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1.
Trials ; 21(1): 102, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is an accepted radiologic diagnostic modality for initial infertility workup, and is generally considered uncomfortable and painful. However, the management of pain related to HSG remains inefficient. As an emerging nonpharmacologic and noninvasive pain control strategy, virtual reality (VR) distraction has been successfully used in areas such as burns, blunt force trauma, hospital-based needle procedures, dental/periodontal procedures, and urological endoscopy patients. This study aims to evaluate the analgesic effect of VR during HSG. METHODS/DESIGN: A single-center, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial will be carried out in the Radiology Department of Yinchuan Women and Children Healthcare Hospital, Yinchuan. A total of 200 participants who are scheduled for HSG will be enrolled in this study. The participants will be randomized (1:1) into two groups: a VR group and a blank control group. The VR group will receive routine care plus immersive VR intervention and the blank control group will receive routine care. Outcomes will be monitored at baseline, immediately after HSG and 15 min after HSG for each group. The primary outcome is the worst pain score during HSG by a visual analog scale (VAS). The secondary outcomes include: affective pain, cognitive pain, and anxiety during the HSG procedure; worst pain within 15 min after HSG; patient satisfaction and acceptance with pain management; physiological parameters; adverse effects; HSG results; and immersion perception score of the VR system (for the VR condition only). DISCUSSION: This study will focus on exploring a simply operated, noninvasive and low-cost analgesia during the HSG procedure. The results of this trial will provide data on the feasibility and safety of VR distraction therapy during HSG. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Register, ChiCTR1900021342. Registered on 16 February 2019.

2.
ChemSusChem ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944610

RESUMO

Enzyme catalysts always show an excellent catalytic selectivity, which is important in biochemistry, especially in catalytic synthesis and biopharming. This selectivity is achieved by combining the binding effect induced by the electrostatic effect of the enzyme to attract a specific substrate and then the prearrangement of the substrates inside the enzyme pocket. Herein, we report a proof-of-concept application of an interfacial electrostatic field induced by constructing Schottky heterojunctions to mimic the electrostatic catalysis of an enzyme. In combination with the 3 D structure, a transition metal/carbon dyad was designed by nanoconfinement methods to promote the differential binding effect and the space-induced organization of the reaction intermediate (vanillyl alcohol) to develop a new one-step hydrogenolysis of vanillin for the production of 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol with a remarkably high selectivity (>99 %).

3.
J Emerg Med ; 57(4): 444-452, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute pain is the most common complaint in Emergency Department (ED) admissions, and options for analgesia are limited. Nitrous oxide/oxygen possesses many properties showing it may be an ideal analgesic in the ED. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and analgesic effect of the fixed nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture for trauma patients in the ED. METHODS: We enrolled 60 patients in this double-blind, randomized study. The treatment group received conventional pain treatment plus a mixture of 65% nitrous oxide/oxygen. The control group received the conventional pain treatment plus oxygen. Primary outcome was the reduction in pain intensity at 5 and 15 min after the start of intervention. Secondary outcomes include adverse events, physiological parameters, and satisfaction from both patients and health care professionals. RESULTS: Initial pain scores for the nitrous oxide/oxygen group (6.0 [5.0-8.0]) and the oxygen group (6.75 [5.0-9.0]) were comparable (p = 0.57). The mean numerical rating scale scores at 5 min were 3.4 ± 1.8 and 7.0 ± 1.8 for nitrous oxide/oxygen and oxygen, respectively (p < 0.01). The mean pain intensity at 15 min in the treatment group was 3.0 ± 1.9, compared with 6.3 ± 2.2 in the control group (p < 0.01). Both patients' (8.0 [7.0-9.0] vs. 4.0 [2.0-6.0], p < 0.01) and physicians' (8.5 [8.0-9.0] vs. 4.0 [3.0-6.0], p < 0.01) satisfaction scores in the treatment group were significantly higher than the oxygen group. No serious adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study gives supporting evidence for the safety and effectiveness of using self-administered nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture in the ED for moderate-to-severe traumatic pain.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4380, 2019 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558716

RESUMO

Production of ammonia is currently realized by the Haber-Bosch process, while electrochemical N2 fixation under ambient conditions is recognized as a promising green substitution in the near future. A lack of efficient electrocatalysts remains the primary hurdle for the initiation of potential electrocatalytic synthesis of ammonia. For cheaper metals, such as copper, limited progress has been made to date. In this work, we boost the N2 reduction reaction catalytic activity of Cu nanoparticles, which originally exhibited negligible N2 reduction reaction activity, via a local electron depletion effect. The electron-deficient Cu nanoparticles are brought in a Schottky rectifying contact with a polyimide support which retards the hydrogen evolution reaction process in basic electrolytes and facilitates the electrochemical N2 reduction reaction process under ambient aqueous conditions. This strategy of inducing electron deficiency provides new insight into the rational design of inexpensive N2 reduction reaction catalysts with high selectivity and activity.

