis for fluoroquinolone resistance in V. parahaemolyticus were also investigated. V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 163 of the 784 food samples collected from 12 different cities in China, resulting in a prevalence of 20.79%. The prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus in ready-to-eat (RTE) food (4.96%) was much lower than those of shrimp (32.62%) and fish (22.00%). Virulence gene screening showed that 44 (27.00%) V. parahaemolyticus strains carried at least one virulence gene. Four isolates from shrimp and three isolates from fish contained both the virulence genes tdh and trh. In addition, the trh was firstly detected in one isolate collected from RTE food. All isolates exhibited relatively high resistance rates to ampicillin (82.21%), gentamicin (19.63%), and tetracycline (14.11%), while <10% of strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin (4.91%), levofloxacin (4.91%), and tetracycline (4.29%). Eight fluoroquinolone-resistant V. parahaemolyticus were selected to determine the molecular basis for fluoroquinolone resistance. These eight isolates belonged to three different types according to enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR). A Ser83Ile substitution in GyrA was deteted in seven fluoroquinolone-resistant strains, except V209 which harbored a Ser83Phe substitution in GyrA. Moreover, A Ser85Leu substitution in ParC was found in five isolates (V52, V53, V61, V163, and V209). Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes were detected in all eight fluoroquinolone-resistant V. parahaemolyticus strains. This is the first report of Ser83Phe substitution in GyrA, qnrD and qnrS1 in V. parahaemolyticus. The information generated in this study will provide valuable information for risk assessment of V. parahaemolyticus infections and future control of antibiotic-resistant V. parahaemolyticus species in China.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817102

RESUMO

Research of bacterial communities and metabolism potential of paddy soils contaminated by antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) are vital to acquire understanding for their bioremediation. Here, the relative abundance of Sb and As metabolism genes, the diversity and composition of the bacterial community, and the influences of geochemical properties and the bacterial community and metabolism potential have been researched by Tax4Fun2 prediction and high-throughput sequencing. LEfSe (linear discriminant analysis effect size) analysis shown different taxa were enriched in dissimilar soil layers. RDA (Redundancy analysis) and relative importance analysis indicated the main properties including total sulfur (TS), total organic carbon (TOC), pH, and the bioavailable fractions of Sb and As affects the bacterial community, which Sbrec, Astot, and Asrec had greater impact on the bacterial taxonomic community. For example, Asrec, Astot, and Sbrec had a positive correlation with Chloroflexi and Rokubacteria, but negatively correlated with Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Obtaining metabolic function genes by using the tax prediction method. RDA, relative importance analysis, and co-occurrence network analysis showed the geochemical properties and bacterial community affected Sb and As related bacterial functions. The partial least squares path model (PLS-PM) analysis indicated Sb and As contamination fractions had negative effects on ecological function, bacterial community structure had positive influences on ecological function, and the direct effects of geochemical properties on ecological function was greater than community structure. The direct impact of As contamination fractions on bacterial community structure was greater than Sb, while the direct impact of Sb contamination fractions on bacterial function was more remarkable than As. Obviously, this study provides a scientific basis for the potential of biochemical remediation of Sb and As contamination in paddy soils profile.

8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 318: 108473, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863965

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of integrons and integron-associated antibiotic resistance in V. parahaemolyticus strains collected from RTE foods in China, and to carry out a comprehensive analysis on the molecular characterization of V. parahaemolyticus strains carrying blaVEB-1-positive class 1 integron. Of the 51 V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from RTE food samples, none of the isolates was found to carry integrase genes intI2 and IntI3. However, all 51 strains were positive to integrase gene intI1, and only 2 of 51 (3.92%) intI1-positive isolates yielded polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of gene cassette amplification. Sequence data and BLAST analysis indicated the gene cassette arrays of class 1 integron in VP007 is dfrA14-blaVEB-1-aadB, while the gene cassette arrays of class 1 integron in V187 is blaVEB-1-aadB-arr2-cmlA-blaOXA-10-aadA1. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that the two V. parahaemolyticus isolates harboring class 1 integrons exhibited multi-drug resistance to various antibiotics. S1-PFGE and Southern blot analysis confirmed the class 1 integron harboring blaVEB-1 gene in V187 was located on the plasmid of ~175 kb and transferrable to the recipient strain by conjugation. This is the first detection of class 1 integrons harboring the ESBL gene blaVEB-1 in V. parahaemolyticus. To the best of our knowledge, this is also the first report of VEB-producing V. parahaemolyticus from RTE foods. Our findings revealed that class 1 integron on conjugative plasmid contributes significantly to the dissemination of VEB-producing V. parahaemolyticus, which warrants further investigation because of the public health threat it poses.