5.
Trials ; 20(1): 399, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The morbidity of knee arthritis is increasing among aged people and total knee arthroplasty has been its mainstream treatment to date. Postoperative rehabilitation is an important part of the procedure. However, the intense pain during the functional exercise involved has always been a challenge for both patients and health care professionals. The aim of this study is to test the analgesic effect of a mixture of nitrous oxide/oxygeb (1:1) inhalation for patients who are doing functional exercise 1 month after total knee arthroplasty. METHODS/DESIGN: This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study will be implemented in the Rehabilitation Department in the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University. Patients aged between 50 and 75 years who underwent a primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty are eligible for inclusion. The key exclusion criteria include: epilepsy, pulmonary embolism, intestinal obstruction, aerothorax. The treatment group (A) will receive a pre-prepared nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture plus conventional treatment (no analgesics), and the control group (B) will receive oxygen plus conventional treatment (no analgesics). Patients, physicians, therapists, and data collectors are all blind to the experiment. Assessments will be taken immediately after functional exercise begins (T0), 5 min (T1) after functional exercise begins, and 5 min after functional exercise has finished (T2). Patients will be randomly allocated between a treatment group (A) and a control group (B) in a ratio of 1:1. Primary outcome, including pain severity in the procedure, will be taken for each group. Secondary outcomes include blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation, side effects, knee joint range of motion, Knee Society Score (KSS), rescue analgesia need, and satisfaction from both therapists and patients. DISCUSSION: This study will focus on exploring a fast and efficient analgesic for patients who are doing functional exercise after total knee arthroplasty. Our previous studies suggested that the prefixed nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture was an efficacious analgesic for the management of burn-dressing pain and breakthrough cancer pain. The results of this study should provide a more in-depth insight into the effects of this analgesic method. If this treatment proves successful, it could be implemented widely for patients doing functional exercise in the rehabilitation department. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR-INR-17012891 . Registered on 6 October 2017.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Artralgia/prevenção & controle , Artrite/cirurgia , Artroplastia do Joelho/reabilitação , Terapia por Exercício , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Óxido Nitroso/administração & dosagem , Oxigenoterapia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/efeitos adversos , Artralgia/diagnóstico , Artralgia/etiologia , Artralgia/fisiopatologia , Artrite/diagnóstico , Artrite/fisiopatologia , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , China , Método Duplo-Cego , Terapia por Exercício/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nitroso/efeitos adversos , Oxigenoterapia/efeitos adversos , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Virol Sin ; 34(3): 306-314, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020574

RESUMO

Previous studies have indicated that two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs; A1-10 and H1-84) of the hemagglutinin (HA) antigen on the H1N1 influenza virus cross-react with human brain tissue. It has been proposed that there are heterophilic epitopes between the HA protein and human brain tissue (Guo et al. in Immunobiology 220:941-946, 2015). However, characterisation of the two mAbs recognising the heterophilic epitope on HA has not yet been performed. In the present study, the common antigens of influenza virus HA were confirmed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and analysed with DNAMAN software. The epitopes were localized to nine peptides in the influenza virus HA sequence and the distribution of the peptides in the three-dimensional structure of HA was determined using PyMOL software. Key amino acids and variable sequences of the antibodies were identified using abYsis software. The results demonstrated that there were a number of common antigens among the five influenza viruses studied that were recognised by the mAbs. One of the peptides, P2 (LVLWGIHHP191-199), bound both of the mAbs and was located in the head region of HA. The key amino acids of this epitope and the variable regions in the heavy and light chain sequences of the mAbs that recognised the epitope are described. A heterophilic epitope on H1N1 influenza virus HA was also introduced. The existence of this epitope provides a novel perspective for the occurrence of nervous system diseases that could be caused by influenza virus infection, which might aid in influenza prevention and control.