9.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2121, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608021

RESUMO

Salmonella remains the leading cause of reported bacterial foodborne disease in China. Meat products are recognized as one of the major sources of human salmonellosis; however, there is a lack of comprehensive, quantitative data concerning Salmonella contamination of these foods. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence, bacterial load, and antimicrobial resistance profiles of various Salmonella serovars in retail meat across the whole of China. Between July 2011 and June 2016, a total of 807 retail meat samples were collected, covering most provincial capitals in China. Overall, 159 (19.7%) samples tested positive for Salmonella. The highest contamination rate occurred in pork (37.3%, n = 287), followed by beef (16.1%, n = 161), mutton (10.9%, n = 92), dumplings (6.6%, n = 212), and smoked pork (3.6%, n = 55). Most probable number (MPN) analysis revealed that contamination was mainly in the range of 0.3-10 MPN/g among those samples testing positive using this method (n = 83), with eight samples exceeding 110 MPN/g. Among the 456 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolates obtained in this study, 29 serovars and 33 multilocus sequence typing patterns were identified, with S. Derby, S. Typhimurium, S. London, S. Rissen, S. 1,4,[5],12:i:-, S. Weltevreden, and S. Enteritidis being the most prevalent. Among the 218 non-duplicate isolates, 181 (83.0%) were resistant to at least one class of antimicrobials and 128 (58.7%) were resistant to at least three classes. High rates of resistance were observed for tetracycline (65.6%), ampicillin (45.4%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (40.8%), streptomycin (40.4%), and nalidixic acid (35.8%), with the seven most prevalent serovars, except S. Weltevreden, showing higher rates of resistance and multidrug resistance compared with the less dominant serovars. Of note, all S. Indiana isolates exhibited resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (including ceftriaxone and cefepime), ciprofloxacin, and multiple other classes of antibiotics. Further, two S. 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates showed resistance to imipenem. This study provides systematic and comprehensive data on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of various Salmonella serovars isolated from meat products in China, indicating their potential risk to public health.

10.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1989, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555228

RESUMO

Cronobacter strains harboring CRISPR-Cas systems are important foodborne pathogens that cause serious neonatal infections. CRISPR typing is a new molecular subtyping method to track the sources of pathogenic bacterial outbreaks and shows a promise in typing Cronobacter, however, this molecular typing procedure using routine PCR method has not been established. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish such methodology, 257 isolates of Cronobacter sakazakii, C. malonaticus, and C. dublinensis were used to verify the feasibility of the method. Results showed that 161 C. sakazakii strains could be divided into 129 CRISPR types (CTs), among which CT15 (n = 7) was the most prevalent CT followed by CT6 (n = 4). Further, 65 C. malonaticus strains were divided into 42 CTs and CT23 (n = 8) was the most prevalent followed by CT2, CT3, and CT13 (n = 4). Finally, 31 C. dublinensis strains belonged to 31 CTs. There was also a relationship among CT, sequence type (ST), food types, and serotype. Compared to multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), this new molecular method has greater power to distinguish similar strains and had better accordance with whole genome sequence typing (WGST). More importantly, some lineages were found to harbor conserved ancestral spacers ahead of their divergent specific spacer sequences; this can be exploited to infer the divergent evolution of Cronobacter and provide phylogenetic information reflecting common origins. Compared to WGST, CRISPR typing method is simpler and more affordable, it could be used to identify sources of Cronobacter food-borne outbreaks, from clinical cases to food sources and the production sites.

11.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1542, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396165

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to gain insight into the bacterial composition and dynamics in a mineral water treatment system (MWTS). The bacterial community of a full-scale mineral water treatment plant in the Maofeng Mountain, South China, was studied using high-throughput sequencing combined with cultivation-based techniques in both the dry and wet season. Overall, adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) concentration (6.47 × 10-11 - 3.32 × 10-8 M) and heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) (3 - 1.29 × 103 CFU/mL) of water samples in the wet season were lower than those (ATP concentration 5.10 × 10-11 - 6.96 × 10-8 M, HPC 2 - 1.97 × 103 CFU/mL) in the dry season throughout the whole MWTS. The microbial activity and biomass of water samples obviously changed along with treatment process. All 300 isolates obtained using cultivation-based techniques were distributed in 5 phyla, 7 classes, and 19 genera. Proteobacteria accounted for 55.7% (167) of the total isolates, among which predominant genus was Pseudomonas (19.3%). Illumina sequencing analysis of 16s rRNA genes revealed 15 bacterial phyla (relative abundance >0.1%) as being identified in all water samples. Among these, Proteobacteria constituted the dominant bacteria microbiota in all water samples. A large shift in the proportion of Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes was obtained during the treatment process, with the proportion of Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria decreasing sharply, whereas that of Firmicutes increased and predominated in the final water product. The core microbiome, which was still present in whole MWTS comprised several genera including Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Clostridium, and Mycobacterium, that contain species that are opportunistic pathogens, suggesting a potential threat for mineral water microbiology safety. This study is the first to investigate the bacterial community of a full-scale mineral water treatment plant in China. The results provided data regarding the bacteria composition and dynamics in an MWTS, which will contribute to the beneficial manipulation of the mineral water microbiome.

12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 308: 108290, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442712

RESUMO

The plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has been identified in various Enterobacteriaceae species, which poses a great challenge to the public health. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of mcr-1 in Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from food samples in China, and to conduct a comprehensive analysis on the molecular characterization of V. parahaemolyticus isolate carrying mcr-1-harboring plasmid. A total of 646 V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from 2531 food samples collected in retail markets in 34 different cities in China were screened for colistin resistance. Of the 646 V. parahaemolyticus isolates tested, 25 (2.5%) exhibited colistin resistance. The mcr-1 gene was detected in one colistin-resistant V. parahaemolyticus isolate, VP181, obtained from a shrimp sample collected in Hong Kong. The mcr-1 gene was located on a transferable IncX4 plasmid with size of ~40 kb. A Class A ß-lactamase gene, blaCARB-17 and the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) gene qnrVC5 were detected in the mcr-1-positive V. parahaemolyticus isolate VP181. Virulence gene assays indicated that tdh was detected in VP181 by PCR. This is the first report of the occurrence of plasmid-encoded mcr-1 in virulent V. parahaemolyticus strain. Our findings indicate horizontal transfer of this gene to non-Enterobacteriaceae gram-negative bacteria, which warrants further investigation because of the public health threat it poses.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Colistina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética , China , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolamento & purificação
13.
Arch Virol ; 164(10): 2627-2630, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363923