Assuntos
Antígenos Heterófilos/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Software
7.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(27): 3971-3974, 2019 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874700

RESUMO

We described an effective way to generate a Co3O4 mesocrystal array with well-developed porosity, simply by uniting a coupled interface with hydrazine treatment. Due to the fast electron transfer and sufficient active sites, the Ti mesh-supported Co3O4 nanoneedles electrode could provide a current density of 49.9 mA cm-2 at 570 mV OER overpotential and has exceptionally high stability.

8.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 57(6): 1043-1050, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853549

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Leukemia is the most common cancer in the childhood population. Lumbar puncture (LP) plays central role in the diagnosis and treatment process, but options for analgesia are limited. OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of a fixed N2O/O2 mixture to reduce pain in children with leukemia during LP as compared with placebo. METHODS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, and randomized clinical trial involving children who needed LP for diagnosis or treatment was conducted in the pediatrics department of the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to inhale either a fixed N2O/O2 mixture or O2. The primary endpoint was the maximal pain level felt by the patient during the procedure measured using a numerical rating scale (0-10). RESULTS: One-hundred fourteen consecutive patients were enrolled in this study and randomized. Pain scores during the procedure showed a significant decrease in N2O/O2 mixture-treated patients to 1.05 ± 1.40 versus 8.00 ± 2.13 in controls (P < 0.01). No serious adverse effects were attributed to N2O/O2 mixture inhalation. Analysis of the satisfaction of patients receiving N2O/O2 mixture indicated that medical staff were satisfied with this treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that self-administered fixed N2O/O2 is efficient to reduce pain related to LP in children with leukemia.

9.
Exp Eye Res ; 181: 112-119, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639792

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) expression and its implications in uveal melanoma (UM). Bioinformatics analysis was performed on microarray data (GSE22138 and GSE27831) from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to evaluate IDO1 expression in mRNA level. Ninety-two cases in the database were divided into the IDO1-high group (46 cases) and IDO1-low group (46 cases). Paraffin embedded tumor sections from 27 patients with UM were studied by immunofluorescence. The mRNA results showed that IDO1 expression was inversely correlated with tumor thickness (9.93 ±â€¯3.33 mm in IDO1-high group vs. 11.56 ±â€¯2.38 mm in IDO1-low group) (p = 0.016) and metastatic rate (30.4% in IDO1-high group vs. 69.6% in IDO1-low group, p < 0.001). The IDO1-high group showed higher immune cell gene expression: CD3D (6.56 ±â€¯1.0 vs. 5.46 ±â€¯0.53, p < 0.0001), CD4 (4.72 ±â€¯0.4 vs. 4.2 ±â€¯0.42, p < 0.0001), and CD68 (6.17 ±â€¯1.23 vs. 5.53 ±â€¯0.77, p = 0.015). Further analysis showed that immune-suppressive T regulatory cell genes (CD3D, CD4, IL2RA and FOXP3) were expressed in 67.4% (31/46) cases in the IDO1-high group and 23.91% (11/46) cases in the IDO1-low group. In addition, IDO1 and interferon gamma (IFNG) mRNA expression were strongly correlated (r = 0.70, p < 0.0001). The correlation analysis of different immune checkpoints showed that IDO1 was positively correlated with CD274(PDL1), but not CTLA4 or PDCD1.The disease-free survival (DFS) in the IDO1-high/IFNG-high group was better than that of the IDO1-low/IFNG-low group. The IDO1 immunostaining result showed that 2 cases in 18 UMs with Bruch's membrane (BM) rupture and 7 out of 9 cases without BM rupture were scored high (Grade 2-3) (p = 0.001). Comparing the immune cells staining results between IDO1-high group and IDO1-low group, higher percentage of patients in the former group had high levels of T cells and macrophages infiltration, but only the difference in macrophage was statistically significant (CD68, 77.78% vs. 27.78%, p = 0.04). The analysis based on GEO data and the result from immunostaining study are consistent with each other. In conclusion, the expression of IDO1 is probably induced by IFNγ from infiltrated immune cells in UM. BM rupture is an important indicator of IDO1 expression level and distribution pattern. The complex role of IDO1 may limit its therapeutic effect in UM.