RESUMO

A lytic bacteriophage, designated Vibrio phage vB_VpP_BA6, was isolated from sewage collected in Guangzhou, China. The double-stranded DNA genome of phage BA6 is composed of 50,520 bp with a G+C content of 41.77%. It possesses 64 open reading frames relating to phage structure, packaging, host lysis, DNA metabolism, and additional functions. Three tRNAs genes (encoding Pro, Ile and Trp) were detected. Comparison of its genomic features and phylogenetic analysis revealed that phage BA6 is a novel member of the family Podoviridae. This phage may represent a potential therapeutic agent against multidrug-resistant Vibrio parahaemolyticus.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/genética , Bacteriófagos/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Viral , Podoviridae/genética , Podoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/virologia , Bacteriólise , Bacteriófagos/classificação , Bacteriófagos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Composição de Bases , China , DNA/química , DNA/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Podoviridae/classificação , Podoviridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA de Transferência/genética , Esgotos/virologia
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 696, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human norovirus is regarded as the leading cause of nonbacterial acute diarrhea in developing and developed countries. Among all genotypes, GII.4 has been the predominant genotype, but in East Asia, it was replaced by the GII.17 in 2014/2015. However, after the prevalence of new GII.17 variant in South China, a sharply increase in the number of norovirus infections associated with sporadic acute diarrhea was detected. In this study, we would investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of noroviruses in the sporadic acute gastroenteritis cases in the post-GII.17 period in South China. METHODS: Norovirus was screened from 217 patients with sporadic acute gastroenteritis from August 2015 to October 2017 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Then, two regions including the partial RNA polymerase and the capsid gene of positive samples were amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine norovirus genotypes. Complete VP1 sequences of GII.4 strains detected in this study were also amplified and subjected into evolutionary tracing analyses. RESULTS: A total of 43 (19.82%) norovirus samples were confirmed from 217 stool specimens, and it was found that GII.4 resurged as the new predominant variant, accounting for 76.74% (33/43) of positive samples. Only one local strain GZ2015-L550 was clustered with the contemporary GII.P16/GII.4-2012 recombinant variant, and other 32 local strains belonged to the clade with the GII.Pe/GII.4-2012 variant. Other genotypes including GII.17 (n = 4), GII.3 (n = 4), GII.8 (n = 1) and GI. 6 (n = 1) were also detected. Furthermore, all GII.4 strains were phylogenetic analyzed based on their capsid P2 subdomains. Combined with other reported 754 strains, the GII.4-2012 variant could be divided into two clades. Most GII.4 strains collected in 2016 and 2017 in this study (7/8) formed a new cluster A in Clade II with additional 103 contemporaneous strains. In addition, evolutionary tracing of the capsid P2 subdomain of this variant was also analyzed, and one specific amino acid substitutions (N373) was identified for Cluster A. CONCLUSION: In summary, this study confirmed a norovirus infection peak in the post-GII.17 period in South China, which was caused by the resurgence of the GII.4 variant.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Norovirus/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Norovirus/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Prevalência
15.
BMC Microbiol ; 19(1): 119, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables have become increasingly popular along with the trend of moving towards a healthy lifestyle. However, RTE vegetables are at a higher risk of containing pathogens, maybe owing to lack of rigorous sanitization procedures. To understand the prevalence and potential risk of Listeria monocytogenes in RTE vegetables, we investigated the contamination level and characteristics of L. monocytogenes isolated from fresh vegetables. RESULTS: Twenty-three (5.49%) of the 419 vegetables samples were positive for L. monocytogenes. Phylogenetic group I.1 (1/2a-3a) and II.2 (1/2b-3b-7) strains were predominant in 30 isolates, which accounted for 33.3 and 50.0%, respectively. Multilocus sequence typing of the 30 isolates grouped them into nine sequence types (STs). The most common STs were ST87 (36.7%) and ST8 (26.7%). Virulence analysis showed that all 30 isolates harbored eight classical virulence genes, 10.0% isolates harbored the llsX gene (ST3 and ST1 strains), and 36.7% carried the ptsA gene and belonged to ST87. Approximately 83.3% isolates carried full-length inlA, whereas five isolates had premature stop codons in inlA, three of which belonged to ST9 and two to ST8. Antibiotic susceptibility showed the isolates were varyingly resistant to 13 antibiotics, 26.7% of the isolates were multi-drug resistant. CONCLUSIONS: The fresh vegetables contain some potential hypervirulent L. monocytogenes (ST1 and ST87) in the Chinese markets. In addition, the high rate of L. monocytogenes isolates was multi-drug resistant. Fresh raw vegetables may be a possible transmission route for L. monocytogenes infection in consumers. Therefore, sanitization of raw fresh vegetables should be strengthened to ensure their microbiological safety when used as RTE vegetables.

16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 304: 119-126, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195259

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus encodes numerous toxins that are known or strongly suspected to cause specific diseases or symptoms. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is one of these important toxins that is associated with high mortality rates. In our previous study, 1581 S. aureus strains were isolated from 4300 samples of retail foods obtained from most of the provincial capitals in China from 2011 to 2016. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus isolates from retail foods in China and characterize these isolates by antibiotic resistance testing, spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and enterotoxin gene analyses. In total, seventy-two isolates (72/1581, 4.6%) possessed pvl genes, including 24.1% MRSA isolates (26/108) and 3.1% MSSA isolates (46/1473), covering different types of food. The strains were divided into seventeen sequence types (STs) and twenty-seven spa types, and 43.1% (31/72) of the PVL-positive S. aureus isolates belonged to CC59-t437. These isolates contained at least one of the following enterotoxin genes: sei (97.2%), sem (86.1%), seq (80.6%), seg (68.1%), sek (68.1%), seb (62.5%), sel (52.8%), sej (50.0%), seh (48.6%), sep (45.8%), sea (38.9%), ser (37.5%), sen (27.8%), sec (16.7%), see (16.7%), sed (6.9%), seo (6.9%) and seu (6.7%). A total of 87.5% of the S. aureus isolates (63/72) harboured the classic SE genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, and see), whereas all the S. aureus isolates harboured the genes of the egc cluster (seg, sei, sem, sen, seo, and seu). In antimicrobial susceptibility tests, 98.6% of the isolates (71/72) exhibited resistance to at least one antibiotic, including 47 multi-drug-resistant isolates. Resistance to penicillin (94.4%), erythromycin (83.4%), clindamycin (63.9%), kanamycin (61.1%), telithromycin (58.3%), streptomycin (51.4%), tetracycline (47.2%), chloramphenicol (27.8%), fusidic acid (27.8%) and other antibiotics (<20%) was observed. All the PVL-positive MRSA isolates belonged to CC59-t437, which is the predominant type of community-associated (CA)-MRSA in China. The presence of these isolates in food represents a potential health risk for consumers and warrants further attention.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Enterotoxinas/genética , Exotoxinas/genética , Leucocidinas/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , China/epidemiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/patogenicidade , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Prevalência , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
17.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 948, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156567

RESUMO

Bacillus cereus is a food-borne opportunistic pathogen that can induce diarrheal and emetic symptoms. It is widely distributed in different environments and can be found in various foods, including fresh vegetables. As their popularity grows worldwide, the risk of bacterial contamination in fresh vegetables should be fully evaluated, particularly in vegetables that are consumed raw or processed minimally, which are not commonly sterilized by enough heat treatment. Thereby, it is necessary to perform potential risk evaluation of B. cereus in vegetables. In this study, 294 B. cereus strains were isolated from vegetables in different cities in China to analyze incidence, genetic polymorphism, presence of virulence genes, and antimicrobial resistance. B. cereus was detected in 50% of all the samples, and 21/211 (9.95%) of all the samples had contamination levels of more than 1,100 MPN/g. Virulence gene detection revealed that 95 and 82% of the isolates harbored nheABC and hblACD gene clusters, respectively. Additionally, 87% of the isolates harbored cytK gene, and 3% of the isolates possessed cesB. Most strains were resistant to rifampicin and ß-lactam antimicrobials but were sensitive to imipenem, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, telithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol. In addition, more than 95.6% of the isolates displayed resistance to three kinds of antibiotics. Based on multilocus sequence typing, all strains were classified into 210 different sequence types (STs), of which 145 isolates were assigned to 137 new STs. The most prevalent ST was ST770, but it included only eight isolates. Taken together, our research provides the first reference for the incidence and characteristics of B. cereus in vegetables collected throughout China, indicating a potential hazard of B. cereus when consuming vegetables without proper handling.