Assuntos
Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Uveais/metabolismo , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Neoplasias Uveais/patologia
10.
Trials ; 19(1): 527, 2018 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30268163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute pain is always the most common complaint in Emergency Department admissions and options for analgesia are limited. Nitrous oxide/oxygen possess many properties showing it may be an ideal analgesic method for the Emergency Department; it is quick-acting, well-tolerated, and does not mask signs and symptoms. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and analgesic effect of the fixed nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture for trauma patients in a busy emergency environment. METHODS: The randomized, double-blind, prospective, placebo-controlled study will be carried out in the Emergency Department of General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University. The target research objects are trauma patients who present to the Emergency Department and report moderate to severe intensities of acute pain. A total of 90 patients will be recruited and randomly assigned into the treatment and control group. The treatment group will receive conventional pain treatment plus nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture and the control group will receive conventional pain treatment plus oxygen. Neither patients, nor investigators, nor data collectors will know the nature of the gas mixture in each cylinder and the randomization list. Outcomes will be monitored at baseline(T0), 5 min (T1), and 15 min (T2) after the beginning of intervention and at 5 min post intervention (T3) for each group. The primary outcome is the level of pain relief after the initial administering of the intervention at T1, T2, and T3. Secondary outcomes include adverse events, physiological parameters, total time of the gas administration, satisfaction from both patients and healthcare professionals, and the acceptance of patients. DISCUSSION: Our previous studies suggested that a fixed nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture was an efficacious analgesic for the management of burning dressing pain and breakthrough cancer pain. The results of this study will provide a more in-depth understanding of the effect of this gas. If this treatment proves successful, it could help to generate preliminary guidelines and be implemented widely in trauma patients with pain in Emergency Departments. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Register, ChiCTR-INR-16007807 . Registered on 21 January 2016.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Óxido Nitroso/administração & dosagem , Oxigenoterapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Aguda/diagnóstico , Dor Aguda/fisiopatologia , Administração por Inalação , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/efeitos adversos , China , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Óxido Nitroso/efeitos adversos , Medição da Dor , Satisfação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia
11.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(46): 15194-15198, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251296

RESUMO

As a new type of heterogeneous catalyst with "homogeneous-like" activity, single-site transition-metal materials are usually treated as integrated but separate active centers. A novel grouping effect is reported for single Ni-N4 sites in nitrogen-doped carbon (Ni/NC), where an effective ligand-stabilized polycondensation method endows Ni/NC nanocatalysts with a high content of single-site Ni up to 9.5 wt %. The enhanced electron density at each single Ni-N4 site promotes a highly efficient hydrogen transfer, which is exemplified by the coupling of benzyl alcohol and aniline into N-benzylaniline with a turnover frequency (TOF) value of 7.0 molN-benzylaniline molmetal -1 h-1 ; this TOF outpaces that of reported stable non-noble-metal-based catalysts by a factor of 2.

12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(38): 12563-12566, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070752

RESUMO

The exploitation of metal-free organic polymers as electrodes for water splitting reactions is limited by their presumably low activity and poor stability, especially for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) under more critical conditions. Now, the thickness of a cheap and robust polymer, poly(p-phenylene pyromellitimide) (PPPI) was rationally engineered by an in situ polymerization method to make the metal-free polymer available for the first time as flexible, tailorable, efficient, and ultra-stable electrodes for water oxidation over a wide pH range. The PPPI electrode with an optimized thickness of about 200 nm provided a current density of 32.8 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 510 mV in 0.1 mol L-1 KOH, which is even higher than that (31.5 mA cm-2 ) of commercial IrO2 OER catalyst. The PPPI electrodes are scalable and stable, maintaining 92 % of its activity after a 48-h chronoamperometric stability test.

13.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 5(7): 1800062, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30027039

RESUMO

Heterojunction photocatalysts at present are still suffering from the low charge separation/transfer efficiency due to the poor charge mobility of semiconductor-based photocatalysts. Atomic-scale heterojunction-type photocatalysts are regarded as a promising and effective strategy to overcome the drawbacks of traditional photocatalysts for higher photoenergy conversion efficiencies. Herein, an atomic-scale heterojunction composed of a boron nitride monolayer and graphene (h-BN-C/G) is constructed to significantly shorten the charge transfer path to promote the activation of molecular oxygen for artificial photosynthesis (exemplified with oxidative coupling of amines to imines). As the thinnest heterojunction, h-BN-C/G gives the highest conversion, which is eightfold higher than that of the mechanical mixture of graphene and boron nitride monolayers. h-BN-C/G exhibits a high turnover frequency value (4.0 mmol benzylamine g-1 h-1), which is 2.5-fold higher than that of the benchmark metal-free photocatalyst in the literature under even critical conditions.