18.
J Med Virol ; 91(10): 1759-1764, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180139

RESUMO

Human sapovirus (SaV) is an important viral agent for acute diarrhea worldwide, but timely prevalence data of human SaV in South China are still lacking. In this study, a 4-year surveillance was conducted to characterize the prevalence and genetic characteristics of the circulating SaV associated with sporadic diarrhea in South China. From November 2013 to October 2017, 569 fecal samples from patients with acute diarrhea were collected. SaV was detected in 11 samples with a positive rate of 1.93%. Three human genogroups of GI, GII, and GIV were identified, including five GI.1 strains, three GI.2 strains, one GI.3 strain, one GII.8 strain, and one GIV strain. Furthermore, multiple alignments of complete capsid protein VP1 genes of five local GI.1 strains and other available GI.1 strains in GenBank were performed. Average pairwise identities were calculated at 95.33% and 99.36% at nucleotide and amino acid levels, and only six variable amino acid sites were found during its 36-years' evolution process. GI.1 strains could be further phylogenetically divided into four clusters with an approximate temporal evolution pattern, and local strains belonged to Cluster-d with other four strains from China and Japan. In summary, SaV was identified as an etiological agent responsible for sporadic gastroenteritis in Guangzhou with a low prevalence rate as in other Chinese cities, but its high genetic diversity suggested the necessity of continuous SaV surveillance in the future.

19.
Food Microbiol ; 83: 86-94, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202422

RESUMO

Spoilage bacteria seriously influence meat quality. In this study, the bacterial community, sensory scores, pH, and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) in refrigerated (4 °C) pork, the most commonly consumed meat in China, were investigated. In a high-throughput sequencing analysis of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rDNA gene, 259 bacterial genera were belonging to 21 phyla were identified. With the passage of time, the bacterial community diversity decreased. After 5 days, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Photobacterium were dominant in refrigerated pork, especially Photobacterium, which rarely associated with meat spoilage. Our results suggest that these taxa contribute to refrigerated pork spoilage. During storage, pH and TVB-N showed similar trends. Additionally, total viable counts (TVC) increased steadily and sensory score decreased. On day 5, TVC, pH, TVB-N and sensory scores changed dramatically, and sensory scores indicating that the shelf life of refrigerated pork was less than 5 days. The predicted metabolic pathways, based o the data of 16S rDNA, indicated an abundant carbohydrate metabolism and amino metabolism in refrigerated pork. This study provides insight into the determinants of shelf life. Furthermore, it provides insight into the process involved in refrigerated pork spoilage.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Refrigeração , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suínos
20.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 877, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118922

RESUMO

Cronobacter species are linked with life-treating diseases in neonates and show strong tolerances to environmental stress. However, the information about factors involved in oxidative tolerance in Cronobacter remains elusive. Here, factors involved in oxidative tolerance in C. malonaticus were identified using a transposon mutagenesis. Eight mutants were successfully screened based on a comparison of the growth of strains from mutant library (n = 215) and wild type (WT) strain under 1.0 mM H2O2. Mutating sites including thioredoxin 2, glutaredoxin 3, pantothenate kinase, serine/threonine protein kinase, pyruvate kinase, phospholipase A, ferrous iron transport protein A, and alanine racemase 2 were successfully identified by arbitrary PCR and sequencing alignment. Furthermore, the comparison about quantity and structure of biofilms formation among eight mutants and WT was determined using crystal violet staining (CVS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Results showed that the biofilms of eight mutants significantly decreased within 48 h compared to that of WT, suggesting that mutating genes play important roles in biofilm formation under oxidative stress. The findings provide valuable information for deeply understanding molecular mechanism about oxidative tolerance of C. malonaticus.

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