14.
ChemSusChem ; 11(14): 2306-2309, 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851293

RESUMO

Electrochemical gas evolution and activation reactions are complicated processes, involving not only active electrocatalysts but also the interaction among solid electrodes, electrolyte, and gas-phase products and reactants. In this study, multiphase interfaces of superadsorbing graphene-based electrodes were controlled without changing the active centers to significantly facilitate mass diffusion kinetics for superior performance. The achieved in-depth understanding of how to regulate the interfacial properties to promote the electrochemical performance could provide valuable clues for electrode manufacture and for the design of more active electrocatalysts.

15.
Oncol Res ; 26(3): 345-352, 2018 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28550682

RESUMO

Cervical cancer is a common malignancy of the female reproductive system. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to modulate tumor progression in multiple cancers. The lncRNA antisense noncoding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) has been identified as an oncogenic molecular target in several tumors; however, the function and underlying mechanism involved in cervical cancer oncogenesis are still unclear. In the present study, RT-PCR showed that ANRIL expression was significantly upregulated in cervical cancer tumors and cell lines. Nevertheless, ANRIL knockdown transfected with interference oligonucleotide inhibited the proliferation activity and invasive ability, and promoted apoptosis of cervical cancer cell lines. The bioinformatics prediction program and luciferase assay predicted and validated that miR-186 directly targeted ANRIL. The expression level of miR-186 was downregulated in cervical cancer tumors and cell lines and was negatively correlated to that of ANRIL. Moreover, rescue experiments showed that miR-186 inhibitor could reverse the suppression of ANRIL knockdown. In summary, our study demonstrated that the ANRIL/miR-186 axis might play a vital role in cervical cancer tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proliferação de Células , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Apoptose , Carcinogênese , Movimento Celular , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Prognóstico , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo
16.
ChemSusChem ; 10(14): 2875-2879, 2017 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28612461

RESUMO

Oxygen vacancies can help to capture oxygen-containing species and act as active centers for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Unfortunately, effective methods for generating a high amount of oxygen vacancies on the surface of various nanocatalysts are rather limited. Here, we described an effective way to generate oxygen-vacancy-rich surface of transition metal oxides, exemplified with Co3 O4 , simply by constructing highly coupled interface of ultrafine Co3 O4 nanocrystals and metallic Ti. Impressively, the amounts of oxygen vacancy on the surface of Co3 O4 /Ti surpassed the reported values of the Co3 O4 modified even under highly critical conditions. The Co3 O4 /Ti electrode could provide a current density of 23 mA cm-2 at an OER overpotential of 570 mV, low Tafel slope, and excellent durability in neutral medium. Because of the formation of a large amount of oxygen vacancies as the active centers for OER on the surface, the TOF value of the Co3 O4 @Ti electrode was optimized to be 3238 h-1 at an OER overpotential of 570 mV, which is 380 times that of the state-of-the-art non-noble nanocatalysts in the literature.


Assuntos
Cobalto/química , Nanopartículas/química , Nanotecnologia , Óxidos/química , Oxigênio/química , Titânio/química , Água/química , Animais , Eletroquímica , Eletrodos , Engenharia , Oxirredução
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28373889

RESUMO

The modified Simiao decoctions (MSD) have been wildly applied in the treatment of gouty arthritis in China. However, the evidence needs to be evaluated by a systematic review and meta-analysis. After filtering, twenty-four randomised, controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of MSD and anti-inflammation medications and/or urate-lowering therapies in patients with gouty arthritis were included. In comparison with anti-inflammation medications, urate-lowering therapies, or coadministration of anti-inflammation medications and urate-lowering therapies, MSD monotherapy significantly lowered serum uric acid (p < 0.00001, mean difference = -90.62, and 95% CI [-128.38, -52.86]; p < 0.00001, mean difference = -91.43, and 95% CI [-122.38, -60.49]; p = 0.02, mean difference = -40.30, and 95% CI [-74.24, -6.36], resp.). Compared with anti-inflammation medications and/or urate-lowering therapies, MSD monotherapy significantly decreased ESR (p < 0.00001; mean difference = -8.11; 95% CI [-12.53, -3.69]) and CRP (p = 0.03; mean difference = -3.21; 95% CI [-6.07, -0.36]). Additionally, the adverse effects (AEs) of MSD were fewer (p < 0.00001; OR = 0.08; 95% CI [0.05, 0.16]). MSD are effective in the treatment of gouty arthritis through anti-inflammation and lowering urate. However, the efficacy of MSD should be estimated with more RCTs.

18.
Oncotarget ; 8(25): 40544-40557, 2017 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28380447

RESUMO

Cognitive deficits, characterized by progressive problems with hippocampus-dependent learning, memory and spatial processing, are the most serious complication of cranial irradiation. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is involved in a diverse arrays of cellular responses, including neurite outgrowth, neurogenesis, and negative regulation of spine density, which are associated with various neurological disorders. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received 10 Gy cranial irradiation. Then, we evaluated the expression of p75NTR in the hippocampus after cranial irradiation and explored its potential role in radiation-induced synaptic dysfunction and memory deficits. We found that the expression of p75NTR was significantly increased in the irradiated rat hippocampus. Knockdown of p75NTR by intrahippocampal infusion of AAV8-shp75 ameliorated dendritic spine abnormalities, and restored synapse-related protein levels, thus preventing memory deficits, likely through normalization the phosphor-AKT activity. Moreover, viral-mediated overexpression of p75NTR in the normal hippocampus reproduced learning and memory deficits. Overall, this study demonstrates that p75NTR is an important mediator of irradiation-induced cognitive deficits by regulating dendritic development and synapse structure.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Irradiação Craniana/efeitos adversos , Hipocampo/efeitos da radiação , Receptor de Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Animais , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Dendritos/genética , Dendritos/metabolismo , Dendritos/efeitos da radiação , Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/genética , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor de Fator de Crescimento Neural/genética , Sinapses/genética , Sinapses/metabolismo , Sinapses/efeitos da radiação
19.
PLoS One ; 12(4): e0175828, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28414748

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3 was divided into stage G3a and stage G3b in the 2013 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines. Whether it is appropriate to regard 45 mL/min/per 1.73 m2 as the threshold value of G3a/G3b staging and whether dividing CKD stage 3 into G3a/G3b plays a useful role in assessing the prognosis of patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) remain unknown. Three hundred and ninety patients from the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University and Peking University First Hospital diagnosed with IgAN in CKD stage 3 were enrolled and successfully followed up. Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze hazard ratios of reaching the composite endpoints (doubling of serum creatinine, end-stage renal disease: estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <15 ml/min/per 1.73 m2 or renal replacement therapy, or death) for patients with different eGFR and risk factors affecting composite endpoints. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the cumulative renal survival rate of patients. When eGFR was lower than 45 ml/min/per 1.73 m2, the hazard ratio increased sharply for patients in CKD stage 3 who reached the composite endpoints. Renal injury and prognosis were significantly different between patients in the G3a and G3b groups. Stage G3b was a major risk factor affecting prognosis. A threshold value of 45 ml/min/per 1.73 m2 appears appropriate to assess the prognosis of IgAN patients with CKD stage 3. Dividing IgAN patients with CKD stage 3 into G3a and G3b is very useful to help understand disease conditions and for predicting the risk for disease progression.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite por IGA/diagnóstico , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/patologia , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/imunologia , Humanos , Rim/imunologia , Rim/patologia , Testes de Função Renal/métodos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Am J Clin Exp Immunol ; 6(1): 1-8, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28123902

RESUMO

To determine the expression of mTOR, Becline-1, LC3 and p62 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and assess their relationship with disease activity and immunologic features. The expression of mTOR, Becline-1, LC3 and p62 was detected by RT-PCR in 81 SLE subjects and 86 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Data regarding demographics and clinical parameters were collected. Disease activity of SLE was evaluated according to the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) score. Independent sample t-test was used to analyze the expression of mTOR, Becline-1, LC3, and p62 in the two groups. Pearson's or Spearman's correlation was performed to analyze their relationship with disease activity and immunologic features. The mean levels of Becline-1, LC3 and p62 mRNA were significantly higher in SLE patients than the controls (9.96×10-4 vs 7.38×10-4 for Becline-1 with P<0.001; 4.04×10-5 vs 2.62×10-5 for LC3 with P<0.001; 9.51×10-4 vs 7.59×10-4 for p62 with P=0.008). However, the levels of mTOR mRNA in SLE patients were not significantly different from that in controls. Correlation analysis showed that Becline-1, LC3 and p62 mRNA levels correlated positively with SLEDAI, IgG and ds-DNA, negatively with C3. Our results suggested that autophagosomes formation were activated and their degradation were blocked in SLE. Moreover, the maintenance of autophagy balance can improve disease activity and immune disorders in SLE patients.

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